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r is the essence of the 1: a: 1 2 the vere test sent is in the east in the early days, arrarsiyererrisgirom the sc's larizzars passed vi the es Wachisz ai redactie, sterrcisz te marsh of tter.. eretices, which dere estirely disappearal sidding tte renere praticitese, and ob 15-7: ten, it is at last 0:30ereit at tte entire starts bearess were :: Tre rioziwani to 1.set and pass by the son, or else the sta itse W a rly moving back ari an: : the stars. This a: marsat n tiin tal area is been deerel in the noon, an ) Low came te renard of liard diligent perseverance. Tbe grandi diserert as age, that both the sun and mood were moricg among the fixei cars, Dot" In"ubat aboutely. The previously received explanation of the mon's motin muli no Jorger be srstained: for the starry hearens onz! i not at the same time

9 move as to pass by the moon in oge mouth, anel to pass by the sun in a period twelve times as great. A train of the most important conclusions flowed at once from this great discovery. The starry heavens passed beneath and around the earth: the sun and moon were wandering in the same direction, but with different velocities among the stars; the Constellatiols actuails filled the entire hegrens above the earth and beneath the earth; the stars were invisible in the day-time, not because they did not exist, but because their feeble light was lost in the superior brilliance of the sun. The heavens were spherical, and encompasseil like a shell the entire earth, and hence it was cupceived that the earth itself was alan a globe, occupying the centre of the starty sphere.

It is impossible for us. familiar as we are at this day with these inportant truths, to appreciate the rare merit of him who, by the power of his genios, first rose to their knowledge and revealed them to an astonished world. We delight to honour the names of Kepler, of Galileo, of Newton; but here are discoveries so far back in the dim past, that all trace of their origin is lost, which vie in interest and importance with the proudest achievements of any age.

With a knowledge of the sphericity of the heavens, the revolution of the sun and moon, the constellations of the celestial sphere, the axis of its diurnal revolution, astronomy began to be a science, and its future progress was destined to be rapid and brilliant. A line drawn from the earth's centre to the north star formed the axis of the heavens, and day and night around this axis all the celestial host were noiselessly pursuing their nerer-ending journeys. Thus far, the only moving bodies known were the sun and moon. These large and brilliant bodies, by their magnitude and splendour, stood ont conspicuously from among the multitude of stars, leaving these minute but beautiful points of light, in one great class, unchangeable among themselves, fixed in their groupings and configurations, furnishing admirable points of reference, in watching and tracing out the wanderings of the sun and moon.

To follow the moon as she pursued her journey among the stars was not difficult; but to trace the sun in his slower and more majestic motion, and to mark accurately his track from star to star, as he heaved upward to meet the coming constellations, was not so readily accomplished. Night after night, as he sank below the horizon, the attentive watcher marked the bright stars near the point of setting which first appeared in the evening twilight. These gradually sank towards the sun on successive nights; and thus was he traced from constellation to constellation, until the entire circuit of the heavens was performed, and he was once more attended by the same bright stars that had watched long before his sinking in the west. Here was revealed the measure of the year. The earth had been verdant with the beauties of spring, glowing with the maturity of summer, rich in the fruits of autumn, and locked in the icy chains of winter, while the sun had circled round the heavens. His entrance into certain constellations marked the coming seasons, and man was beginning to couple his cycle of pursuits on earth with the revolutions of the celestial orbs.

While intently engaged in watching the sun as it slowly heaved up to meet the constellations, some ardent devotee to this infant science at length marked in the early twilight a certain brilliant star closely attendant upon the sun. The relative position of these two objects was noted, for a few consecutive nights, when, with a degree of astonishment of which we can form no conception, he discovered that this brilliant star was rapidly approaching the sun, and actually changing its place among the neighbouring stars. Night after night he gazes on this unprecedented phenomena, a moving star! and on each successive night he finds the wanderer coming nearer and nearer to the sun. At last it disappears from sight, plunged in the beams of the upheaving sun. What had become of this strange wanderer? Was it lost for ever? were questions which were easier asked than answered. But patient watching had revealed the fact, that when a group of stars, absorbed into the sun's rays, disappeared in the west, they were next seen in the eastern sky slowly emerging from his morning beams. Might it not be possible, that this wandering star would pass by the sun and re-appear in the cast? With how much anxiety must this primitive discoverer have watched in the morning twilight? Day after day he sought his solitary post, and marked the rising stars slowly lifting themselves above the eastern horizon. The grey dawn came, and the sun shot forth a flood of light; the stars faded and disappeared, and the watcher gives over till the coming morning. But his hopes are crowned at last. Just before the sun breaks above the horizon, in the rosy east, refulgent with the coming day, he descries the pure white silver ray of his long-lost wanderer. It has passed the sun; it rises in the east. The first planet is discovered!

With how much anxiety and interest did the delighted discoverer trace the movements of his wandering star. Here was a new theme for thought, for observation, for investigation ; would this first planet sweep round the heavens as did the sun and moon ?-would it always move in the same direction ?-would its path lie among those groups of stars among which the sun and moon held their course ? Encouraged by past success, he rejoicingly enters on the investigation of these questions, For some time the planet pursues its journey from the sun, leaving it fartber and fartber belird. Dat directly it slackens its pace, it actually stone in its career, ard the astonished observer perhaps thinks that his wandering star hal again become fixed Not so: a few days of watching dispels this idea. Slowly at first, and soon more swiftly, the planet seeks again the sain, moving backwards on its former rath, until finally its light is but just a tle in the east at early dawn. Again it is lost in the sun's heams for a time, and, contrary to all preceding analogy, wien next seen, its silver rar comes out. pure and bright. just above the setting sun. It now recrles from the sun, on each sgocessive evening id Teging its distanre, till it a main reaches a point never to be passed ; here it stops. is stationary for a day or two, ani then again sinks downward to meet the sun. How worderful and inesplicable the movements of this wao-lərinz star must have appeared in the early ages, oscillating hakward and fursar, never missing its prescribed limits, and erer closely atten lant upon the sun! Where the sun ark to renace, there did the faith: al paret sink, and where the sua rose, at the same point dil the wanlering star make its appearance. The number of dars was acurately noted, from the stationary point in the east alore the sun, to the stationary point in the west above the sun, and this the period, 554 days, from station to station, became known.

The discovery of one planet led the tray to the rapid discovery of several others. If we may julge of their order by their brilliancy, Jupiter was the second wanderer revealed among the stars. Then followed Mars and Saturn, and, after a long interval, Mercury was detected, hovering near the sun, and imitating the curious motions of Venus.

Here the progress of planetary discovery was suddenly arrested : keen as was the vision of the old astronomer, long and patient as was his scrutiny, no depth of penetration of unaided vision could stretch beyond the mighty orbit of Saturn, and the search was given over.-Mitchell on the " Planetary and Stellar Worlds."


A MYSTERIOUS SHIELD IN THE DAY OF BATTLE. It was on one of those days of to make balls), and cut about one feverish excitement which, in 1798, hundred of my young ash trees, of spread such terror and dismay course to make pike-handles." Yet through the length and breadth of in the face of all this devastation, Ireland, that Adam Averell felt and though perfectly aware of the " pressed in spirit" to visit Monaste- danger to which he would be exrevan. It required no ordinary cou posed by travelling abroad, he rage to venture from home at such a mounted his horse and set out for time, as the country was literally dis- Monasterevan. Nothing particular tracted, and his own little “ villa," at transpired by the way, but his recepTentower, was still in ruins, having tion at the end of the journey and been attacked but a few days before the scenes which immediately folby the “ United Irishmen." Speak lowed, sufficiently accounted for that ing of that assault he says, “ They extraordinary "impression" which forced the doors, broke open all my led bim to set out on such an errand lockers, destroyed much of my furni. of mercy. ture, took about seven cwt. of lead In his own account of that visit, from the roof of the house (I suppose he says, " Brother Fox's family were at dinner when I arrived; and, on tended, but kept at the door with my entering the dining-room, sister their bayonets fixed, as they knew Fos, after an exclamation of sur not the moment their services might prise, burst into a flood of tears, and be required. Nothing, however, inall the rest of the family were deeply terrupted us : we concluded in peace, affected. I stood in silent wonder, and parted as if we were to meet no until sister Fox, having regained more in this world. somewhat of her composure, said, "After returning to brother Fox's, • Mr. Averell, you are come to die and committing ourselves to the care with us!' On asking for an explana- of Him who never slumbers nor sleeps, tion, I was informed by brother Fox I retired to bed; but the family, or that a priest who had been taken most of them, reinained up. I slept prisoner, and from whom secret in until I was awoke by the sun beamformation had been extorted by ing strongly in my face a little before flogging, had stated that the rebels, five o'clock in the morning, and arose from their encampment on the Cur- with a heart truly thankful to Him ragh of Kildare, were that night to who had been my preserver throughattack the town. I then inquired out the night. While dressing, I what force there was to repel them, was suddenly enveloped in a thick and he told me there were of soldiers, gloom: a dense fog had arisen, which yeomen, and Protestants, only about so obscured the sun that objects only eighty men. Of these,' continued a few yards distant could not be dishe, ten are pious young men be- cerned; and soon after were heard longing to our Methodist) Society, volleys of firing. Brother Fox comwho were formerly enrolled amongst ing into my room, informed me the the yeomanry; but as they would engagement had commenced, and not violate the Sabbath by unneces- begged me to come to the parlour, sarily joining in military exercises on as the family were in great confusion. that day, they were deprived of their I felt for a moment a sensation of arms. On their making an offer of alarm; but having told him to go their services for the defence of the down, and I would soon follow, I town to-day, and requesting to be fell on my knees in prayer; and my supplied with arms, they were abused ever-gracious God so filled my soul as men whose loyalty could not be with his peace, that all my fears sub. depended on, as they had withdrawn sided, and I could with unwavering from the yeomanry, and the arms confidence commit myself to his care. were refused. A second application, On joining the family, I requested however, was more successful : the that the windows might be closed, commanding officer declaring, with a and we went to prayer, brother Fox tremendous oath, that they should be and I praying alternately. Nor did stationed where they would get their we seek God in vain. We had blessed courage tried. They are,' added indications of his gracious presence, brother Fox, 'placed under the and I felt it strongly impressed on direction of a steady, religious man my mind that he would be on this of the name of Johnston, who was a occasion our shield and our defence. sergeant in the army, and he is at We continued in prayer for about an present drilling them in an adjoining hour and a half, when, after rising field.' I now proposed, as it was from our knees, a pious servant-maid probable we might never have an- of the family opened one of the winother opportunity, that we should dows to look out, and breathlessly have preaching; which having been exclaimed, The battle's won. I see announced, we had a large congre- & yeoman throwing up his cap into gation; and seldom did any people the air !' We all got to the windows, ever before meet under similar views and soon saw that it was so; that and apprehensions to worship God. God had given us the victory! Our It was a solemn assembly; and we chief concern now was about sister had a deeply solemn and affecting Dennis and the inmates of her estatime in waiting upon the Lord. Ser- blishment. This lady kept a boardgeant Johnston and his party at- ing-school in the town, and had

at the time fifteen young ladies arose, while the cloud, or fog, became (boarders), belonging to Methodist thicker as the noise increased. We families in different parts of the now stood ready for a discharge. kingdom. The battle was fought The noise still approached, till at near her house, the front windows length we could hear the sound of of which were all demolished. J pro innumerable voices. At that time posed going to see her; but was told the darkness had so increased that that the military were firing at all the men, with their guns in the posiwho appeared in the streets in tion for making a charge, could coloured clothes. We were, how scarcely discern the points of their ever, soon relieved from our anxiety bayonets. When the rebels, as well by her arrival at brother Fox's with as we could judge, had advanced sufher fifteen pupils, escorted by Ser: ficiently near for us to fire effectively, geant Johnston and his party, and I gave the word of command. Volley all safe and well. It would not be followed volley, and all the while the easy to describe our feelings when we enemy made no advance. Had they met. We joined together in praising been aware of the smallness of our our great Deliverer, and on our knees number, they would have swallowed heartily magnified his mercy to us, us up; but not knowing what force and his care over us.

was opposed to them, they were in“When we had resumed our seats, timidated. Still we kept up our fire, I requested Sergeant Johnston to till, the darkness dispersing, we could give us an account of his proceed- see that the rebel host was thrown ings from the time we had parted into complete confusion. By this after preaching the preceding even. time our commanding officer, knowing. The Sergeant then gave us the ing by the firing that an attack had following particulars: ‘After we left commenced, came up with all his you we went to the commanding forces, and the rebels fled in all officer for our orders; but he abused directions. Thus did the Lord deus, and told us we might do as we liver us out of the hands of our pleased, for neither soldier nor yeoman enemies, and not one of us has rewould fight with us I told him we ceived the slightest scar! But,'added were resolved to aid in defending the he, poor Simpson has fallen! A town, and wished to be taken under shot from the enemy, after they comhis command. He then ordered us menced their retreat, struck him, and to take our post on the bridge, and he is no more! Simpson had been prevent the rebels from entering a member of our Society, and having at that quarter. This was sending joined the yeomanry, he continued, us on a forlorn hope, for he knew contrary to all remonstrance, to unite that was the point at which they with them in their military exercises must attempt an entry, coming in on the Lord's day. One of the most the direction from which they were important facts relative to this affair expected. We, however, made no is, that God signally honoured and remark, but took our position on the defended those who had honoured bridge. The night, which was mostly him in the observance of the Sabspent in alternate singing and prayer, bath." (See Memoir, p. 197.) passed over quietly; and the sun What a singular providence! And shone forth beautifully in the morn- what an evidence that the watchful ing. Nothing remarkable occurred eye of God is over his people! Ten till about five o'clock, when there ap- righteous men would have saved the peared a dark cloud, or heavy fog, in cities of the plain; and here we find the direction from which we expected that ten pious men actually saved the rebels to come. It moved gra- Monasterevan. Their conscientious dually towards us, and spread all observance of the Sabbath would not around, till at length the sun was allow them to profane its sacred completely concealed from our view. hours, even under a pretence of preAfter some time we heard a noise, as paring to defend their native town. if a great number of cars were coming And yet their loyalty was unquestionfrom the quarter in which the cloud able, and their names deserved a

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