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Closely connected with this subject is that of the humiliation and consequent exaltation of C., in his character of mediator between God and man; a subject, to the former branch of which belongs the whole doctrine of the work of C. for the redemption of sinuers, including the great doctrine of ATONEMENT (q.v.). To the latter belongs the doctrine of the reward of his work, in his exaltation as the divinely human Son of God at the right hand of the Father; and having all things put under his feet; exercising dominion as king not only in his church, but over all things for the advancement of the salvation of his church, and of every member of it, and for the bringing in of a universal righteousness; while also he sends forth the Holy Spirit to apply to men the blessings which, as the reward of his work, he has mediatorially obtained for them; and still continuing to act as a priest, makes continual INTERCESSION (q.v.), founded upon his work and sacrifice: see CHRISTOLOGY.

CHRIST, ORDER OF, IN PORTUGAL: order of the Templars as revived in Portugal, 1317. When the Templars were expelled from France, and their property confiscated by Philippe le Bel, with the sanction of Pope Clement V., they were received into Portugal, and their order revived, under the title of 'the Order of our Lord Jesus Christ.' With some difficulty Pope John XXII. was induced to sanction the new order. The knights of the order of Christ joined the Portuguese in all their crusades against the infidel, and also in their African and Indian expeditions, receiving in compensation continual additions to their own possessions. The grand prior of the order was invested by Pope Calixtus III. with power equal to that of a bishop; and, as an encouragement to adventure, the knights were promised all the countries which they might discover, to be held under the protection of Portugal. At length, their wealth and power excited the jealousy Badge of the Portuguese of the kings of Portugal; their future acquisitions, and, subsequently, even their actual possessions, were declared to be crown possessions, and the offices of adminstrator and grand-master were transferred to the crown. A fine cloister belonging to the order is still seen at Tomar, to which place the seat of the order was transferred from Castro-Marino 1366. Noble descent, and three years' military service against the infidel, were required for admission. The members took the three monkish vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, till the pope released them from the first two, on condition of their applying the third part of their revenues to the support of Tomar cloister, the priests of which were bound by the


Order of Christ.


three vows. This cloister is now a theological institution for the instruction of the priests of the order.

It is said that the order still possesses 26 villages and farmis, and 434 prebends. It is very numerous-consisting

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of six knights of the Grand Cross, 450 commanders, and an unlimited number of knights. Rom. Catholics of noble descent alone are admitted, and for

eigners are excluded from participation in the revenues, being in return exempted from its rules. The star and badge of a Knight Grand Cross are represented in the illustration.

CHRIST, The PAPAL ORDER OF: branch of the Portuguese order, creat ed by Pope John XXII. It has only one class. The decoration and star are represented in the illustration.


Badge of the Papal

Order of Christ.

CHRIST, PICTURES OF: symbolical or pseudo-historical portraits of the Savior. To represent the form and countenance of C. in a manner that shall even approximate the ideal latent in the minds of men, is unquestionably the most sublime and the most difficult work which an artist can undertake. It is the highest pictorial effort of the creative faculty. From a very early period in the history of the church we can trace the growth of the endeavor. At first, indeed, the horror entertained for the idols of the pagans must have inspired Christians with an aversion to images or pictures of the Savior. Gradually, however, as paganism disappeared and time removed C. further from his people, this feeling would subside, and the longing would arise to possess some representation of him on which the eye might rest with pious delight. When Christian art originated is not precisely known; it is usually dated from the time of Constantine. Nevertheless-as Lord Linsday remarks, in his Sketches of the History of Christian Art (Lond. 1847)-'it would be more


correct to say that it then first emerged above ground; its earliest efforts must be sought for in the catacombs.' In these subterranean excavations, forming a maze of unknown extent and labyrinthine intricacy, to which the Roman Christians had recourse in the days of persecution, are found the first traces of Christian sculpture and painting. The sarcophagi of the martyrs and confessors, of the heroes and heroines, of the bishops, and, in general, of those of higher mark and renown, were painted over with the symbols and devices of Christianity. The parables were the chief source from which these sepulchral artists drew

Supposed earliest Picture of Christ:

From a Ceiling in the Catacombs of St. Calixtus at Rome. their symbols. Christ is painted as the good shepherd in the midst of his flock, or, with pastoral pipe,' seeking the lost sheep, or returning with it on his shoulders. Sometimes he figures as an ideal youth in the bloom of his years, sometimes as a bearded man in the prime of life, sometimes as Orpheus, surrounded by wild beasts enrapt by the melody of his lyre. Such pictures, however, were only symbolical, and did not satisfy the religious craving for a portrait. The age of Constantine marks the transition from the symbolical to the pseudo-historical picture. At this period Christ is represented in the midst of his disciples, or in the act of performing a miracle; but it is not till about the close of the 4th c. that that type of countenance is actually encountered, which, with certain modifications, continued to rule the conceptions of artists during the whole of the middle ages. To vindicate this type, myths, at a later period, sprang into existence; and we read of a portrait of C. possessed by King Abgarus of Edessa, and imprinted on a handkerchief, and of another miraculously obtained by St. Veronica at the crucifixion, but there is as little foundation for these legends as for that


which attributes to the evangelist Luke such a picture. The emperor Alexander Severus (230) is said to have possessed in his palace an image of Christ. An antique mosaic, probably of the 3d c., which exists in the Museo Christiano of the Vatican-where are also some specimens of the frescoes of the catacombs-gives an idea of the man ner in which the heathen artists expressed their notion of Christ. He is depicted as a bearded philosopher in profile. A letter which Lentulus, the predecessor of Pilate, is declared to have written to the Roman senate, but which is evidently apocryphal, attributes to Christ a figure and countenance of manly beauty. Toward the middle of the 8th c., John of Damascus gives a description which he pretends to have gathered from more ancient authors. According to him Christ was tall, had beautiful eyes, but the eyebrows meeting; a regular nose, flowing locks, a black beard, and a sandy or straw-colored complexion, like his mother. Among the most ancient representations of Christ which profess to be portraits are the two paintings in the Calixtine and Pontine catacombs near Rome, and which are given in Arighi's Roma Subterranea Nova. The Savior is there represented with an oval visage, a straight nose, arched eyebrows, and high forehead. The expres sion is earnest and mild; the hair is parted on the forehead and falls over the shoulders in waving locks; the beard is short and scattered. These two busts agree with the apocryphal letter of Lentulus, and the artist or artists who executed them may possibly have employed it as a model. The majority of the Byzantine and Italian painters, till the time of Michael Angelo and Raphael, adhered to this type.

CHRISTCHURCH, krist cherch: parliamentary and municipal borough and seaport on the English Channel in Hampshire, at the head of the estuary formed by the Avon and Stour, 24 m. s. w. of Southampton. Its bay has a double tide every 12 hours. C. has manufactures of fusee chains for clocks and watches, and of hosiery. It has also a salmon-fishery. It returns one member to parliament. The priory church, one of the most interesting and magnificent of English ecclesiastical structures, dates from the reign of William Rufus, and was restored, 1861. The borough comprises two favorite watering-places, Mudeford and Bournemouth. There are traces here of a Roman temple to Mars. Pop. of bor. 41,644.

CHRISTCHURCH: capital of the province of Canter. bury, New Zealand, on the river Avon, about 8 m. from the sea. Its port is Littleton, with which it is connected by a railway, and it has n. and s. railway communication. It is the centre of a great grazing district, and has also flourishing manufactories. There is a large export trade, chiefly in timber and wool. The city possesses numerous fine public buildings, churches, theatre, etc. Pop. (1891) 16.223; with suburbs, 47,846.

CHRIST-CHURCH, THE CATHEDRAL OF (Oxford). a great society which has had three distinct foundations In 1526 Cardinal Wolsey obtained from Clement VII. a


bull for the suppression of 22 monasteries, the site of one of which he selected as the site of a new college, to be called Cardinal College, and which he intended to endow on a scale of magnificence beyond that of any other foundation in Oxford. On the fall of Wolsey, 1529, the whole establishment came into the hands of King Henry VIII. In 1532 that prince refounded it under the name of King Henry VIII.'s College, and in 1546 he once more re-established the college under the name of Christ-Church Cathedral in Oxford, or the foundation of King Henry VIII., with a dean and eight canons, 60 students, 40 schoolboys, clerks, choristers,' etc. This foundation is now subsisting, though it has undergone considerable modifications. To none of the canonries were any duties assigned by King Henry VIII. From time to time, however, the canonries have been annexed to various university professorships, more particularly one to the professorship of divinity, by King James I.; one to the professorship of Hebrew by King Charles I.; and one to the professorships of ecclesiastical history and pastoral theology, respectively, by Queen Victoria.

Several changes were introduced by the commissioners appointed under 17 and 18 Vict. c. 81. There is now only one sinecure-enjoying canon. When he is removed from the list no one may hold a canonry save a professor, the archdeacon, or the sub-dean The studentships are now 80 in number. aud are, as before, divided into junior and senior studentships, differing considerably as to emolument. All these are now open, the old system of appointment by nomination having been abolished. About three junior students are elected every year in Lent term, one in every three for excellence in mathematics or physical science; and, besides these, three are sent up yearly from Westminster. The senior studentships are also open, with the usual limitation of independent income. Of these, however, only a third can be held by laymen. The studentships were very poor; but an improvement in this respect has been included among the recent changes. Some valuable exhibitions, however, and 90 benefices, are in the gift of the society. In 1881, there were about 1200 names on the college books. No statutes were given to C. because the death of the king took place shortly after the final foundation of the college. It was, in consequence, entirely governed by the orders of the dean and chapter, to the total exclusion of the tutors. To this separation of the governing from the teaching body, as well as to the small value of the studentships may be ascribed, in great measure, the inconsiderable degree of success in the schools, which, for many years past, brought no small discredit on this magnificent society.

CHRIST (or CRIS) CROSS ROW: the alphabet arranged in the form of a cross, for the use of children, and so printed in old horn' books, or primers. The letter A was at the top, and Z at the foot of the cross.

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CHRISTIAN II., kris'che-an or krist'yan, King of Den; mark, Norway, and Sweden: 1481, July. 2—1559, Jan. 28

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