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JOSS BURNERS. 73

respectable mandarins of genteel families, they had confined their search to such temples as were in good repair and of creditable exterior. Outside the north gate of the imperial city was one old, dilapidated, disreputable shrine which they had overlooked. It had been crumbling away for years, and even the dread figure of the God of Fire, which sat above the altar, had not escaped desecration. ‘Time had thinned his flowing locks,’ and the beard had fallen away altogether. One day some water-carriers who frequented the locality thought, either in charity or by way of a joke, that the face would look the better for a new beard. So they unravelled some cord, and with the frayedout hemp adorned the beardless chin. An official passing the temple one day peeped in out of curiosity, and saw the hempen beard. “Just the thing the Emperor was inquiring about,' said he to himself, and he took the news to the palace without delay. Next day there was a state visit to the dilapidated temple, and Kien Lung made obeisance and vowed a vow. “O Fire-god,” said he, ‘thou hast been wroth with me in that I have built me palaces, and left thy shrine unhonoured and in ruins. Here do I vow to build thee a temple surpassed by none other of the Fire-gods in Peking; but I shall expect thee in future not to meddle with my palaces.’ “The Emperor was as good as his word. The new temple is on the site of the old one, and the Fire-god has a flowing beard of fine white hair.’ In the San Francisco Bulletin, I recently read a description of the celebration by the Chinese in that city of their Feast for the Dead, in which there are some significant features. The chief attention was paid, says the reporter, to a figure “representing what answers in their theology to our devil, and whom they evidently

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think it necessary to propitiate before proceeding with
their worship over individual graves.'. This figure is on
the west side of their temple; before and around it candles
and joss-sticks were kept burning. On the east side was
the better-looking figure, to which they paid comparatively
little attention.
It was of course but natural that the demons of fire
should gradually be dispelled from that element in its
normal aspects, as its uses became more important through
human invention, and its evil possibilities were mastered.
Such demons became gradually located in the region of
especially dangerous fires, as volcanoes and boiling springs.
The Titan whom the ancients believed struggling beneath
AEtna remained there as the Devil in the christian age.
St. Agatha is said to have prevented his vomiting fire for
a century by her prayers. St. Philip ascended the same
mountain, and with book and candle pronounced a prayer
of exorcism, at which three devils came out like fiery
flying stones, crying, ‘Woe is us! we are still hunted
by Peter through Philip the Elder!' The volcanoes
originated the belief that hell is at the earth's centre,
and their busy Vulcans of classic ages have been easily
transformed into sulphurous lords of the christian Hell.
Such is the mediaeval Haborym, demon of arson, with his
three heads—man, cat, and serpent—who rides through
the air mounted on a serpent, and bears in his hand a
flaming torch. The astrologers assigned him command
of twenty-six legions of demons in hell, and the super-
stitious often saw him laughing on the roofs of burning
houses." But still more dignified is Raum, who com-

* In Russia the pigeon, from being anciently consecrated to the thunder god, has become emblem of the Holy Ghost, or celestial fire, and as such the soe of earthly fire. Pigeons are trusted as insurers against fire, and the flight of one through a house is regarded as a kindly warning of conflagration.

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IXEMOAVS FEAR WATER. 75

mands thirty legions, and who destroys villages; hence, also, concerned in the destructions of war, he became the demon who awards dignities; and although this made his usual form of apparition on the right bank of the Rhine that of the Odinistic raven, on the left bank he may be detected in the little red man who was reported as the familiar of Napoleon I. during his career. Among Mr. Gill's South Pacific myths is one of a Prometheus, Maui, who by assistance of a red pigeon gets from the subterranean fire-demon the secret of producing fire (by rubbing sticks), the demon (Mauike) being then consumed with his realm, and fire being brought to the upper world to remain the friend of man. In Vedic legend, when the world was enveloped in darkness, the gods prayed to Agni, who suddenly burst out as Tvashtri —pure fire, the Vedic Vulcan—to the dismay of the universe. In Eddaic sagas, Loki was deemed the most voracious of beings until defeated in an eating match with Logi (devouring fire). Survivals of belief in the fiery nature of demons are very numerous. Thus it is a very common belief that the Devil cannot touch or cross water, and may therefore be escaped by leaping a stream. This has sometimes been supposed to have something to do with the purifying character of water; but there are many instances in christian folklore where the Devil is shown quite independent of even holy water if it is not sprinkled on him or does not wet his feet. Thus in the Norfolk legend concerning St. Godric, the Devil is said to have thrown the vessel with its holy water at the saint's head out of anger at his singing a canticle which the Virgin taught him. But when the Devil attacked him in various ferocious animal shapes, St. Godric escaped by running into the Wear, where he sometimes stood all night in water up to his neck.

76 FIRE BEIAEAWS.

The Kobolds get the red jackets they are said to wear from their fiery nature. Originally the lar familiaris of Germany, the Kobold became of many varieties; but in one line he has been developed from the house-spirit, whose good or evil temper was recognised in the comforts, or dangers of fire, to a special Stone-demon. The hell-dog in Faust's room takes refuge from the spell of ‘Solomon's Key' behind the stone, and is there transformed to human shape. The German maidens read many pretty oracles in the behaviour of the fire, and the like in that of its fellow Wahrsager the house-dog. It is indeed a widespread notion that imps and witches lurk about the fireside, obviously in cat and dog, and ride through the air on implements that usually stand about the fire-shovel, tongs, or broom. In Paris it was formerly the custom to throw twenty-four cats into the fire on St. John's night, the animals being, according to M. De Plancy, emblems of the devil. So was replaced the holocaust of human witches, until at last civilisation rang out its curfew for all such fires as that.

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Descent of Ishtar into Hades—Bardism—Baldur—Hercules—Christ —Survivals of the Frost Giant in Slavonic and other countries— The Clavie—The Frozen Hell—The Northern abode of demons —North side of churches.

EVEN across immemorial generations it is impossible to read without emotion the legend of the Descent of Ishtar into Hades." Through seven gates the goddess of Love passes in search of her beloved, and at each some of her ornaments and clothing are removed by the dread guardian. Ishtar enters naked into the presence of the Queen of Death. But gods, men, and herds languish in her absence, and the wonder-working Hea, *he Saviour, so charms the Infernal Queen, that she bids the Judge of her realm, Annunak, absolve Ishtar from his golden throne. “He poured out for Ishtar the waters of life and let her go. Then the first gate let her forth, and restored to her the first garment of her body. The second gate let her forth, and restored to her the diamonds of her hands and feet. The third gate let her forth, and restored to her the central girdle of her waist.

* Tablet K 162 in Brit. Mus. Tr. by H. F. Talbot in ‘Records of the Past.”

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