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ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC.

The following method of treating this subject, is the one employed by ART. 2. That part of the elements of music which treats of sounds the Editor, in his classes. It will be found adapted to the usual circum- with respect to duration, is called RHYTHM. That treating of pitch, is stances of singing schools, in New England.

called MELODY. That treating of force, is called DYNAMICS. These schools, generally, consist of twenty or thirty lessons, of two or two and a half hours each. Their object is not so much to make the individuals attending them, accomplished singers, as to train and prepare a choir of singers, as a whole, for a respectable and decent performance

CHAPTER II. of their part, in public worship. The most that can be done, in the time allowed and with the means at command, should be attempted; but it is Art. 3. The different durations of sound are expressed by the difobvious that no person ignorant of the subject, can be taught to read ferent forms of characters, called Notes. even psalmody at sight, in twenty lessons, still less to master the difficul- Art. 4. The notes in common use are seen in the following: ties of other descriptions of music. The judicious teacher will adapt his method to the circumstances of his school, and will not, in a term of

WHOLE note,

(Semibreve) equal to twenty lessons, commence a course which can only be completed in sixty. There are two extremes to be avoided, namely, spending too much

two HALF notes,

(Minim) equal to time in mere exercises in Rhythm and Melody, and on the other hand,

four QUARTERS,

(Crotchet) equal to too much in the mere practice of tunes. The first, leads to mechanical singing, and the last is merely singing eight Eighths,

(Quavers) equal to by rote.

The choir ought, if possible, to be made familiar with a sufficient, though not too extensive list of tunes, and at the same time, to have so sixteen SIXTEENTHS, 2842.00 beer (Semiquavers.) much acquaintance with the principles of music, that they may, without a teacher's assistance, add new tunes to their list, from time to time.

A THIRTY-SECOND is sometimes used, and a SIXTY-FOURTH,

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CHAPTER 1.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
ARTICLE 1. Musical sounds are long or short in respect to DURATION,

high or low

PITCH, loud or soft

STRENGTH,

Also a Double Note, 1121 twice as long as the whole note,

Art. 5. A dot · after any note, makes it once and a half as long as before. A second dot adds half as much as the first dot. A third, half as much as the second. For example, a half note with one dot is equal in duration to a half and a quarter, with two dots it is equal to a half, quarter and eighth; with three, to a half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth,

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Art. 6. Three notes of the same kind, together with a figure 3 the beginning. Triple measure is designated by the figure 3, placed at

placed over them, constitute a Triplet, and are to be performed in the the beginning. Quadruple measure is designated by the figure 4, placed

time of two.

at the beginning.

Art. 7. There is no absolute, fixed length to any note; but whatever Art. 15. Double measure is accented at the downward beat or first
duration may be assigned, for the time being, to any one, it must retain
it throughout the particular tune to be performed, and all the others must

ist Quadruple measure is accented at the downward and outward, or Pfirst
bear the proportion towards it, indicated by their respective names.

and third parts.
ART. 8. P ses or intervals of silence, in music, are called Rests; Art. 16. There are two varieties of double measure; one represent-
and like sounds, they have a regular duration assigned them. They ed by the fraction signifying two halves, the other by signifying two
have characters to represent them which indicate duration corresponding quarters.
to the notes from which they take their names.

There are three varieties of Triple measure,
They are the whole rest the half rest the quarter rest the There are two varieties of quadruple measure, , and ..
eighth rest, 7, the sixteenth, the thirty second

sixty fourth

In all these cases the fraction represents the quantity of time in each
measure.. The upper figure or numerator, shews the number of parts,
into which the measure is imagined to be divided; and shews also the
number of beats, inasmuch as there is a beat to each imaginary division
of the measure. The lower figure or denominator, shews the value of

the parts respectively, into which the measure is imagined to be divided.
CHAPTER JII.

Art. 17. "The time of the measures may be occupied by any notes
or rests whatever, at the pleasure of the composer; which amount to

that indicated by the fractions.

MEASURES.

ART. 18. A piece of music may, however, commence or end with a

Art. 9. The Time occupied in performing a piece of music, is divi-

measure not full.

ded into equal portions, called MEASURES.

Art. 19. Examples of the varieties of measure, the time of which is

ART. 10. The measures are separated from each other, by BARS, variously filled by notes and rests.

III

DOUBLE MEASURE.

ART. '11. To enable us to give equal length to the measures, we beat

1st Variety.

TIME.

Art. 12. This consists in a motion of the hand. When the time is

marked by two motions, they are downward and upward; when by three, 2d Variety.

downward, inward, upward; when by four, downward, inward, outward,

upward.

ART, 13. A measure having two beats, is called DOUBLE,

TRIPLE MEASURE.

three

TRIPI.E,

1st Variety.

four

QUADRUPLE.

3

ART. 14. Double measure is designated by the figure 2, placed at

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ELEMENTS OF VOCAL MUSIC.

vii 2d Variety.

able to the ear of every man, and is the basis of all music. It consti3

tutes what is called the scale. 4

Art. 24. The scale consists of seven primitive sounds.

The eighth

sound has a resemblance to the first of such a character, and its effect 3d Variety

upon the ear is so like it, that it is called by the same name. Thus, if 3

the first sound of the scale be called A, the eighth will be called A.
The intermediate ones will be respectively B, C, D, E, F, G.

ART. 25.
QUADRUPLE MEASURE.

In order to represent the differences of sound with respect 1st Variety.

to pitch, the notes are written upon the page in different situations.

High sounds have their notes written higher than low ones. don ART. 26. But that there may be no uncertainty in regard to the in

tended relative positions of the notes, a character is made use of to de2d Variety.

fine them, called a staff. It consists of five lines drawn quite across IN the page, together with as many short lines (called added LINES) as may

be necessary to furnish a place for very high or low notes. The staff ART. 20. In regard to the rapidity of beating time, it is a matter en

might be made to consist of a great number of lines drawn the whole tirely of judgment, to be exercised as each different tune presents itself.

width of the page, rendering the short added lines unnecessary; but it is Whatever degree of quickness is determined on, must be carefully sus

found most convenient to use five long ones only. tained throughout each tune, unless there are musical characters or Here is a representation of the staff, with some added lines: terms to direct a change.

dddol kell lo ddl

Odlo Id do!

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MELODY. ART. 21. Sounds of different pitch, that is of different acuteness or It will be ooserved, the lines are numbered from the bottom, and the gravity, are named from the first seven letters of the alphabet, in order spaces between the lines are also numbered from the bottom. to distinguish them from each other.

ART. 27 The notes are written upon the lines and in the spaces beREMARK. The acuteness or gravity of a sound depends upon the rapidity of the tween, not only within the long lines, but upon the short lines beyond vibrations of the sonorous body producing it.

them and in the spaces between them. Art. 22. A sound produced by a certain degree of rapidity of vibra- Art. 28. The scale may commence upon any pitch whatever. It is tion, receives a certain letter as its name.

usual to begin with the sound called C. This sound may be written upon ART. 23. There is a certain series of sounds, rising one above the the staff, any where we please; but it is usual to write it either on the other, to the number of eight, which has a foundation in nature, is agree- || first added line below, or in the second space, as represented.

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CONTINUED.

ART. 29. As there are two ways of placing the letters upon the staff,

The syllables are applied in their regular order. One or eight being it becomes necessary to use the characters written upon the staff in art.

always do. 28. These are called Clefs. The one in the upper staff is called the

The same extended scale might be written on the staff according to G clef, because it fixes G upon the second line, as it will be noticed that

the F clef. that line passes through the body of the figure. G being upon the second line, of course C in regular order, falls in the third space and first added line below. The one in the lower staff is called the F clef because it fixes F upon

CHAPTER V. the fourth line, and of course determines the place of all the other letters in their proper order. ART. 30. In speaking of the different sounds of the scale, it is con

MELODY venient to number them as in the figure in art 28.

Art. 31. To assist the learner in acquiring a just idea of the several Art. 33. The difference of pitch between sounds is called an intersounds of the scale, and in establishing them in his mind by the principle val. Of course intervals are of various magnitude. of association, certain syllables are applied in the manner represented in Art. 34. The interval between one and two of the scale is that called the figure in art. 28.

From two to three is also a tone ; and from three to four is a These syllables being Italian, have a different pronunciation from what HALF TONE ; from four to five is a tone ; from five to six is a tone ; from they would have in English. Do is pronounced with the o long, as in the seven to eight is a half tone. word no.

Re is pronounced ray. Mi is pronounced me. FA has the Art. 35. This order of intervals constitutes the peculiar character vowel sound of a, in father. Sol has the o long as in no. La is sounded of the scale ; and it must be preserved, let the scale commence with any like fa, and sı is pronounced sce.

sound whatever. Art. 32. The scale may be exTENDED upwards and downwards, to Art. 36. It will be remembered therefore, that between the letters any extent. When we go above eight, this last becomes one of a new E and F, is the half tone interval. Also, between B and C, is the same. scale, going upwards in the same order to eight again ; and so on. And Art 37. The smallest interval practically recognized in music, is the when we go down below one, this number becomes eight of a scale, be

a TONE.

HALF TONE.

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