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The C. of the seventh may be formed also on any of the potes of the major or minor scale taken as a bass note, which produces the varieties of major, minor, and dimin ished sevenths, thus:
Dominant 7th. Major 7th. Minor 7th. Diminished 7th.
The C. of the seventh admits of three inversions, according As the notes above the fundamental note are used as bass notes. From its nature, it requires a resolution, and is therefore always followed by a common C. whose fundamental bass is a fifth below that of the seventh. For the C. of the ninth, see HARMONY. The first proper arranged system of chords is by Rameau, 1720, which has from time to time been extended and improved by Marpurg, Kirenberger, G. Weber, F. Schneider, Marx, and the late Professor S. W. Dehn, of Berlin.
CHOREA, n. kō-re'á [Gr. choreia, a dance]: disease popularly called St. Vitus's Dance, consisting of a tendency to involuntary and irregular muscular contractions of the limbs and face, the mind and the functions of the brain generally being quite unaffected. The spasms of C. differ from those of most other convulsive affections in being unaccompanied either by pain or by rigidity; being, in fact, momentary jerking movements, indicating rather a want of control of the will over the muscles, than any real excess of their contractions. In some cases, the disease resembles merely an exaggeration of the restlessness and fidgetiness' common among children; in others, it goes so far as to be a very serious malady, and may even threaten life. Fatal cases, however, are very rare, and in the large majority of instances the disease yields readily to treatment carefully pursued, or disappears spontaneously as the patient grows up. C. is a disease much more common among children of six years old, and upward, than a any other period of life: it is more common also among female children than among males. The treatment generally is the use of metallic tonics, such as zinc, copper, iron, and arsenic (the last, perhaps, the best), sometimes preceded or accompanied by purgatives. Exercise in the open air is also recommended; and gymnastics afford material aid in the cure. It is to be observed that the name St. Vitus's Dance (Dance of St. Weit) was applied originally in Germany to a different form of disease from that above referred to-one closely approaching in its characters the epidemic dancing mania,' which, in Italy, was called Tarantism (q.v.).
CHOREPISCOPAL, a. kō'rě-pis kō-păl [Gr. chora, place, country; episkopos, bishop]: relating to a local or suffragan bishop.
CHOREPISCOPI, kō-rē-pis'ko-pi: suffragan or subordi nate bishops in the ancient church, having local and rural
furisdiction under the bishops of the cities to which their districts were attached. They could confirm, consecrate churches, and appoint readers and subdeacons; but could not ordain without license from their superiors, administer diocesan affairs, or meddle with city parishes. Originally intended to facilitate missionary work in the country (ie., heathen or pagan) parts, this office was so magnined by some of its occupants that it became a nuisance after the political establishment of the church. The council of Laodicea attacked it 360, and it had disappeared in the East before 500. In the West it was mainly suppressed by the 10th c., but lingered in some places till the 13th. It was nominally revived in England 1534, and really about 1870, by the creation of suffragan bishops of Dover, Bedford, Nottingham, and Colchester, under the Abp. of Canterbury and the bps. of London, Lincoln, and St. Alban's.
CHORIAMBUS, n. kō'ri-ăm'bus [Gr koreios, a trochee; iambos, an iambus]: a poetic foot consisting of four syllables -the first and fourth long, the second and third short; a trochee and an iambus united. CHO RIAM BIC, a. -bik, pertaining to.
CHORION, n. köri-on [Gr. chorion, skin]: the exterior membrane investing the foetus in the womb; in bot., a fluid pulp composing the nucleus of the ovule in its earliest stage. CHO ROID, n. -royd [Gr. eidos, form]: a membrane resembling the chorion; the vascular membrane or coat of the eye (q.v.).
CHORISIS, n. kor'i-sis [Gr. chorizo, I separate]: in bot., separation of a lamina from one part of an organ so as to form a scale or a doubling of the organ; also called deduplication.
CHORLEY, chaur le: town in Lancashire, England, on a hill on the Chor, 9 m. s.s.e. of Preston. It has an ancient parish church, supposed of Norman origin; and manufactures of cotton-yarn, jaconets, muslins, fancy goods, calicoes, and ginghams. In the vicinity are several coal-mines, a lead-mine, besides mines and quarries of iron, alum, slates, millstones, etc. Pop. (1891) 23,082.
CHORLEY, chaur, HENRY FOTHERGILL: 1808, Dec. 15-1872, Feb. 16; b. near Billinge, Lancashire, England. musical critic and author. He early forsook business in Liverpool for literature in London, and after the usual difficulties became musical editor of the Athenaum. This post he held 35 years. His vigorous advocacy opened the way for the production in London of Gounod's Faust. C. wrote many songs, the librettos of sundry operas, a few works of fiction, Conti the Discarded and other Tales (1835); Sketches of a Seaport Town (1835); Lion, a Tale of the Coteries (1839); and Pomfret (1845; each in three vols.; Memorials of Mrs. Hemans (2 vols., 1836); Religion and Morals of Genius; and in the sphere wherein he was most successful, Music and Manners in France and North Germany (3 vols., 1841); Modern German Music (2 vols., 1854); and Thirty Years' Musical Recollections (2 vols., 1862). He died in London.
His Autobiography, Memoirs, and Letters were edited by H. G. Hewlett (2 vols., 1873).
CHOROGRAPHY, n. kō-rogʻră-fi [Gr. chūros, a place or country; graphe, a writing]: the description of a region or country with a map of it. CHOROG RAPHER, n. ru-fer, one who describes a particular region or district and makes a map of it. Note.-Topography enters into minute details; geography refers to the whole earth, or a part of it in relation to the whole.
CHOROID, n.: see under CHORION.
CHOROSIS: a wrong spelling of CHORISIS.
CHORUS [see CHOIR]: among the ancients, a band of singers and dancers employed on festive occasions of great pomp, also in the performance of tragedy and comedy on the stage. In the time of the Attic tragedy, the C. consisted of a group of persons, male and female, who remained on the stage during the whole performance as spectators, or rather as witnesses. When a pause took place in the acting, the C. either sang or spoke verses having reference to the subject represented, which served to increase the impression produced by the performers. At times the C. seemed to take part with or against the persons in the drama, by advice, comfort, exhortation, or dissuasion. In early times, the C. was very large, sometimes consisting of upward of 50 persons, but afterward it was much reduced. Its leader was termed the coryphæus. The charge of organizing it was considered a great honor among the citizens of Athens. The person appointed for this purpose was called the choragus (q.v.) The honor was very expensive, as the choragus had to pay all the expenses incurred in training the members of the C. to perform their parts efficiently. They were, beside, fed and lodged by him during training-time, and he had also to provide for them masks and dresses. At times, the C. was divided, and spoke or sang antiphonally. These divisions moved from side to side of the stage, from which movement originated the naming of the single songs or stanzas, such as strophe, antistrophe, and epode. How the musical element of the ancient C. was constituted or composed, is not known with certainty. Possibly, it was only a kind of rhythmical declamation, and doubtless very simple. It was accompanied by flutes in unison. With the decline of the ancient tragedy, the C. also fell into disuse; and only lately has there been an attempt to produce the same on the stage in the manner of the ancients, as, for example, in Schiller's Bride of Messina. The music which has been set in modern times to some of the Greek tragedies, does not give the least idea of the original music.
In modern times, by C. is understood the union of singers or musicians for the joint performance of a musicai work.
C is the name also of a musical composition for numerous voices, either with or without accompaniment, and intended to express the united feelings of a multitude. The musical C. is the only artistic means by which a simultane
ous movement or sentiment of a multitude can be represented in the drama, the language or text being always of a simple rhythm, permitting only of a limited movement suited to the combination of a multitude. It is, however, not always necessary that every part of the C. should manifest the same feeling or sentiment. Two or more parts of the C. may act against each other, as suits the purport of the drama. Double, triple, and quadruple choruses are found in the old Italian compositions for the church. In modern times, the C. is much used, and with great effect, in operas, especially those of Meyerbeer and Wagner. In the oratorio, the C. is of the greatest importance, and the numbers now employed to sing the C. far exceed anything attempted a century ago; but this is not always an advantage, for the tempi must necessarily be taken much more slowly, which has a sluggish effect; while increase in the mere number of voices does not always produce a greater power of sound. The C. of 35 well-trained voices from the pope's chapel, who sang at the coronation of Napoleon I., in the cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, produced a far greater and more wonderful effect when they entered singing the Tu es Petrus, than another C. of hundreds of voices, and 80 harps, that had been assembled and trained for the same occasion, in expectation of surpassing all that man could imagine. The greater the number, the greater is the difficulty in obtaining unity.
C., in organ-building, is the name given to stops of the mixture species, some of which contain 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or more pipes to each note, tuned at consonant intervals in relation to the fundamental stops.
CHOSE, n. shōz [F. chose, a thing-from mid. L. causa, a cause, a thing: It. cosa]: in law, a thing; a matter; movable property; a fixture on a property; in the law of England, that kind of property which consists not in possession of a thing, but in the legal right to possess it. As this right can, in general, be vindicated and made available only by means of an action, the property to which it relates, whether real or personal, is called a thing (res or chose) in action, to distinguish it from a thing already in possession. Money due upon bonds and bills, goods bought and not yet delivered, are examples of choses in action, as is also the right to compensation for damage occasioned by breach of contract. In England, by the strict rule of the ancient common law, no chose in action could be assigned or granted over, because it was thought to be a great encouragement to litigiousness, if a man were allowed to make over to a stranger his right of going to law. [See CHAMPERTY.] But this nicety is now not so far regarded as to render such a transaction really ineffectual. It is, on the contrary, in substance, a valid and constant practice; though, in compliance with the ancient principle, the form of assigning a chose in action is in the nature of a declaration of trust, and an agreement to permit the assignee to make use of the name of the assigner, in order to recover possession. . . . The king is an exception to this general rule, for he might always either
grant or receive a chose in action by assignment; and our courts of equity, making the rule itself give way to the expediency, in a commercial point of view, of facilitating the transfer of property, allow the assignment of a chose in action as freely and directly as the law does that of a chose in possession.'-Stephen's Commentaries, ii. p. 45. One would imagine that the more convenient and philosophical arrangement would be, by the interposition of the legis lature, to make law conform at once to equity and expediency. This change has been made in many states of the Union, so that an assigner of a C. in A. has now the right to sue in his own name, as though he were a king in England: such an assigner must meet all defenses which might have been interposed to an action brought by the original
CHOSEN and CHOSE: see under CHOOSE.
CHOSROES: see KHOSRU.
CHOTA NAGPORE, chổ tú nág por, or CHUTIA NAGPUR, or NAGPORE THE LESS: one of the lower provinces of Bengal, containing five British collectorates; besides seven tributary minor states, forming the s.w. frontier agency. Area of the British divisions, 26,966 sq. m.; of the remainder, abt. 17.000 m. more. The inhabitants are chiefly aboriginal tribes little removed from barbarians. The country is for the most part wild and hilly, consisting of an undulating plateau 3,000 ft. above the sea. Its chief products are coal, jute, tea, and indigo; iron also is found. From the elevation of the tract, the temperature varies considerably, ranging in winter from 32 to 62, and in summer from 78° to 98°. Pop. (1881) 4,225,989; (1891) 4,645,590.
CHOTYN, chō-tën', or KHOTIN, chō-tën', or CHOCZIM, cho'chim: town of Bessarabia, on the s.w. frontier of Russia, on the right bank of the Dniester, 110 m. n.n.w. of Jassy, abt. 20 m. s.w. of Kamienic. Its position made it long a bone of contention; it was fortified for the Turks by French engineers, 1718; taken by the Poles or Russians, 1730, '69, '88; and ceded to Russia, 1812. It is still a military post, with some trade in army supplies. Pop. abt. 21,000.
CHOUANS, sho-ong: bands of insurgent Royalists. who, during the French Revolution, organized a reaction ary movement in Brittany. They obtained their name from ther leader, Jean Cottereau. This person, who had been a smuggler, went by the name of Chouan-a corruption, it is said, of chat-huant (screech-owl')-because, while he and his accomplices were engaged in their nocturnal work, they were wont to be warned of their danger by some one on the watch imitating the cry of this bird. At the period of the revolt, however, he followed the humble occupation of a clog-maker. The first indications of an anti-revolutionary spirit in Brittany manifested themselves in the beginning of 1791, when several trees of liberty were destroyed at night, and other more serious outrages committed. These disturbances were fomented by seditious priests. In 1792, an insurrection was planned by the