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species of the gardener is, however, C. Indicum, the CHINESE or INDIAN C., native of China, Cochin-China, and Japan, long cultivated in its native countries as an ornamental plant, and of which there are many varieties. Its colors are very various-red, lilac, rose-color, white, yellow, orange, or two colors combined. It flowers in autumn and winter. It is easy of cultivation, thrives best in a light, rich soil, is easily propagated by cuttings, suckers, or parting the roots. It is reckoned among florists' flowers.

CHRYSE (Golden Land): ancient name for the regions of Indo-China.

CHRYSELEPHANTINE, a. Erisil-e-fin tin [Gr. chru808, gold; elephan'ta, ivory]: made of gold and ivory. The art of making images of gold and ivory was extensively practiced among the Greeks. Winckelmann has calculated that about 100 statues of this kind are mentioned by the ancients. The colossal works executed by Phidias at Athens, in the time of Pericles, are the most famous of this class, the greatest being the Pallas of the Parthenon. It was 26 cubits high, and represented the goddess in armor, covered with a long robe. The famous Olympian Jupiter of Phidias, executed in the same materials, also was a world-wide wonder. The combination of gold and ivory was used chiefly in temple statues; and though the execution of the more famous works of this class belongs to an advanced period of art, the use of various materials in the same statue was very ancient, probably borrowed from the custom of adorning the wooden images of the earliest time with the precious metals. Sometimes, too, the head, the arms and hands, and the feet, were of marble, while the rest was of wood, covered with thin plates of gold. These were called aërolites or acroliths (q v.): see SCULPTURE.

CHRYSIPPUS, kri-sip'pŭs: stoic philosopher, b. abt. B.C. 280, at Soli in Cilicia. He came to Athens when a youth, and eagerly addicted himself to philosophical pursuits. His principal master was Cleanthes, though he is said to have studied also under the academic teachers, Arcesilaus and Lacydes, and learned from them what were the objections urged by skeptics against the doctrines of the stoics. He had the reputation of being the keenest disputant of his age, and was happily described as the knife for the academic knots.' In fact, his logic was held to be so convincing that people were wont to say: 'If the gods make use of dialectic, it can only be that of Chrysippus.' It is also related of him that he told Cleanthes he wanted to know merely the principles of his system, as he intended to find arguments for them himself; and this story appears to indicate his true position in philosophy. He was not the creator of a new system, but the expounder of an old. C.'s industry was great: he seldom wrote less than 500 lines a day, and is said to have composed more than 700 works. Many of these, however, were compilations, not characterized by great beauty of style. Only a variety of fragments remain, edited by Petersen 1827. For


C. and the stoics, see Zeller's great work on the history of Greek philosophy.

HRYSIS, krisis: Linnæan genus of hymenopterous insects, now constituting a family Chryside, allied to the Ichneumonidae, and forming a connecting link between them and bees, wasps, etc. The French call them guêpes dorées (gilded wasps), and they sometimes receive the English names of golden-tailed and ruby-tailed flies. They delight in sunshine, and may be seen poised in the air, the motion of their wings being so rapid as to render the body alone of the insect visible.

CHRYSOBALANACEÆ, kris-o-bul-an-a'sē-ē, or CHRYSOBALANEE, kris-o-bal-an'é-è: according to some botanists, a distinct nat. ord. of plants; according to others, a suborder of ROSACEE (q.v.). They are distinguished from the other plants usually included in the order rosacea by their irregular petals, and by having the stamens also irregular, either in size or position; the ovary stalked, its stalk adhering on one side to the calyx, the style proceeding from its base. The fruit is a drupe of one or two cells. The species are trees or shrubs, natives generally of tropical and sub-tropical regions. About 50 species are known. The fruit of many is eatable, as the COCOA PLUMS (q.v.) of the West Indies (chrysobalanus), the fruit of parinarium excelsum in Sierra Leone, and that of moquilea grandiflora in Brazil. The kernels of some resemble sweet-almonds, as those of parinarium campestre and P. montanum. A useful oil is expressed from the seeds of princepia utilis, a spiny plant, common in parts of the Himalaya Mountains, also planted for hedges in the Kha sia hills, 5,725 ft. above the sea; while in Sikkim, it is found only where the elevation is above 8,000 feet.

CHRYSOBERYL, n. kris'o-ber'il [Gr. chrusos, gold; and Gr. berullos; L. beryllus, beryl]: gem almost as hard as

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A crystal composed of six twins, grouped together laterally, which in transmitted light appears red. From Siberia.

sapphire, and the finer specimens of which are very beautiful, particularly those which show an opalescent play of


light. Lapidaries sometimes call it oriental or opalescent chrysolite. It is of a green color, inclining to yellow, semi-transparent, or almost transparent, and has double refraction. It occurs crystallized in six-sided prisms; often in macles, or twin crystals. It is found in granite, in sandstone, and in alluvial soil; in Ceylon, Pegu, Siberia, Brazil, and Connecticut. It is composed of alumina, glucina, and a little protoxide of iron, the alumina being about 80 per cent of the whole.

CHRYSOCOLLA, n. kris'ō-kōl'lă, called also COPPER. GREEN [Gr. chrusos, gold; kolla, glue]: hydrous silicate of copper; found in Cornwall and in many parts of the world, but particularly in Wisconsin and Missouri, where it is so abundant as to be worked for copper. As a pigment it was much used by the ancients.

CHRYSOLITE, n. kris'ō-lit [Gr. chrusos, gold; lithos, a stone]: silicate of magnesia and iron, composed of silica, magnesia, and protoxide of iron; of a fine green color, with vitreous lustre; transparent, and having double refraction; in hardness about equal to quartz; and with conchoidal fracture. It often crystallizes in four-sided or six-sided prisms, variously modified. Very fine specimens are brought from Egypt and from some parts of the east; also from Brazil. C. is used by jewellers as an ornamental stone, but is not highly valued. Olivine, which occurs generally massive, in grains and roundish pieces, and is frequent in volcanic countries, and found in the igneous rocks of some parts of Scotland-as on Arthur's Seat-is regarded as a coarse variety of chrysolite. The chrysoberyl (q.v.) is sometimes called C. by jewellers.

CHRYSOLORAS, kris-ō-lō'ras, MANUEL: learned Greek, of Constantinople; b. middle of 14th c.; d. 1415. He is regarded as the first who transplanted Greek literature into Italy. About 1391, the Byzantine emperor, John Palæologus, sent C. to England and Italy to entreat assistance against the Turks. This mission made C. known in Italy, and in 1397, he left his native land and went to Florence, where, as a teacher of Greek literature, he was highly esteemed and admired. Leonardo Bruno, Poggius, Philelphus, Guarinus of Verona, and other eminent scholars were his pupils. He was afterward employed in public services-especially in mediating a union of the Greek with the Roman church-by Pope Gregory XII. In 1413, C. went with John XXII. to the council of Constance, where he died. Besides theological works, his Erotemata, or Accidence of the Greek Language' (Venice 1484), has been preserved. Manuel C. must be distinguished from his nephew, John C., who also went to Italy and gave lessons in Greek.


CHRYSOPHANIC ACID, n. kris'ofăn'ik ǎs'id [Gr. chrusos, gold; phaino, I appear]: an acid of the alizarine series contained in rhubarb; a yellow coloring matter, also called pariětin, found in the plant Pamětià pariětina.


CHRYSOPHYLL, n. kris'ò-fil [Gr. chrusos, gold, phullon, a leaf): the golden-yellow coloring matter in many plants and their flowers.


CHRYSOPRASE, n. kris'ō-prāz [Gr. chrusos, gold; prason, a leek]: merely a variety of chalcedony, but valued far above common chalcedony as an ornamental stone; so that a stone of this kind, fit for mounting in a ring, is worth from $50 to $100. It is of a fine apple-green color in choice specimens, but inferior ones exhibit other shades of green, and it is sometimes spotted with yellowishbrown. It is often set in a circlet of diamonds or pearls. Unfortunately, it is apt to lose its color through time, particularly if kept in a warm place; but dampness is favorable to its preservation, and it is therefore sometimes kept in damp cotton. It is found in Lower Silesia-where the search for it was particularly encouraged by Frederick the Great-and in Vermont. The inferior specimens are made into brooches, necklaces, etc., and those still coarser, into snuff-boxes, seals, cups, etc. The C. of the ancients was a stone of yellowish-green color, but it is not certain what it was.


CHRYSOSTOM, kris'os-tom, or kris-os tom, JOHN [Gr. Chrysostomos, golden-mouth; so named from the splendor of his eloquence]: 347-407, Sep. 14; b. Artioch. His mother; Anthusa, was a pious woman, wholly devoted to her son, who grew up under her loving instructions into an earnest, gentle, and serious youth, passing, as Neander significantly observes, through none of those wild. dark struggles with sinful passions which left an ineffaceable impress on the soul of Augustine, and gave a sombre coloring to his whole theology. He studied oratory under Libanius, a heathen rhetorician; soon excelled his teacher, and, after devoting some time to the study of philosophy, retired to a solitary place in Syria, and there read the Holy Scriptures. The ascetic severity of his life and studies brought on an illness which forced him to return to Antioch where he was ordained deacon by bp. Meletius, 381, and presbyter by bp. Flavianus, 386. The eloquence, earnestness, and practical tone of his preaching excited the attention of Jews, heathens, and heretics, and secured for him the reputation of the chief orator of the Eastern Church. In 397, the eunuch Eutropius, minister of the emperor Arcadius, who had been struck by the bold and brilliant preaching of C., elevated him to the episcopate of Constantinople. C. immediately began to restrict the episcopal expenditure in which his predecessors had indulged, and bestowed so large a portion of his revenues on hospitals and other charities that he gained the surname of John the Almoner.' He also endeavored to reform the lives of the clergy, and sent missionaries into Scythia, Persia, Palestine, and other lands. His faithful discharge of his duties, especially in reproof of vices, excited the enmity of


the patriarch Theophilus and of the empress Eudoxia, who succeed in deposing and banishing him from the capital. He was soon recalled, to be banished again shortly afterward. He now went to Nicæa, in Bithynia; but was thence removed to the little town of Cucusus, in the desert parts of the Taurus Mountains. Even here his zeal was not abated. He labored for the conversion of the Persians and Goths in the neighborhood, and wrote the 17 letters (or rather moral essays) to Olympias, to whom he also addressed a treatise on the proposition-None can hurt the man who will not hurt himself.' The emperor, enraged by the general sympathy expressed toward C. by all true Christians, gave orders that he should be more remotely banished to a desolate tract on the Euxine, at the very verge of the eastern Roman empire. Accordingly, the old man was made to travel on foot, and with his bare head exposed to a burning sun. This cruelty proved fatal. C. died on the way at Comanum, in Pontus, blessing God with his dying lips. The news of his death excited much sorrow among all pious Christians, for C. was a man who drew the hearts of his fellows after him; a lovable, manly Christian, hating lies, worldliness, hypocrisy, and all manner of untruthfulness, with that honest warmth of temper which all vigorous people relish. A sect sprang up after his death, or martyrdom as they conceived it, called Johannists, who refused to acknowledge his successors; nor did they return to the general communion till 438, when the abp. Proclus prevailed on the emperor Theodosius II. to bring back the body of the saint to Constantinople, where it was solemnly interred, the emperor himself publicly imploring the pardon of heaven for the crime of his parents, Arcadius and Eudoxia. The Greek Church celebrates the festival of C, Nov. 13; the Roman, Jan. 27. In his Homilies (Thomas Aquinas said he would not give in exchange those on St. Matthew for the whole city of Paris) C. shows superior powers of exegesis. In general he rejects the allegorical system of interpretation, and adheres to the grammatical, basing his doctrines and sentiments on a rational apprehension of the letter of Scripture. He is, however, far from being a worshipper of the Bible. He recognized the presence of a human element in the Bible as well as a divine; and instead of attempting, by forced and artifical hypotheses to reconcile what he thought irreconcilable in Scripture statements, he frankly admitted the existence of obscurities and difficulties in the sacred writings, and shaped his theory of inspiration accordingly. But his greatest and noblest excellence lay in that power, springing from the fervor and holiness of his heart, by which the consciences of the proud, the worldly, and the profligate were awakened, and all were made to feel the reality of the gospel message. The surname C. was first applied some time after his death, and, as is supposed, by the sixth œcumenical council, 680. C.'s works are very numerous, and consist of, 1st, Homilies, on parts of Scripture and points of doctrine; 2d, Commentaries, on the whole Bible (part of which has perished); 3d, Epistles, addressed to

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