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HISTORY IN THE GRADES.
ELLWOOD W. KEMP.
The fifth grade, having shown the Teuton well in the stream and as both giving to and receiving from it, the sixth should follow him on as he builds western Europe socially, religiously, politically, industrially and educationally, say from about one thousand down to the time when Europe, in her bursting thought, needs new fields in which to sow her seed and begins to sow in the tobacco fields of Virginia and on the rock-ribbed hills of Massachusetts.
The work done on the Monastery in the fifth, with its reverence for saints, relics and holy places, naturally leads to the great opening movement of the sixththe Crusades in which Europe, stirred from circumference to center, and with one common impulse as never before, travels back over the path already viewed in the course of the previous grades. The influence of these two hundred years of Crusade travel with its sense and superstition, its tolerance and intolerance, its suffering and sympathy, its enlargement of geographical knowledge, its growth of commerce, its development of free city life, its elbowing against the classical remains of Greece and Rome, naturally leads to the next great movement by which Europe went enthusiastically back and brought up the classical life of beauty developed in Greece and Rome-the Renaissance. Go book-hunting and arthunting throughout all the nooks and corners, and musty closets and cellars and garrets of Europe, and rejoice at the finding of some worm-eaten copy of Virgil or some broken statue of Greek art, and thus live with this Teuton as he now comes into his first consuming passion for beauty, and desires to leave the narrow life of the monastery and look out over the full stream of humanity. This was Europe passing from youth into independent manhood; lifting its eye from the cramped ceiling of the monastic cell literally to the mountain peak and the heav
In this movement science was born, the university began to arise, gunpowder
came to strengthen ultimately the muscle of the common man, the printing press weakened the grip of the pulpit, but strengthened free discussion in the parliament-the new man, the full man, the true man, was being born. Thus through the study of Crusade, and Renaissance, and invention of gunpowder, and ray-paper, and printing press, and by the rise of the English Parliament must the sixth grade pupil see western Europe reach out. its arms, some stronger and more authoritative than others, across the Atlantic, and bid the waves be still while they cross
The seventh grade will cross over with these several streams of European thought -the Spanish, the French, the English; get acquainted with the cargo and the men; see whether any books are brought over, any printing presses; hear the Spanish talk of gold, the French of land, furs and fish, and take a hand with English in working out the Mayflower compact. Wander round the Gulf of Mexico into Mexico and down into South America through the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with the Spaniard, convert the Indians, enslave them in the mines, plunder them, send the bags of gold to Spain; do not set up printing presses or free schools, or township, or county, or State government in which the people rule themselves. Likewise throughout the seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth centuries roam through the woods with the French and fish and hunt and trap and trade with Indians from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, and dream the dream of an imperial France in the New World after the model of Louis XIV (I am the state). Then follow the English slowly backward and westward from the Atlan-, tic to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains through the seventeenth and first three-quarters of the eighteenth centuries -a growth slow but all the more strong therefor. See the township spring up in the North, the county in the South-see
the growth of popular government in township and county and colonial Legislature, plant the religious roots up and down the Atlantic coast plain. Congregational, Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Episcopalian, Quaker, Huguenot, Catholic, and see these freely spread westward till the Constitution's guarantees perfect freedom of religious faith. Watch the growth of schools, of books, of the printing press. These facts and forces properly interpreted will help the seventh grade child to see which one-Spain, France, or England-was bearing into the New World the great thoughts borne down from all the past ages which were calling aloud for the new, true and free man. These facts will interpret the fall of France at Quebec, the fall of George III at Yorktown, the Constitutional convention at Philadelphia. With this race between France, Spain and England at an end, and with the great principles of all the past the idea of personal liberty given by the Teuton secured in our local government; the idea of strong central government secured in our own strong center by the genius of Hamilton, Madison, Franklin, Washington and Jay; the idea of culture and art given by Greece gradually making way throughout the liberal growth of schools, books and printing press, and the great truths of Christianity secured through the guarantee of perfect religious freedom-with all these secured in our life and in our written Constitution and felt by the pupil, the work of the seventh grade closes.
The eighth grade should then study the Constitution carefully and constantly and follow this on-going stream as it spreads out over the vast Mississippi valley, ever deepening and gathering force as it swept westward. Here again the Teuton fights the battle with the wilderness, just as he had to do at the opening of the fifth grade. But whereas one took five hundred years to conquer the rude forces, the other was done in fifty. He conquered in the fifth grade with the monastery and the feudal castle; he conquers in the eighth grade with the free school, the free press, the free forum. And thus he follows the stream westward as it hastens its move
ment by the application of steam to boat, and car, and press, and plow, and hammer; and in this great Mississippi valleythe core of the continent,what Humboldt called the noblest valley in the worldhe sees spread the fairest field for the choicest seeds of liberty ripened through all the ages. And then the real question of the eighth grade work comes upon him in all its power: Shall the great, noble valley be free? Gradually back from Jamestown into Alabama and Mississippi and Louisiana and Missouri and Arkansas and Texas had stealthily stolen a stream of thought and life that was demanding that the core of the continent be dedicated to slavery. To have done so would have been to turn back the clock of time for a thousand years. It would have been to return to the darkness of the dark ages -to the idea of wealth, and education, and comfort and hope for the few-toil and misery for the many.
With this before him in all its meaning, the pupil is able to appreciate what the stream of history means and what a great worker it is; what a really great man isone who can look down the current of human life from its beginning to the present and by correctly judging the course and method of all its past movement can set his hand to the rudder and steer the ship when it would otherwise dash itself upon the rocks.
Such were Grant and Lincoln-both great in war, great in peace and great in the hearts of humanity, because they served not merely country, but humanity. And thus, as it seems to me, the field for the eighth grade is mainly from Washington to Lincoln, from the Appalachian Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from the formation of the Constitution to the complete and unquestionable formation of the Union-an indestructible Union made up of indestructible States, securing perfect religious freedom and encouraging in every way perfect social, educational, political and industrial equality of opportunity.
Such in general outline is the course I suggest for the grades. I have not had time to go into detail either as to matter or method. What I would advocate is that
the course should be a systematic effort from beginning to end to assist pupils to see and feel and live through some of the great things which the best of the race in the past ages have experienced and expressed in institutions. I would use story and biography and picture and poem and map and pencil and brush wherever I could do so very much in the primarysomewhat less perhaps as we advanced in the grades, but I would never lose sight. of the fact that these are but a means to an end—and that end is a sympathetic touch with institutional life in its unfolding.
I have not time to speak in detail of what ought to be the results following from such a course in history. It will lengthen, broaden and deepen the pupil's view of human life. It will teach him that no people nor age nor religion nor government nor social organization has based its life wholly on truth nor yet. wholly on error; toleration, sympathy, interest in all forms of human endeavor will slowly ripen in the pupil's mind. He will better see and appreciate the true position of his own country in guiding and enlarging the stream of human liberty. It will make him less a bigot, less a partisan but more truly a patriot. In short, it will make of the pupil an all round richly developed man; become more fully the "heir of all the ages."
Can this course be made practicable? Will it work in the schools? In thousands
of schools in Indiana it is already working. In the past six years it has been making steady progress throughout both graded and district schools, till now threefourths of our fourteen thousand school teachers are catching the spirit of the work and beginning to work out the
We had had fifty years of the old way of starting on United States History in seventh grade and literally or practically memorizing the book, using no reference books, no maps, no illustrative material or methods of any kind, until about six years ago. We can not expect an absolute revolution to come about in this field in a year any more than in others. Rome was not built in a day. But the work throughout Indiana is growing and growing well. Intelligent authorities, from the State Superintendent to the city or county superintendents, and all the way down to the district school teacher, are giving intelligent and noble service in the movement.
THE VICTORIAN AGE OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
ARTHUR B. MILFORD.
In the consideration of the Victorian era of English literature, there are several special difficulties. One is that we are not far enough from many subjects to see them properly and to place them in their true relations; another is the vastness of the field. The period has often been called the age of diffusion. The reign of Victoria is not only the longest in English history, but steam and electricity have also imparted their speed and strength to the development of civilization during
these sixty-two years. Greater changes in nearly every domain of thought and action have taken place than in any other period in the eventful history of the silver-coasted isle. It was in 1837, the year of Victoria's coronation, that the first trim across the Atlantic was made by steam, and in the same year the use of electricity for practical telegraphy was brought about by the inventions of Morse. Who can estimate the influences of these two mighty forces? The printing press. the
mariner's compass, and gunpowder dispelled the darkness of the Middle Ages and ushered in the glorious outburst of the Elizabethan age. Steam and electricity are transforming the earth. They have wrought miracles, and are still working wonders beyond the wit of man to comprehend or to predict.
When we turn to the literature of this period we find the most significant characteristic is the change of public interest from poetry to prose. Shall we account for this by calling it a reaction, the trough of the wave upon whose crest in the first quarter of the century we behold Byron, Shelley, Keats, Coleridge and Wordsworth? It would be hard indeed to sustain the excellence shown by the poets at the opening of the century, but that is not the reason for this change. Our age is practical and not poetical. We seek literature. mainly for amusement, to relieve the mind from its strain. Poetry does not appeal to the masses in England or America. There is no school of poetry, and even the one or two great poets of the last fifty years who have recently passed away, Robert Browning in 1889, and Lord Tennyson in 1892, did not exert the influence great poets used to exert, even in the so-called critical period of Queen Anne. Earnest effort, sincere search for satisfying views of life, a yearning after spirituality—all these are evident in the literature of the age, yet there has been only one triumphant voice ringing out clear and loud in Englandthat of Robert Browning, and one voicethat of Emerson, in America. Look at Carlyle, and Ruskin, and Matthew Arnold in the realm of criticism. what Titanic rage and Scotch intensity Carlyle attacks his contemporaries! How ineffectual to Ruskin have seemed his earnest pleadings for the higher life amid the narrowing tendencies of England! How despondent is the spirit of Matthew Arnold! At times it is almost a note of despair. We are bidden "to fly from this strange disease of modern life, its sick hurry, its heads o'ertasked, its palsied hearts-" An able critic remarks: "When I come to ask what
Mr. Arnold's poetry has done for this generation the answer must be that no one has expresssed more powerfully and poetically its spiritual weakness, its craving for a passion that it can not feel, its admiration for a self mastery that it can not achieve, its desire for a creed that it fails to accept, its sympathy with a faith that it will not share, its aspiration for a peace that it does not know."
No louder voice among Victorian writers has been heard than that of Thomas Carlyle. "Wild, pantheistic rant" his writings have been termed.. His influence, however, can not be denied. The results are too great. He had a mighty personality, so great that it colors all he wrote. It is harder to reach an achromatic view of him than of any author of the age. He was a sublime denouncer of the evils of his day; a worshipper of force, and of great men rather than of the people. He resembles at times the Hebrew prophets in his righteous indignation. Yet greater results may certainly be accomplished by showing the beauty of holiness, by being optimistic, like Emerson, than by painting the hideousness of sin. Carlyle's extravagant writings may be forgiven in the light of the good they have accomplished. It was only by cruel blows with his bludgeon that he could beat his views into the men of his day, and could show where "money bags, hubbub, and ugliness" were leading them. He is the Victorian Elijah.
The early years of Victoria's reign show no author of wider influence in the field of literature and theology than Cardinal Newman. He was not led to denounce his age in bitter terms as Carlyle, but was gradually forced back upon the historical foundation of his faith. He sought authority for the power so zealously asserted, and he did not rest until in 1845 he took refuge within the church of Rome. This is not to be wondered at, for it was as natural for him to believe as for others to doubt. The scientist demands that we should understand in order to believe, but in the higher realm of the spirit we are asked to believe that we may understand. Despite his conversion to Catholicism and the consequent loss of influence
over most of his English readers, Cardinal Newman must be ranked with Carlyle, Ruskin, and our own Emerson as one of the greatest prose writers in the greatest age of prose in English literature. That such authors as Cardinal Newman, who wrote the wonderful hymn "Lead, kindly light, amid the encircling gloom," and Matthew Arnold, who has written poetry which ranks him next to Tennyson and Browning, should abandon poetry, and devote their lives to the writing of prose is certainly significant. The technique of Victorian poetry is good, but the high spirit of inspiration is lacking. As to our poetry in general, we have specimens of the most elaborate workmanship, as in Tennyson, yet lacking in depth and originality, and poems of great originality and profundity as in Robert Browning, yet crude in expression. The bird-like note of spontaneity, the fine careless rapture of the early years of our century is lacking. For example, you may search through Stedman's Victorian Anthology, and Palgrave's second series of the Golden Treasury of Lyric Poetry, the most recent and most representative volumes of the poetry of our age, and if your search be for a poem coming from the very heart of nature herself, as Shelley's Ode to the Skylark, your search will be in vain. At first one might think that the temptation to win sudden renown by contributing to the popular magazines and newspapers would account for lack of merit in the poetry of the age, but it is not so. A great amount of time and conscientious effort has been expended on poetry, and the amount produced is great, but our poets do not sing to appreciative ears. They are not encouraged and stimulated to higher flights. They appeal to cold hearts, to calculating minds and to deadened ears. Calliope, the name among the Greeks for the muse of poetry and eloquence, has been given by us to the steam piano. It is the steam whistle and the whirr of factory wheels. which make the only sweet music to the ears of most of the money-making men of the present age, and the laws of compensation apply here. Nature says to us in the language of Emerson, "the world is all before you; children, take what you want;
but pay the price for it." The question becomes a practical one. Put in a practical way which we are well qualified to understand, are we not paying too great a price for the things in which we so much pride ourselves? Let us hope our eyes may be speedily opened that we may see things as they really are.
Changes have taken place so rapidly, and we have progressed at such a rate that we have grown impatient with what is old. Innovation is almost a ruling passion. Often we are led to give up the old too soon, and to welcome ardently plans which prove not to have been sufficiently wrought out. Good things are condemned because they are old, and new things are praised because they are the latest while often they are not superior nor are they the equal of the old. So far as literature is concerned such experiments are not fraught with dangers. We have had artistic fads in the Victorian era. They have been tried by time, and conclusively and speedily relegated to their proper places. Hereafter it will be only the special student of literature who will care to enter into more than a casual reading of the aesthetical school of poets or the works of the Symbolists or Impressionists. So also the extreme realists will doubtless prove in the future but "idle singers of an empty day." All such attempts prove the lack of genuine inspiration. Sometimes the innovators become too bold and the outcry against works such as those of the Naturalistic school is irrepressible. Yet denunciation avails little. Some readers are led through curiosity to read the works so condemned. Any recognition of them is more than they deserve. It is fortunate that the prominence of such works is short. Our literature in general grows cleaner and purer every day—a progress which is due to the development in public taste, for we have no other censorship of the press. The purity of Victorian poetry and prose is one of the great features for which it should be praised. In true literature the element of novelty, mighty and attractive as it is in the periodical, has no legitimate place. What is older than Homer, yet what is more genuinely new? Dante, Ga