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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

NATURAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY.

PAGE

Age of the American Continent--Its Extent--Seas and Lakes-Mountains—Rivers-Climate-

Mineral and Vegetable Kingdoms-Prairies-Agriculture

13

CHAPTER II.

DISCOVERIES AND FIRST SETTLEMENTS.

Travellers and Discoverers, Virginia-- Maryland--New England--Carolina--New York--New

Jersey-- Pennsylvania--Georgia-Delaware-General state of things

CHAPTER III.

THE WAR TO 1763

29

CHAPTER IV.

FROM THE PEACE OF PARIS TO THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

State of affairs after the War--Commerce and Duties--Right of Taxation-Stamp Act--Reso-

Jutions in America-Erfect in England, and Counsels there adopted-Views and Principles

-Question of Right--Suite of Fact--Abolition of the Stamp Act--Hopes and Fears--New

Tuxes--Duty on Ten--Tea cast into the Sea--Proceedings against Boston-New Movements

-First Congress--Resolutions of the Congress-Parliament, Chatham-Lord North's Propo-

sals-Burke's Proposals-Beginning of the War--Declaration of Independence--Reflections 31

CHAPTER V.

FROM THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE TO THE WAR BETWEEN ENGLAND AND TRANCE.

Necessity of the War-Washington--Capture of Burgoyne-France and America-War

between France and England

52

CHAPTER VI.

FROM THE BREAKING OUT OF THE WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENOLAND TO THE PEACE OF

VERSAILLES.

Views in England-Chatham's Death--Disasters of the Americans-Paper Money-Rocham.

beau, Arnold, Andre-Capture of Cornwalliy--Treaties of Peace--Results

62

CHAPTER VII.

FROM THE PEACE OF VERSAILLES TO THE ADOPTION OF THE NEW CONSTITUTION.

Loyalists---Consequences of the War-The Army-Washington's Departure--First Constitu.

tion of 1778--New Constitution--Washington President

07

CHAPTER VIII.

THE NEW CONSTITUTION OF 1787.

Representatives and Senators-Rights of Congress—The President--The Judicial Power-

General Regulations

CHAPTER IX.

THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE SEVERAL STATES.

The Territories.

76

CHAPTER X.

THE PRESIDENTSHIP OF WASHINGTON AND OF JOHN ADAMS.

Washington's Presidentship--The French Revolution-Genet--Foreign Relations-Washing-

ton's Farewell-- Washington's Death--John Adams-Dispute with France - Alien and Sedi-

tion Bills

80

CHAPTER XI.

THOMAS JEFFERSON.

PAGE.

Birth-Descent, and Education-Declaration of Independence--Jefferson in Paris, Jefferson

President-Jefferson on the Freedom of the Press-Jefferson on Christianity-Jefferson on

Plato--Federalists and Republicans--Jefferson's Principles-- Jefferson on Slavery- Jetlerson

on Political Union- Jefferson's Administration-- Jefferson's Message-Louisiana---Contest

with the Maritime Powers-Jefferson's Private Life-Jetferson, Adams, and Washington-

Jefferson's Death-Jefferson's Fame

87

CHAPTER XII.

THE RACES OF MANKIND AND SLAVERY.

Slavery in general-Justification of Slavery-Aristotle-Hobbes-Races of Men-Negroes, Mu-

lattoes, Quadroons-Mind and Morals of Negroes-History of Slavery-Arguments for and

against Slavery-Condition of the Slaves-Madison's and Jefferson's Slaves-Ils of Slavery

Backward condition of the Slave States-Liberia-St. Domingo- Abolitionists--Channing

Laws of the States-Abolitionists—Emancipation, Indemnification-Jefferson's Views-Partial

Emancipation-Defence of the Colored Men-Antilles-Arguments in favor of the Slave States

Congress-Missouri and Columbia--Internal Slave Trade-Manumissions-Labor of Whites

and Blacks-Ascription to the Soil-Subjection to Tribute-Dangers and Prospects

109

CHAPTER XIII.

THE INDIANS.

Nature and Origin-Property of the Indians-Indian Characteristics-Whites and Indians-

Indolence of the Indians-Cherokees--Future Prospects

136

CHAPTER XIV.

IMMIGRANTS,

Nationality of the Americans-Immigrants, their Origin and Character-Germans and Irish-

Native American Party-European Governments-Whither Emigrate ?- Advantages of the

United States-Number of Immigrants

145

CHAPTER XV.

POPULATION.

Population-Materialism

152

CHAPTER XVI.

AGRICULTURE.

Grain, Horticulture, Culture of the Vine-Sugar, Rice, Silk, Tobacco, Cotton-Produce and Im.

provements

155

CHAPTER XVII.

THE PUBLIC LANDS.

Claims of the Single States-Mode of Sale

159

CHAPTER XVIII.

MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE.

Progress of Manufactures-Commerce-Imports, Exports, Tonnage-Regulations of Trade-

Rate of Interest-Value of Imports and Exports

163

CHAPTER XIX.

CANALS, STEAMBOATS, AND RAILROADS.

169

CHAPTER XX.

PAGE.

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CHAPTER XXVIII.

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.

Lunatic Asylums, Deaf and Dumb Institutions Institutions for the Blind-Houses of Refuge-

Hospitals-Widow and Orphan Asylums

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE POLICE.

Gambling-houses, Lottery-Offices, Hotels-Drivers, Cruelty to Animals_Games of Chance-

Vagrants-Firemen

CHAPTER XXX.

ADMINISTRATION, CITY REGULATIONS.

Self-Government-Counties—Communities–Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, New York, Philadel-

phia, Pittsburg, Richmond, Washington-Change of Offices

CHAPTER XXXI.

OUTBREAKS AND PARTY SPIRIT.

Murder of the Mormon Prophets-Anti-Rent Excitement in the State of New York-Philadelphia

Riots-Disturbances in Rhode Island-On Outbreaks-Parties-Federalists, Republicans,

Democrats, Whigs--Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER XXXII.

SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES.

Schools and Universities-Governments and Schools—Principles of Education-America and

Europe-Praise and Blame of Schools-Germans-Public Schools, Colleges, Universities-

Negro Schools Religious Instruction-Female Teachers-Labor in Schools-Alabama-- North

and South Carolina-District of Columbia-College of Jesuits-Connecticut, Yale College-

New Hampshire - Illinois-Kentucky-Louisiana–Maine-Maryland–Michigan-Missouri-

Obio-Pennsylvania-Vermont, Burlington—Virginia, Charlottesville-New York-Massachu.

setts, Boston, Cambridge School and University-Medical Institutions, Physicians-Summary,

Remarks-District Libraries

CHAPTER XXXIII.

LITERATURE AND ART.

For and against America-Freedom of the Press-Newspapers and Periodicals—Defence of

Newspapers-Congress on Newspapers–German Newspapers-Periodicals-Libraries-Fine

Arts, Music, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture-History--Eloquence-Webster, Clay, Calhoun

-Poetry-Philosophy

CHAPTER XXXIV.

RELIGION AND THE CHURCH.

Intolerance-Church Establishments-Religious Liberty-Sects-Catholics, School Money-

Episcopalians-Methodists, Divisions among them-Presbyterians-Congregationalists-Bap-

tists-Quakers- Shakers--Rappists, Mormons- Universalists - Unitarians --Philosophers -

Clergymen and Churches-Church Property-The Voluntary System-Societies--Bible Socie.

ties–Missions Public Worship-Camp Meetings-Revivals—Dangers and Prospects-Intole-

rance

ARRIVAL.

Voyage from England to America-Nova Scotia-Boston-Journey to Washington

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA-MARYLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA.

Washington-Calhoun-Whig Convention in Baltimore-Hotels -- Journey to Charleston-

Charleston-Literary Club--Columbia-College in Columbia--O'Connell-Youth and Age--

Sermon-Cotton Plantations-Slaves

VIRGINIA AND PENNSYLVANIA.

Journey to Richmond-Richmond-Monticello, Jefferson-Washington-Statue of Columbus-

Opinions on Goethe-Opinions on Byron and Shakspeare-President's Garden--Canal by the

Potomac-Jesuits in Georgetown-Mount Vernon-Baltimore-Negro Church-Fences and

Bridges-Journey to Pittsburg-Pittsburg-The New Jerusalem-Journey to Cincinnati

OHIO, KENTUCKY, ILLINOIS.

The Ohio-Indians-Cincinnati-Columbus - Journey to Lexington-Louisville, The Kentucky-
Journey to St. Louis-St. Louis-Journey to Chicago--Chicago

THE GREAT LAKES AND NEW YORK.

The Great Lakes-Journey to Buffalo-Buffalo-Niagara-Rochester-Auburn-Syracuse

CANADA

The St. Lawrence-Montreal-Canada-Quebec-Journey to Burlington Heights of Abraham,

Wolfe, Montcalm

VERMONT AND NEW YORK.

Burlington-Journey to Albany-Saratoga-Albany-The Hudson, Journey to New York-West

Point-New York

PENNSYLVANIA.

Journey to Philadelphia-Germany and America-Pottsville, Harrisburg, Lancaster-Festival in

Philadelphia

CONNECTICUT AND MASSACHUSETTS.

New Haven-Hartford-Princes and Princesses-- Journey to Boston-Slander of Jefferson-Bos-

ton Athenæum-Custom House and Market Hall-Democracy in New England Trade in Ice

-English and American Critics-The English Language-Lowell-Whig Mass Meeting-Party

Spirit --Harvard University-The Writing of History-Salem-Globe in the Museum-Muse-

um in Boston-Liberality for Public Objects—flaydn's Creation

MANNERS AND MORALS OF AMERICA.

Manners and Customs-American Society-On American Vanity and Presumption-Servants and

Domestics-Prosperity, Love of Gain-Temperance Societies--Eating, Drinking, and Cooking

- Women

APPENDIX I.-Synopsis of the Constitutions of the Several States

APPENDIX II.-Statistics of Manufactures in Lowell

APPENDIX III.--Synopsis of Recitations and Lectures in the University of Vermont

APPENDIX IV.-Plan of Recitations in Harvard University

491

503

504

507

509

THE

UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA.

CHAPTER I.

NATURAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY.

Age of the American Continent-Its Extent-Seas and Lakes-Mountains, Rivers

--Climate-Mineral and Vegetable Kingdoms-Prairies-Agriculture.

The history of civilized nations as known to us embraces a period of from three to four thousand years; and yet, until three hundred and fifty years ago, one half of our globe remained undiscovered. So slowly were the difficulties of long sea-voyages overcome, so slowly increased the interest in geographical discoveries, so recently did men arrive at an intelligent consciousness of the necessarily spherical conformation of the earth. Even the important discoveries of the Northmen in the tenth century, excited so little curiosity, desire of information, or thirst of gain, that they sank into total oblivion.* Hence, Columbus remains the theoretical and practical discoverer of America: an effort of intellect, courage, and perseverance, such as the world never witnessed before, and which never can be repeated in a like manner.

Some philosophers have maintained that America is of later origin than the old continent of the earth. It is not clear to the unlearned (nor is it, as I understand, to those really versed in such inquiries), what is meant by this. The formation of the spherical figure of the earth (if any other figure ever existed) must have been begun and continued uniformly through its whole extent; the hand of God and his handmaid Nature did not first finish Europe, and then pass over the Atlantic ocean, in order to bring to light and embellish America also. Why should the Alps be older than the Cordilleras, and the valley of the Mississippi younger than Holland and the lowlands at the mouth of * Rafn, Mémoire sur la découverte de l'Amérique, 1843.

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