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that you find it possible to make arrangements which, in the absence of interviews in this country, will enable you to judge whether they are fully up to the standard required and satisfactorily to compare their qualifications-personal and academic-with those of candidates from this country.
Co-operation with Training Centres.
52. If a scholarship scheme of this nature is to be successfully inaugurated, full use must be made of the possibilities of advertisement. A scheme on somewhat similar lines has recently been introduced by the Empire Cotton Growing Corporation, and we recommend that the Colonial Office should co-operate closely with that body and with other scholarship-granting institutions, such as the Ministry of Agriculture. By this means a substantial block of attractions would be created which would act as a powerful incentive to potential candidates to prepare themselves for an agricultural career, and as an inducement to the Employers' Associations of the other great Imperial industries, such as sugar and tobacco, to co-operate on similar lines. We are convinced that once a scheme of this nature has been successfully introduced, and the advantages have become apparent, a generous response from industry is to be anticipated, and we look forward with confidence to a large increase in the number of such scholarships.
53. We consider it of great importance that the Universities and other training centres should be kept fully alive to the openings available in Colonial agricultural departments.
To this end we recommend
(a) That the Private Secretary (Appointments) should continue to maintain close touch with the University Appointments Boards or other authorities, as may seem most appropriate, and should keep them fully supplied with information.
(b) That by arrangement with the Colonial Office the Colonial Governments should depute specially suitable officers to deliver courses of lectures in appropriate training centres when on leave. These lectures should be illustrated where possible with lantern slides, and the object should be to awaken the interest of students and to give them a true picture of the conditions of life in the tropics and of the duties which agricultural officers in the Colonies are called on to perform. Information of this kind has been proved to be very valuable in stimulating recruitment. Moreover, accurate information given by men who are themselves well acquainted with local conditions largely obviates the risk of a candidate undertaking a tropical career under a misconception of the conditions and finding too late that such a career does not suit him. Care should be taken, however, not to make this duty of lecturing a burden to officers during their leave. Some compensation should be
provided either in the shape of additional leave or of special allowances.
(c) That appropriate articles should from time to time be published in the newspapers and well-known periodicals. Special arrangements of this nature should be made in. particular with the editors of the University Journals.
54. The field of recruitment naturally lies in the Universities and Colleges of University rank. We wish, however, to emphasise the great importance of disseminating widely amongst the public schools the nature of the careers provided by the Colonial agricultural departments and the qualifications necessary to render a candidate eligible for them. We have not the slightest wish to confine the field of recruitment to men educated in the public schools, but it is none the less clear that these schools are the natural nurseries for young men of a type likely to be successful in work of this nature. The advice given by Science Masters and others at school often has a considerable effect in determining the careers chosen by boys and the line of study which they take up at the University or elsewhere. We consider, therefore, that these advisers should be made aware of the careers provided by the Colonial agricultural services in order that they may bring them to the notice of suitable boys under their charge.
55. In this connection we wish to record our opinion, on the evidence supplied to us, that apart from the profession of medicine too little prominence has hitherto been given to the careers open to men who have qualified in biological subjects, and that in many instances boys with a natural turn for such subjects have been advised to study, e.g., chemistry or engineering, through ignorance of the possibilities which exist.
56. Two aspects have here to be considered: Training before the scholarship period and training during the scholarship period. With regard to the former, the only point which we wish to elaborate is that candidates who wish ultimately to become specialist or research officers should be required to possess, before the grant of a scholarship can be considered, an Honours Degree in Pure Science, equivalent to the Second Part of the Cambridge Natural Sciences Tripos. We cannot too strongly emphasise the view that this period of a candidate's training must not be regarded as vocational. An Honours Degree in Pure Science affords, in our opinion, the only reliable basis on which special knowledge of the nature required can be imposed, and to require candidates to specialise in their particular subject before obtaining an Honours standard in Pure Science would constitute in our view a profound mistake.
57. With regard to training subsequent to the grant of scholarships, it will be seen that we have deliberately left the scheme as flexible as possible.
In paragraph 44 (j) we have recommended that the Private Secretary (Appointments) at the Colonial Office should keep in close touch with scholarship holders and obtain periodical reports as to their progress. He should also keep a close watch on the type of vacancies anticipated in Colonial agricultural departments, so that on receipt of warning that a vacancy of a special or unusual nature was about to occur a scholar might be earmarked for it in advance and given the special training that might be required.
We consider that the case of each individual candidate should be dealt with on its merits and as circumstances demand; each candidate should receive the training required, in the opinion of such technical advisers as the Secretary of State may consult, to fit him for the particular career which he has in mind and should be trained at such institutions as would afford, in their opinion, the best facilities for the object in view. For this reason we have refrained from naming particular training institutions, except, for reasons which we shall explain later, the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture in Trinidad, and from indicating the exact period for which the scholarship should last. It may be taken, however, that the average duration of each scholarship would be two years.
58. In this connection we feel justified in bringing to your notice the position of the Amani Institute, in Tanganyika Territory, which the German Government established in 1902 as an institute for tropical scientific research. Before the war this Institute, which was admirably equipped both with buildings and staff, was famous for the valuable research work carried out under its auspices into the varied problems of tropical agriculture. So important was this work, and so far-reaching its results, that it is not surprising that the interruption of the Institute's activities caused by the war was regarded with dismay by agricultural authorities. In 1920 the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, urged in the strongest and most emphatic terms the desirability of maintaining the Institute in active operation, and of transforming it into a Central Research Institute for the benefit of all the British Colonies and Protectorates in East Africa, independent of the control of any of the agricultural departments in those Dependencies. Although our Chairman, who was then Secretary of State for the Colonies, felt himself in entire agreement with the views expressed and extended his cordial approval in principle to the proposals put forward, the Institute has, we understand, been barely kept alive, and little or no progress has in fact been made towards evolving a scheme, acceptable to all parties, for its establishment as a central research station. At the present day the Institute possesses only a caretaking staff; its unparalleled facilities for agricultural research are wasted, its apparatus, libraries and collections unused. It is well known that in tropical climates collections of this nature, if not watched with the greatest care, deteriorate with alarming rapidity. The Government of Tanganyika Territory cannot afford without assistance to bear the expense involved by the restoration of the Institute to its former activity, and there is little doubt that the Institute is falling into ruin and that an exceptional opportunity is
being allowed to pass. Although the Institute is by its very nature adapted more for research than for training purposes, we feel that we shall not be exceeding our powers if we place on record our view that its abandonment would be nothing short of a calamity; and if we express the earnest hope that steps may be taken without further delay to ensure its preservation as an active centre for research on lines which were approved by the Secretary of State in 1920.
59. The only other point relating to this period of training that we particularly wish to emphasise is the importance of specialist or research officers acquiring an agricultural outlook. In view of their long scientific training we find ourselves unable to recommend that candidates for these appointments should be required to take an agricultural course in addition, but we most strongly recommend that arrangements should be made for them to spend at least two long. vacations at an Agricultural College, such as Wye or other similar institutions. It should be possible by this means for them to obtain a general agricultural knowledge, and a familiarity with the fundamental principles of agriculture, which would stand them in good stead throughout their career.
60. Our proposals under this head will be found summarised in Appendix VI. The total sum involved is £13,000 per annum.
61. We strongly recommend that, in view of the great importance to Imperial interests of developing rapidly and efficiently the agricultural resources of the Empire, one-third of the annual cost of the scholarship scheme should be borne by the Imperial Exchequer. Progress in this direction will be cheap indeed at the price of £4,500 per annum, which is all that this proposal amounts to, and we feel confident that an arrangement of this nature will carry its own justification.
62. The Colonial Governments would thus contribute annually two-thirds of the amount required, that is to say, £8,500 per annum.
We suggest that the liability of each Colonial Government should be apportioned on what we consider to be the only satisfactory basis, i.e., pro rata to the number of posts in each agricultural department which would normally be filled by officers recruited under this scheme. In view of the great advantages at stake, we earnestly hope that this scheme will be accepted by the various Governments in its entirety.
63. The generous assistance given by the Trustees of the various Rockefeller Funds to analogous purposes has been brought to our notice. We do not consider, however, that Colonial Governments would be justified in seeking from this source any financial aid towards ensuring for their agricultural departments an adequate supply of fully-trained candidates. The scheme which we have outlined should, in our view, be supported by the Imperial and Colonial Governments, but there are many subjects which might with advantage be studied in addition to the training suggested, and in special cases scholars might, if the suggestion met with the approval
of the Trustees of the Rockefeller Funds, proceed to the United States of America or elsewhere, either during or on the termination of their scholarship period, with a view to studying either particular crops or special subjects, such as irrigation and seed selection. It might be possible also to arrange that officers engaged on research should return later in their career with a view to completing the studies thus commenced and to placing on record the results. obtained.
64. The question of granting adequate facilities for study leave to officers in the Colonial agricultural departments is one which we consider to be of great importance. It is, however, so closely connected with the conditions of service generally that we propose to consider it more fully in connection with Part IV of our report. Nevertheless, we think it right to mention it here as we have reason to hope that the Trustees of the Rockefeller Funds might be prepared, in the event of the proposals in this report being adopted, to make material contributions to the expense of officers undertaking research during periods of study leave. We feel that Colonial Governments should be aware of this possibility when considering the proposals outlined in this report.
Recommendations with regard to the Imperial College of Agriculture, Trinidad.
65. We consider that an all-important part of the scheme outlined is that scholars should, in other than exceptional circumstances, be required to spend one whole academic year at this Institution. Candidates will thus be able to acquire a knowledge of tropical conditions before assuming their appointments in the Colonies, and the breadth of outlook and width of interests which they should obtain from such a course will, we feel confident, prove of the utmost value to them personally, and to their Governments, throughout their career. By this means Colonial Governments will obtain officers who are picked men, and who will prove valuable and efficient from the commencement of their Colonial career, whereas, under the present system, for the first year or two after their arrival in a Colony, the Government finds itself paying full salary to officers who have not yet obtained a training sufficiently wide and sufficiently practical to enable them to perform from the outset the duties which would normally be entrusted to them.
66. As already stated, we are opposed in principle to the special mention of particular institutions, but we we have specially recommended the Imperial College of Agriculture in Trinidad because, from the information furnished to us, it appears to be the institution in the tropics which is best calculated to achieve the objects required. It has a highly-qualified teaching staff and fully equipped laboratories, and is especially suitable for post-graduate training. Moreover, it has the advantage of the assistance of the Trinidad department of agriculture, and candidates can see how problems are actually investigated in the field, and can gain a general knowledge not only of tropical conditions but of the workings