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CIVITA CASTELLANA-CIVITA SAN-ANGELO. ical assessments exacted from office-holders by members of congress or office-holders are forbidden, habitual drunkards are excluded, and penalties are provided for violations of the act. Under this act, the commission has organized boards of examiners and held frequent examinations of a practical character. There are two grades of examination for clerkships-the general examinations and the limited examinations, the latter being of lower grade. These qualify for clerkships in any department; there are also special and supplementary examinations for positions requiring special training or acquirements. Except in the case of honorably-discharged soldiers and sailors applicants must not be younger than 18 nor older than 45 (in the classified postal service, 35). On request from an appointing officer, the commission or examining board certifies to him four names from those graded highest in the examination, and he appoints one of the four, for six months' probation. Records of each case are kept. In 1887 the practice of making promotions on examination, with due regard to efficiency already shown, was adopted in the war depart


In 1884, New York passed a civil-service act, providing similar safeguards respecting appointments of officials of the state and of the cities. In the same year Massachusetts adopted the merit system,' likewise providing certain practical tests in the case even of laborers. In N. Y. over 15,000 places are included under the operations of the act; in Mass. nearly 6,000.

While the attempted reform cannot, especially in the U. S. civil service, be yet deemed successful, it is a hopeful sign that public attention has been called to the subject.

CIVITA CASTELLANA, chẽ vẽ-tá kás-těl-lá ná: town of central Italy, about 30 m. n.e. of Rome, on a plateau of volcanic tufa above the Rio Maggiore. It is notable for its vast number of Etruscan remains. It occupies a site of the ancient Falerium Vetus, one of the 12 cities of the Etruscan League; and Falerii Novi, of which also there are many remains, stood about 4 m. n. of C. C. Pop. of C. C. 4,500.

CIVITA DI PENNÉ, che vě-tá dě pěn'nā: town of s. Italy, province of Teramo, on a commanding hill about 20 m. s.e. of Teramo. It is an ancient place, having, under the name of Pinna, been the chief city of the Vestini; and some remains are still found here. The modern town, though containing some fine edifices, including the cathedral, is in general badly built. C. di P. is noted for its manufactory of silk-flowers. Pop. 4,800.

CIVITANOVA, chữ vi-t-nó t: town of central Italy, province of Macerata, 12 m. w. of the town of Macerata. It is an industrial and commercial city, not far from the Adriatic, and has a fine harbor, much frequented. Its lands produce vines, olives, and pasturage. Pop., including the port, 7,000.

CIVITA SAN ANGELO, chỉ từ-tu sin-an-ji-lo: town of s. Italy, province of Teramo, near the Adriatic, about 25 m. s.e. of Teramo. It has an active trade. Pop. 3,000.


CIVITA VECCHIA, chẽ vẽ-tá věk’kè-á: Italian city, prov ince of Rome; on the Mediterranean, lat. 42° 4′ n., long. 11° 45′ e. Its ancient name was Centum Cellæ. The harbor of C. V. is one of the best in Italy, and was constructed by the emperor Trajan; the town, indeed, owed its origin entirely to the port of this emperor, and hence it was known also as Portus Trajani. The harbor is formed by two artificial moles projecting into the sea, while a third, constructed between the two, serves to protect the harbor from the heavy sea; upon this third and outward mole there is a good light-house, some 80 ft. above the sea. Within the port there is a small dock and an arsenal. The town of C. V. is small, and has no buildings of any note except a large church in the principal street. The streets.. are ill paved and narrow, and the inhabitants poor. It is a free port, and is regularly visited by steam-packets from Marseilles, Leghorn, Naples, Genoa, Messina, and Malta; while the majority of travellers visiting Rome land here. It is famous among the modern Italians for its oysters, which are extremely small, but delicious to the taste. Pop. (1887) 12,000.

CIVITELLA DEL TRONTO, chè-vě-těl lá děl tron to: town of s. Italy, province of Teramo, 10 m. n. of Teramo. It is on a rock, and is fortified and defended by a strong castle. C. del T. is historically interesting as the place where, 1053, Robert Guiscard and his Normans gained a complete victory over the forces of Pope Leo IX. and the emperor Henry III. of Germany; and also for the siege it sustained in 1557 against the French and papal army under the Duke of Guise, who was finally forced to retreat.

CLABBER, n. klúb’ber: milk which has become curdled; called also Bonny-clubber.

CLACHAN, n. klák'un [Gael. clachan, a circle of stones, stones]: in Scot., properly a village in which there is a church or place of worship; a hamlet.

CLACK, v. klák [F. claquer, to flap or clap: Icel. klak, a certain noise of the domestic fowl; klaka, to twitter as a swallow: Dut. klak, a crack; klacken, to strike, to smack]: to make a sharp noise suddenly; to talk incessantly: N. a sharp continued noise; the valve of a pump-piston; one of the valves in a locomotive or other steam engine. CLACK ER, n, one who or that which clacks. CLACK'ING, imp. CLACKED, pp. kläkt. CLACK-DISH, the beggar's dish or box with a lid, which they formerly rattled in order to

attract attention.

CLACKMANNAN, klik-mặn nạn : county town of Clackmannanshire, in the s. part of the county, on the Devon, near its confluence with the Forth, 9 m. e. of Stirling. It lies on ground rising 190 ft. above the rich carse-land of the plain of the Forth, which is rich also in coal, iron, and limestone. C. was formerly s roya burgh, and is mentioned as such in the acts of parliament of James V. 1540 and 43. From a bull of Pope Celestine III., 1195, it appears that at this early date the church and its chapels, with 40 acres of land, be


longed to the Abbey of Cambuskenneth. In 1330, King David Bruce resided at Clackmannan. In 1358-9, King David II. confirmed to Sir Robert de Bruce the castle and barony of C., with the lands of Kennet and others; and from that period to the present, the Bruces have been proprietors in this parish. Pop. about 2,000.

CLACKMANNANSHIRE, klăk-min nan-sher: smallest county of Scotland, bounded n. and w. by Perthshire and the Ochil Hills; e. by Perthshire and Fifeshire; s. by the Forth, separating it from Stirlingshire. It greatest length is 10 m.; area, 48 sq. m It consists chiefly of the valley of the North Devon, gently declining from the green Ochil Hills to the Forth. The Ochils consist of trap, especially amygdaloid, claystone, porphyry, and greenstone, and rise in Bencleugh (properly, Benclach), 2,352 ft., and Dunmyat, or Demyat, 1,345. A ridge of high ground, with inferior soil, often resting on clay, runs w. through the middle of C., between the very fertile alluvial lands resting on the coal-measures in the s., and the the North Devon valley in the n., where the soil is loamy, and rest on gravel, and also on the coal-measures, which extend to the base of the Ochils. The chief minerals are ironstone, sandstone, greenstone, coal, limestone, silver, copper, antimony. The chief rivers are the North Devon rising in the s. of Perthshire, and the Black Devon rising in the s.w. of Fifeshire; both run w. across C. into the Forth. The river Forth is navigable for vessels of 500 tons up to Alloa, at which port ships of 700 tons register have been built. The chief crops are wheat, barley, and oats. The number of acres in C., under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass, in 1881, was 15,758; under corn crops, 5,899; under green crops, 1,463; clover, sanfoin, and grasses in rotation, 3,569; permanent pasture and meadow land, 4,546. The Hillfoots' have long been celebrated for their woolen manufactures, chiefly in Tartan shawls and plaids, and have become favorably known in the production of tweeds. The district is famed likewise for its ale, there being seven breweries in the county. There are also extensive distilleries. There are manufactures of green-glass bottles, earthenware, bricks and tiles, also timber trade and ship-building. The chief exports are iron and coal. The columnar greenstone of Abbey Craig, near Stirling, has come into use for grinding flour, which it does nearly as well as the French burrstones. C. contains four parishes. The chief towns are Clackmannan, the county town; Alloa, the most important place; and Dollar, noted for its endowed educational eseablishment. C., with Kinross-shire, returns one member to parliament; but the county occupies the anomalous position of having parishes within its circumference politically -Alva in Stirlingshire, and Tulliallan and Culross in Perthshire-which it does not embrace judicially. In C. have been found Roman stone coffins, sepulchral vases, and old Roman coins. The Marquis of Montrose, 1645, burned Castle Campbell, now a noble ruin situated on a wild but easily accessible eminence, on the brow of a hill immediately behind Dollar. In C., George Meikle constructed,


1787, the first effective thrashing-machine in Scotland Pop. (1871) 23,747; (1881) 25,680; (1891) 28,433.

CLAD, v. klūd [see CLOTH]. CLAD, applied to sheep that have not been shorn.

CLADANTHI, n. plu. klă-dăn thì [Gr. klados, a tender branch, a twig; anthos, a flower]: in bot., flowers which terminate a lateral branch in mosses.

CLADENCHYMA, n. plu. klǎ-děn ki-mă [Gr. klados, a tender branch; eng chuma, an infusion]: in bot., tissue composed of branching cells, as in some hairs.

CLADIUM, klä diům [Gr. clados, a branch or twig]: genus of plants of the nat. ord. Cyperaceœ, of which one species, C. Mariscus is a native of Britain, particularly common in the bogs and fens of Cambridgeshire, where hundreds of acres are almost entirely covered with it. It is 3-5 ft. high, with a rounded, leafy stem, the keel and margins of the leaves rough and almost prickly. It is consequently hurtful to cattle. It is used for thatching, and in Cambridgeshire also for lighting fires. The English name twig rush has been given to it, but is only of recent invention.

CLADODIUM, n. klù-dö'dium [Gr. klados, a tender branch]: in bot, a plant that has flattened, leaf-like branches, as in the butcher's broom and some cacti.

CLAGGETT, klág ět, THOMAS JOHN, D.D.: 1742, Oct. 2 —1816, Aug. 2; b. White's Landing, Prince George co., Md.; first bishop of the Episc. Church in Md., and the first consecrated in America. He graduated at Princeton 1762, received orders in England 1767, and was rector in Calvert co., and Anne Arundel co., retiring to his estate during the early years of the revolution. He was consecrated at New York 1792, Sep. 17, Bp. Seabury joining, thus linking the Scottish with the Anglican succession. He was chaplain to the United States senate when it first met at Washington, 1800. He died at Croom, Md.

CLAIM, v. klām [OF. clamer, or claimer, to cry out, to call for-from L. clamo, I cry out: Dan. klemte, to toll: Gael. glam, to bawl-lit., to shout out one's title or right]: to seek or demand as a right; to demand as due; to assert; to have a right or title to: N. a demand as of right; a right or title to anything; the thing claimed. CLAIM ING, imp. CLAIMED, pp. klämd. CLAIM ANT, n. -ant, one who demands anything as his right. CLAIM'ABLE, a. -ŭ-bl. CLAMANT, a. klå månt, crying loudly; that loudly calls for immediate attention or redress. SYN. of claim, n.': demand; right; pretension; privilege; prerogative.

CLAIM, in Law: assertion of a right in anything that is in the possession of another, or at least out of the claimant's possession. Claims are either verbal or by action, and relate either to lands or to goods and chattels, their object being generally to preserve a title which otherwise would be in danger of being lost.


CLAIM OF LIBERTY, in English Law: suit or petition to the queen in the court of exchequer, to have liberties and franchises confirmed there by the attorney-general (Tomlins' Law Dic.).

CLAIMS, COURT OF: tribunal for settlement of private claims against the United States. Until 1854. all private claims against the govt. of the United States had to take the form of petitions to congress. Such petitions accumu lated in great numbers, and it was felt to be impossible for congress, burdened with public affairs, to give adequate attention to the investigation and adjudication of these claims. Accordingly in December of that year a bill was introduced establishing a commission for the examination and adjustment of such claims. Instead of this, an act was passed, 1855, Feb., erecting a permanent and independent court for the purpose. This court was to consist of three judges, and was in each case to report to congress its opinions, with the reasons and evidence on which they were founded. The mass of business was very great, and the practice of reference to congress resulted in a rehearing of the case by the committee on claims, and defeated the intention of economizing time. Accordingly, in 1863, two judges were added to the court, and reference to congress abolished. An appeal by either party to the supreme court was allowed in cases involving more than $3,000, and by the defendants in other cases.

The jurisdiction of the court extends to all claims founded upon any law of congress or upon any regulation of an executive department, or upon any express or implied contract with the United States government, and to all claims which may be referred to it by either house of congress; to all counter-claims or other demands on the part of the government against any claimant; and to all claims of disbursing officers for relief from responsibility on account of losses of government property in their custody. A six-years' limitation upon claims has been imposed by statute. Aliens, whose government accords to citizens of the United States the privilege of prosecuting claims against it in its courts, may prosecute claims against the United States in this court. Congress has from time to time given the court jurisdiction, for a limited period, over particular cases or classes of cases. The number of cases against the United States in this court 1855-85 was 14,602. The amount of the claims brought before it 1867-85 was $97,210,401, the aggregate amount recovered in that period $21,828,845. In addition to its work in deciding cases provision was made by an act of 1883, called the 'Bowman Act,' that when any claim or matter is pending before either house of congress which involves the investigation and determination of facts, it may be transmitted to the court of C. for hearing; the findings of fact are then reported. The same act also authorizes the head of any executive department to transmit to the court any claim or matter involving controverted questions of fact or law, and to obtain the opinion of the court thereon. The court sits in Washington, in the same building with the department

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