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b. Vyborg, in the island of Funen. He ascended the throne of Denmark 1513. Shortly after his marriage in 1515, with a sister of the emperor Charles V., a young Norwegian peasant-girl, with whom C. was in love, died, or, as it was believed, was murdered. That natural ferocity, for which C. was surnamed the Angry, burst forth most furiously on this occasion. He caused the governor of the castle, Torben Oxe (see DYVEKÉ), to be beheaded. He afterward declared open war against Sweden, took Stockholm through fraud, and had himself crowned king. But the cruel vengeance and treachery of C. after this event excited the indignation of that country, which, headed by Gustavus Wasa (q v.), succeeded in driving out the Daues, liberating itself from the yoke of the house of Kalmar, and finally electing Gustavus Wasa (1523) to the throne. In Denmark, too, the aristocracy had risen, and an insurrection in Jutland following, C. found himself forced to flee for refuge to the Netherlands; and his uncle Fredrick I. (q.v.), the introducer of the Reformation into Denmark, was elected king in his place. Encouraged, however by the Rom. Cath. party in the Netherlands, and assisted by Charles V., C. landed successfully in Norway 1531; but at the battle of Aggerhuus 1532, he was totally defeated, and made prisoner in the castle at Sonderburg, from which he was liberated after twelve years of confinement.

CHRISTIAN IV.. King of Denmark and Norway, and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein: 1577, Apr. 12–1648; b. Zealand He was elected successor to the throne 1580, and assumed the sceptre 1593. From 1610 he carried on a successful war, known as the Kalmarian war, against Charles IX of Sweden, and his successor, Gustavus Adolphus, which ended in an advantageous peace 1613. As leader of the Protestants in the thirty years' war, C. was not successful. His labors for the improvement of his country, in which he was indefatigable, were, however, most beneficial. He strengthened its maritime power; extended its commerce as far as the E. Indies, where he obtained the first possessions; and by restrictions upon the Hanse towns, greatly increased the inland trade of the country. His legislative and financial reforms, together with his love and patronage of the arts and sciences, gained for him the esteem of his people, especially of the learned.

CHRISTIAN VII., King of Denmark: 1749, Jan. 291808, Mar, 13; son of Fredrick V. and Louisa, of England. He succeeded to the throne of his father 1766, Jan. 14, and in the same year married Caroline Matilda, sister of George III., of England. The dissipations of his early life had enfeebled his energies, and rendered him unfit for government. The management of the state was, in consequence, seized by his ministers, with Count Bernstorff, who had possessed the entire confidence of the king's father, at their head. Bernstorff, however, was soon forced to retreat before Struensee (q.v.), who exercised unbounded influence over the king and his imprudent young queen. But innova. tions of a despotic tendency, and insults offered to the

CHRISTIAN VIII-CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE. national feeling, soon drew upon this minister the hatred of the nation. The queen-dowager seeing this, made it an occasion for satisfying her ambitious nature, by attaching herself to the malcontents; and in 1772 with the assistance of her son, Fredrick (1754-1805), she persuaded the vacillating king to draw up an order of arrest for Struensee and the young queen. Bernstorff was recalled from Hamburg. The king, now incapacitated by mental disease, governed only nominally. In 1784, his son Fredrick VI. (q.v ), came to the head of the government, as joint regent with the queen-mother.


CHRISTIAN VIII., King of Denmark: 1786, Sep. 181848, Jan. 20 (reigned 1839-48); nephew of Christian VII The treaty of Kiel, ceding Norway to Sweden, was repudiated by the Norwegians 1814, Jan. 28. C., then gov. of Norway, offered himself as champion of independence, gathered an army of 12,000, called a diet Apr. 10, and was proclaimed king of Norway as Christian I., May 29. allied powers supporting Bernadotte, C. gave up the crown Oct. 10, turned to study, and became pres. of the Copenhagen Acad. of Fine Arts 1832. He succeeded his cousin Fredrick VI. 1839, Dec. 3, and was crowned 1840, June 30. The liberals demanding the settlement of the Schleswig-Holstein question, he, by letter 1846, July 8, declared these provinces indissolubly united with Denmark. Complications arose, and shortly before the revolution of 1848 he died and was succeeded by his son, Fredrick VII.

CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE: organization whose full title is Christian and Missionary Alliance,' and whose aim is a union of all evangelical deuominations for fellowship, prayer, and work, in promoting the gospel of full salvation and the evangelization of the neglected classes at home and abroad.'

The founder and head of this organization is the Rev. A. B. Simpson. While pastor of the Thirteenth Street Presb. chh. in New York (1881) he began a special evangelical movement to reach the neglected classes. So successful has he been that his present church, which was organized 1881 as an independent body with 17 members, now numbers about 1,800. It is called the Tabernacle, and is situ. ated on 44th street, near Eighth ave., New York.

A number of branches sprang up in different parts of the country, and in 1887 the C. A. was organized at Old Orchard, Me., as the direct outgrowth Prominent among the teachings are entire sanctification, divine healing of disease, and the personal and premillennial coming of Jesus Christ. There are several hundred branches in all parts of the world.

A notable feature of the work is the sending missionaries abroad. The members raised in 1896 over $140,000 for this purpose. Thousands of dollars are subscribed at the summer camp-meetings each year. The C. A. has a Missionary Institute, which has been in operation since 1883, where students are given a training for from one to three years. A new building to accommodate 250 students was

CHRISTIAN BURIAL-CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR. opened in 1897 at South Nyack, N. Y. The Berachah Home at the same place offers a retreat for spiritual rest and physical healing. The organ of the C. A. is the Christian Missionary Alliance, issued every week from Nyack, N. Y.


CHRISTIAN CHARITY, Knights OF THE ORDER OF, in France: founded by King Henry III. for the support of maimed officers and soldiers, who had done good service in the wars. He assigned revenues to the order, drawn from all the hospitals in the kingdom. The knights wore on the left breast an anchored cross embroidered on white taffety or satin, with a border of blue silk, and in the middle of the cross a lozenge of sky blue charged with a fleur de lis or. The completion of the institution was reserved for Henry IV., who placed it under the charge of the marshals and colonels of France. The order formed the germ of that noble hospital the Invalides, founded by Louis XIV., and model for the English hospitals of Chelsea and Greenwich. When the Invalides was founded, the order of C C. was superseded,

CHRISTIAN COMMISSION, THE UNITED STATES: organized in New York 1861, Nov. 14, The idea was suggested by Vincent Collyer, and pushed by the Young Men's Christian Assoc. of New York, which issued, Sep 23, a call on all similar associations in the north to unite in the work The C. C. emulated and coöperated with the labors of the Sanitary Commission (q.v.) in ministering to the material wants of the soldiers, especially the sick and wounded, and supplemented them by giving attention to the religious needs of the troops, and assisting the efforts of the regimental chaplains It sent forth a great number of zealous agents, received the gratuitous services of many clergymen and laymen, and accomplished much good. Its religious work aimed to be wholly unsectarian; and it aided in spreading a sentiment of Christian union among various denominations. In its physical ministrations there was some wholesome rivalry between it and the Sanitary Commission. Its Annals were written by Moss.



CHRIS TIAN ENDEAVOR, SOCIETY OF: organization to promete the Christian growth and usefulness of young people. It was originated by Francis E. Clark, D.D., and the first soc. was formed in the Williston Congl. Church (of which he was then pastor), Portland, Me., 1881, Feb. 2. It grew out of his desire for an efficient method of training a number of young converts for the privileges and responsibilities of church membership. Among the principles of the society are the following: That youth is pre-eminently the period for useful service; that, for religious efficiency, members must be organized; and that, to secure the best results, a direct obligation must be imposed on each member. The requirement is made that each member shall, unless specially detained, attend and take part in each weekly


Prayer meeting of the society. Each soc. is connected with a local church, with which and for which it works. Its motto is, For Christ and the Church.' The form of constitution varies somewhat in minor points with the needs of the local societies, but in all organizations the prayer-meeting pledge is required of each member, a consecration meeting is held at stated periods, and lookout, prayer-meeting, and social committees are maintained. The organization is connected with all denominations. The Congl., in which it originated, led for a few years, but the Presb. has (1896) the largest membership, 5.458 Young People's and 2,599 Junior societies; the Congl. now stands second, with 4.109 Young People's and (2,077 Junior societies; the Dis. of Christ are third, with 12.941 Young People's and 1,087 Junior societies; the Bapt. have 2.679 Young People's and 927 Junior, the Meth. Prot. have 975 Young People's and 302 Junior, the Luth. have 854 Young People's and 268 Junior, and the Cumb. Presb. have 805 Young People's and 289 Junior societies. In Canada the Methodists lead, with 1.641 Young People's and 150 Junior societies, known mostly as Epworth Leagues of CE; the Presb. have 1.026 Young People's and 134 Junior, the Bapt. have 173 Young People's and 34 Junior; and the Congl. have 103 Young People's and 40 Junior societies. In the United Kingdom the Bapt. lead and in Australia the Wes. Meth, lead. Penn. has 3,273 societies, N. Y. 2,971, O. 2,311, Canada 3,292, the United Kingdom 3.000, Australia 2.000. France 66. West Indies 63, India 128, Mexico 62, Turkey 41, Africa 38, China 40, Germany 18, Japan 66, and Madagascar 93 societies. $360,173 was contributed by C. E. societies during the year for missionary and church purposes. While charity is inculcated, the members are urged to give to their own denominational work. The united society, which furnishes a medium of communication and supplies needed literature, has its headquarters in Boston. The founder of the soc. is the president, and there is a treas., a general sec., and a board of trustees from various religious denominations and different parts of the country. It has no control over the individual societies, each of which looks after its own interests; and it makes no claim for financial support. Its expenses are met by the sale of its publications and by voluntary contributions. Its official organ is the Golden Rule, published at Boston. Junior Endeavor societies, with the same ends in view as the original soc., organize children between the ages of 7 and 14. At the fifteenth international convention of the societies, at Washington, D. C., 1896, July 9-13, at which there were 40.000 delegates, the number of societies was reported as 46,125; total membership 2,750,000. The number of associate members who had joined evangelical churches during the year exceeded 230,000.


CHRISTIANIA: capital of Norway, in the province of Aggerhuus, in a beautiful open valley on the n. side of the Christiania Fiord. C. is the seat of the Norwegian govern


ment, the superior courts, and the Storthing. Besides the suburbs of Pipervigen, Hammarsborg, Vaterland, and Greenland, the town consists of C., properly so called (laid out by Christian IV., 1614, in a regular parallelogram of 1,000 paces in length and breadth); the Old Town or Opslo, where the bishop resides, and the citadel Aggerhuus, from which the broad straight streets of the town can be fired upon. The most important public buildings are the royal palace, the bank and exchange, the house of representatives, or storthing, the governor's palace, and the cathedral. There is also the university, the only one in Norway, opened 1813, with a staff of 46 ordinary, and six extraordinary professors. About 1,500 students attend it annually. This institution contains, besides various scientific collections, a library of about 250,000 vols., a botanical garden, and an observatory (59° 54′ 42′′ n. lat., and 10° 50′ e. long.), opened 1833. C. has also some good schools and learned societies, of which the Society for Northern Antiquities' is famous. The manufactures of C. are cotton, oil, paper, soap, and bricks. There are also numerous distilleries and corn-mills. It exports in considerable quantities wood, iron, anchovies, and glasswares. Over 2,000 vessels annually enter the port (which, however, is closed by ice for four months). It has regular steam-boat communication with Gottenburg, Copenhagen, Kiel, Hull, and Leith. C., by means of its bay, is connected with Drammen (pop. 18,838), famous for its extensive trade in timber, etc. The scenery of the whole bay is unsurpassed in beauty. Pop. (1891) 150,444.

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