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IMMIGRANT AND NON-IMMIGRANT SHIPS.
Section 8 (2) of the Act provides as follows:-"The expression "immigrant ship' in this Act means a ship which brings to the United Kingdom more than 20 alien steerage passengers, who are to be landed in "the United Kingdom, whether at the same or different ports, or such number "of those passengers as may be for the time being fixed by order of the "Secretary of State, either generally or as regards any special ships or ports." By an order dated December 19th, 1905, the Secretary of State fixed the number at 12, but by a further order dated March 9th, 1906, the first order was withdrawn. In the appended tables therefore, the expression "immigrant ship" means during the period between January 1st and March 10th, a ship which brought to be landed in the United Kingdom more than 12 alien steerage passengers, and after March 10th a ship which brought to be so landed more than 20 alien steerage passengers. Under section 8 (3) the expression 66 steerage passenger "includes all passengers except such persons as may be declared by the Secretary of State to be cabin passengers either by a general order or as regards any special ships or ports, and by an Order dated December 19th, 1905, the Secretary of State declared "all such passengers as are entitled "to use the cabin, state rooms, or saloons, where the accommodation is superior "to that provided in any other part of the ship devoted to the carrying of passengers, to be cabin passengers for the purposes of the said Act."
All ships other than immigrant ships are known and described as non-immigrant ships.
The importance of the distinction between the two classes of ships lies in the provisions of section 1, which subjects only immigrant ships to inspection.
ALIEN PASSENGERS FROM EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PORTS.
Table I. gives a general summary of the alien passengers landed in the United Kingdom during 1906 from ports in Europe and within the Mediterranean Sea, distinguishing ports of arrival and of departure. Table II. gives additional particulars of certain of these passengers and Table III. elaborates the figures in Table I., dealing separately with the passengers arriving at each immigration port and at the non-immigration ports. The total number of passengers was 465,500, of whom 347,862 arrived on 4,110 immigrant ships, and 117,638 on 8,971 non-immigrant ships. It will be seen that of the total passengers all, except 4,214, landed at the immigration ports. The principal ports of arrival were Hull (92,058), Dover (80,587), London (72,814), Harwich (51,630), and Newhaven (44,059); and of departure, Calais (54,294), Scandinavian ports (51,348), Dieppe (43,922), Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish (38,946), Flushing (32,189), Finnish ports (30,228), and Antwerp (30,155).
Table I. divides the passengers into four categories, cabin, exempted second class, transmigrants, and other alien passengers, and each category must be separately considered.
Alien cabin passengers as defined by the Order of December 19th, 1905, are not subject to inspection under the Act, and consequently for present purposes they have only a statistical importance. Table I. shows that during the year 137,692 alien cabin passengers arrived from European and Mediterranean ports, of whom 114,747 (Table III., B, C, F, K, L, and M) landed by the cross channel routes at Dover, Folkestone, Harwich, Newhaven, Queenborough, and Southampton.
Except the ports at which they arrived and from which they came nothing is known of alien cabin passengers.
(II.)-Exempted Second Class Passengers.
All passengers except cabin passengers are regarded for the purposes of the Act as steerage passengers, and as such they are liable to inspection, provided that they are aliens and that they arrive on immigrant ships. Section 1 (4), however, provides that the "Secretary of State may, subject "to such conditions as he thinks fit to impose, by order exempt any immigrant "ships from the provisions of this section if he is satisfied that a proper system is being maintained for preventing the embarkation of undesirable "immigrants on those ships, or if security is given to his satisfaction that "undesirable immigrants will not be landed in the United Kingdom from those "ships except for the purpose of transit"; and exemptions have been granted under this section to several shipping companies, principally those engaged in the cross-channel service, so conditioned as to exempt from inspection only alien second class passengers, security being given by bond by the owners of the ships that they will not allow to land frem amongst these passengers undesirable immigrants. Such passengers are described in Table I. as exempted second class passengers. They numbered 93,707 during the year, of whom 89,381 landed at the cross-channel ports mentioned above.
No information is available as to the intentions or movements of exempted second-class passengers on arrival in the United Kingdom, except in the case of a small number who landed during the year as transmigrants, and who are not included in the figures just given, but are entered under the head of transmigrants.
Section 8 (1) of the Act provides that "The expression 'immigrant' in "this Act means an alien steerage passenger who is to be landed in the "United Kingdom, but does not include. (b) Any passengers holding
prepaid through tickets to some such destination (i.e., outside the United Kingdom), if the master or owner of the ship by which they are brought "to the United Kingdom, or by which they are to be taken away from "the United Kingdom, gives security to the satisfaction of the Secretary "of State that, except for the purposes of transit or under other circumstances approved by the Secretary of State, they will not remain in the United “Kingdom, or, having been rejected in another country re-enter the United "Kingdom, and that they will be properly maintained and controlled during "their transit." Alien steerage passengers who come within the terms of this section are known as transmigrants, and the names of the companies who have given the required statutory security will be found in Appendix IV. It will be observed that all these companies are engaged in taking the transmigrants away from the United Kingdom.
It appears from Table I. that the number of transmigrants who arrived from European and Mediterranean ports during the year was 169,788, of whom 42,316 came from Scandinavian ports, 34,340 from Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish, 28,937 from Finnish ports, 19,771 from Antwerp, 14,252 from Havre, 10,757 from Esbjerg, 7,468 from Hamburg, 6,311 from Bremen, and 4,579 from Rotterdam. More than half (85,274) of the total number arrived at Hull, and the other principal ports of arrival were Grimsby (31,890), London (17,208), Southampton (14,322), Harwich (11,814), and Tyne ports (4,742).
Table VI. gives particulars of the nationalities and destinations outside the United Kingdom of transmigrants, grouped according to ports of arrival and of departure in the United Kingdom. The total number accounted for in this table is slightly larger than the number given in Table I as transmigrants from extra-European ports are included.
All these transmigrants, with the exception of 1,647, who are dealt with below, are known to have proceeded to their intended destinations either during 1906 or the first three months of 1907-143,362 proceeding to the United States, 19,591 to British North America, 3,831 to South America, 1,436 to South Africa, and 54 to other destinations. But as will be seen later, 995 were. rejected at foreign or colonial ports and brought back to the United Kingdom. As to the nationality of those who proceeded to their destinations, 86,333 were Russians and Poles, 47,056 Norwegians, Swedes and Danes, 16,705 Austrians,, Hungarians and Bohemians, 4,919 Americans (U.S.), 2,655 Germans, 2,497 Italians, 1,810 Belgians, 829 Dutch, 808 Swiss, 307 French, 123 Spaniards and Portuguese, and 4,232 belonged to other nationalities.
Of the 1,647 who are stated not to have proceeded to their intended destinations, 1,494 returned to the Continent, 14 died in the United Kingdom, and 32 had not left this country on March 1st, 1907, leaving a balance of 107 unaccounted for out of the 169,921 who arrived in 1906. There is little doubt, however, that the majority of these 107 have left the United Kingdom, and that their departure has not been traced owing either to a change of name or to transference to another line than the one specified in the original advice.
One of the conditions of the statutory transmigrant bond given by the shipping companies is that transmigrants shall not remain in the United Kingdom, or, having been rejected in another country, re-enter the United Kingdom, except for the purposes of transit, or in other circumsuances approved by the Secretary of State. Transmigrants for the United States, British North America, South America and South Africa are liable to be rejected as undesirable both by the shipping companies at the ports of departure in the United Kingdom and by the immigration authorities at the ports of arrival in those countries.
Table VIIIA. gives particulars of the transmigrants so rejected by the shipping companies during the year, omitting 41 who, though so rejected, were allowed to remain in the United Kingdom in circumstances approved by the Secretary of State after consideration of each case and who, for statistical purposes, are included in the 38,527 aliens in column 18 of Table II. The total was 1,432 of whom 1,419 were rejected on medical grounds, the cause in nearly every case being trachoma. All of these 1,432 are known to have left the United Kingdom under the terms of the transmigrant bond, and are included in the 1,494 who are mentioned above as having returned to the Continent.
Table VIIIB. gives particulars of the transmigrants rejected by the immigration authorities on arrival in the United States, British North America, South America, or South Africa and brought back to the United Kingdom. Of the 995 persons so rejected, all except 35 are known to have left the United Kingdom, and 13 of the 35 were allowed to remain with the express approval of the Secretary of State. Over 150 of the 186 who were rejected under the labour laws of the United States were Macedonians who simply passed through the United Kingdom on their way back to their own. country.
(IV.)-Other Alien Passengers.
Particulars of these passengers appear in Table II. They numbered 64,313 during the year and are the alien steerage passengers liable to inspection under the Act; but as 20,030 arrived on non-immigrant ships, the number actually subjected to inspection was 44,283.
Of these 64,313 passengers, 7,991 were found to be proceeding to a destination outside the United Kingdom, and consequently under section 8 (1) not immigrants within the meaning of the Act; 6,138 held return tickets to a foreign country; 11,165 were seamen, of whom 8,121 were under actual contract to join ships in British waters; and 492 were refused leave to land,
thus leaving a balance of 38,527 alien passengers as to whose intentions or movements after their arrival in this country no definite information is available, but with regard to whom the following further details can be given.
As to inspection under the Act, 27,639 arrived on immigrant ships and were consequently inspected, while 10,888 arrived on non-immigrant ships and so were not subject to the provisions of section 1.
Newhaven with 10,615 passengers and London with 10,289 were the principal ports of arrival, but whereas all the passengers at the former port with the exception of 94 arrived on immigrant ships, at London 4,636 passengers, or nearly half of the total, arrived on non-immigrant ships. Folkestone came third with 6,472 passengers, the great majority of whom came on immigrant ships, and Dover, Grimsby, and Hull had each over 2,000 passengers.
The principal ports of departure from the Continent were Dieppe (10,618), Boulogne (6,482), Rotterdam (4,395), Hamburg (4,389), Bremen (3,164), Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish (2,170), and Calais (1,583). The Dieppe, Boulogne, and Calais figures represent, of course, the cross channel traffic to Newhaven, Folkestone, and Dover; the great majority of the passengers from Bremen, Rotterdam, and Russian Baltic ports arrived in London; and the passengers from Hamburg were for the most part divided between that port and Grimsby.
Table IV. gives particulars of nationality and port of arrival, distinguishing males, females, and children, and showing how many of each nationality arrived on immigrant and non-immigrant ships respectively. Of the 38,527, 22,986 were males, 11,049 females, and 4,492 children. Russians and Poles numbered 12,832, French 10,116, Italians 5,360, Germans 3,186, Norwegians, Swedes and Danes 1,295, Austrians, Hungarians and Bohemians 1,223, Swiss 983, Dutch 798, Spaniards and Portuguese 572, Americans (U.S.)_552, Belgians 380, and other nationalities 1,230. Of the Russians and Poles, considerably over one-half (7,626) arrived at the port of London. The great majority of the French and Italians landed at cross-channel ports. Taking the four chief nationalities, it will be seen that of the Russians and Poles, 3,938, of the French 2,313, of the Italians 458, and of the Germans 1,464, arrived on non-immigant ships, and were consequently not subject to inspection.
Table V. gives further details as to those arriving at the port of London, showing nationality, ports of departure, and males, females and children, and -distinguishing those arriving from each port of departure on immigrant and non-immigrant ships. Of the total of 10,289 passengers during the year, 7,626 were Russians and Poles, of whom 2,285 came from Bremen, 1,962 from Rotterdam, 1,636 from Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish, and 1,509 from Hamburg; 896 were Germans; 605 Dutch, and 556 Austrians, Hungarians and Bohemians. 5,653, of whom 4,647 were Russians and Poles, were inspected under the Act, and 4,636, of whom 2,979 were Russians and Poles, arrived on non-immigrant ships. Of the total who landed from non-immigrant ships 2,163 came from Rotterdam, 1,109 from Bremen, 751 from Hamburg, 280 from Amsterdam, 250 from Scandinavian ports, and 33 from Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish.
CASES IN WHICH LEAVE TO LAND WAS WITHHELD.
By section 1 the Immigration Officer is required to withhold leave to land in the case of any immigrant who appears to him to be undesirable within the meaning of the section, and it is provided that an immigrant shall be considered undesirable
"(a) If he cannot show that he has in his possession or is in a position "to obtain the means of decently supporting himself and his dependents. ." (if any); or
"(b) If he is a lunatic or an idiot, or owing to any disease or infirmity appears likely to become a charge upon the rates or otherwise a detriment to "the public; or
"(c) If he has been sentenced in a foreign country with which there is an "extradition treaty for a crime, not being an offence of a political character, "which is, as respects that country, an extradition crime within the meaning of "the Extradition Act, 1870; or
(d) If an expulsion order under this Act has been made in his case."
It is further provided that leave to land shall not be withheld (1) "in the "case of an immigrant who shows to the satisfaction of the Immigration Officer "or board concerned with the case that, having taken his ticket in the United Kingdom and embarked direct therefrom for some other country immediately "after a period of residence in the United Kingdom of not less than six months, "he has been refused admission in that country and returned direct therefrom "to a port in the United Kingdom"; (2) merely on the ground of want of means, in the case of an immigrant "who satisfies the Immigration Officer or "board concerned with the case that he was born in the United Kingdom, "his father being a British subject"; and (3) merely on the ground of want of means or the probability of his becoming a charge upon the rates, “in the "case of an immigrant who proves that he is seeking admission to this country "solely to avoid prosecution or punishment on religious or political grounds or "for an offence of a political character, or persecution, involving danger of "imprisonment or danger to life or limb, on acount of religious belief."
Under section 1 (2), when leave to land is withheld in the case of any immigrant, the master, owner, or agent of the ship, or the immigrant himself, can appeal to the Immigration Board of the port.
Table VIIA. gives particulars of all cases in which leave to land was withheld during 1906, including the cases of passengers arriving from extraEuropean ports.
The Immigration Officers refused leave to land to 935 persons in all, to 733 on the ground of want of means, and to 202 on medical grounds. Of the former 635 appealed, and of the latter 161, making a total of 796 appeals. Of these appeals 442 were successful and 354 were unsuccessful. Adding the unsuccessful appeals to the number of cases in which no appeal was made we get a total of 493 persons, 382 males, 69 females, and 42 dependents, to whom leave to land was finally refused, divided among the following nationalities: Russians and Poles, 262; Italians, 63; French, 54; Spaniards and Portuguese, 26; Germans, 17; Austrians, Hungarians and Bohemians, 16; Norwegians, Swedes and Danes, 11; Swiss, 8; Roumanians, 4; Dutch, 2; Americans (U.S.) 2; other nationalities, 28. Of these final rejections 360 were for want of means, and 133 (including 5 dependents) on medical grounds, the cause in 52 cases being trachoma.
In Table VIIB. and c. appear details as to the nationality of the persons. from whom leave to land was withheld, either by the Immigration Officers, or, on appeal, by the Immigration Boards, according to the ports at which leave to land was in each case so withheld.
CONDITIONS OF INSPECTION.
Under section 1 (1) the inspection of immigrants is to take place on board ship unless they are conditionally disembarked for the purpose, and by section 2 (2) the Secretary of State is empowered to provide for the security to be given in the case of immigrants conditionally disembarked. At Cardiff, Grangemouth, Harwich, Leith, Liverpool, London, Southampton and the Tyne Ports, all the inspections during 1906 took place on board ship, but at Folkestone, Grimsby and Newhaven nearly all the immigrants were conditionally disembarked and inspected in a receiving house. At Dover and Hull the practice varied, some of the immigrants being inspected on board ship and others in a receiving house.