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of the Spanish garrison in the Goletta. These a breach of the law of nations, in putting to points being settled, and 20,000 Christian slaves death his ambassador. The operations of war

, freed from bondage either by arms or by treaty, however, soon took a new direction. Instead Charles returned to Europe, where his presence of marching directly to the Milanese, Francis was become necessary; while Barbarossa, who commenced hostilities against the duke of Savoy, had retired to Bona, recovered new strength, and with whom he had cause to be dissatisfied, and again became the tyrant of the ocean.

on whom he had some claims; and, before the The king of France took advantage of the end of the campaign, that feeble prince saw emperor's absence to revive his pretensions in himself stripped of all his dominions, except Italy. The treaty of Cambray had covered up, the province of Piedmont. To complete his but not extinguished the flames of discord. misfortunes, the city of Geneva, the sovereignty Francis, who waited only for a favorable oppor- of which he claimed, and where the reformed tunity of recovering the territories and reputa- opinions had already got footing, threw off his tion which he had lost, continued to negociate yoke; and its revolt drew along with it the loss against his rival with different courts. But all of the adjacent territory. Geneva was then 20 his negociations were disconcerted by unforeseen imperial city, and ever since remained free, till, accidents. The death of Clement VII. (whom in the French revolution, it was forced to be he had gained by marrying his son the duke of come a part of the French republic. In this Orleans, afterwards Henry II., to Catharine of extremity the duke of Savoy saw no resource Medicis, the niece of that pontiff), deprived him but in the emperor's protection; and, as his misof all the support which he hoped to receive fortunes were chiefly occasioned by his attachfrom the court of Rome. The king of England, ment to the imperial interest, he had a title to occupied with domestic cares and projects, de- immediate assistance. But Charles, who was clined engaging in the affairs of the continent; just returned from his African expedition, was and the Protestant princes, associated by the not able to lend him the necessary support. His league of Smalkald, to whom Francis had also treasury was entirely drained, and he was obliged applied, and who seemed disposed at first to to disband his army till he could raise new sup. listen to him, filled with indignation and resent- plies. Mean time the death of Sforza duke of ment at the cruelty with which some of their Milan entirely changed the nature of the war, reformed brethren had been treated in France, and afforded the emperor full leisure to prepare refused to have any connexion with the enemy for action. The French monarch's pretext for of their religion. Francis was neither cruel nor taking up arms was at once cut off: but, as the bigoted; he was too indolent to concern himself duke died without issue, all Francis's rights to about religious disputes; but his principles be- the duchy of Milan, which he had yielded only coming suspected, at a time when the emperor to Sforza and his descendants, returned to him was gaining immortal glory by his expeditions in full force. He instantly renewed his claim against the infidels, he found it necessary to vin- to it; and, if he had ordered bis army imme dicate himself by some extraordinary demon- diately to advance, he might have made himself stration of reverence for the established faith. master of it. But he unfortunately wasted his The indiscreet zeal of some Protestant converts time in fruitless negociations, while his more furnished him with the occasion. They had politic rival took possession of the duchy as a affixed to the gates of the Louvre and other pub- vacant fief of the empire; and, though Charles lic places papers containing indecent reflections seemed still to admit the equity of Francis's on the rites of the Romish church. Six of the claim, he delayed granting the investiture under persons concerned in this rash action were various pretences, and was secretly taking every seized; and the king, pretending to be struck possible measure to prevent him from regaining with horror at their blasphemies, appointed a a footing in Italy. During the time gained in solemn procession, to avert the wrath of heaven. this manner Charles had recruited his finances,

The holy sacrament was carried through the city and of course his armies; and, finding himself of Paris in great pomp: Francis walked un- in a condition for war, he at last threw off the covered before it, bearing a torch in his hand; mask under which he had so long concealed bis the princes of the blood supported the canopy designs from the court of France. Entering over it; the nobles walked behind. In presence Rome with great pomp, he pronounced before of this numerous assembly, the king declared, the pope and cardinals, assembled in full consisthat if one of his hands were infected with tory, a violent invective against Francis, by way heresy, he would cut it off with the other; and of reply to his propositions concerning the inI would sacrifice,' added he, even my own vestiture of Milan. Yet Francis, by an unacchildren, if found guilty of that crime.' "As an countable fatality, continued to negociate, as if awful proof of his sincerity, the six unhappy it had been still possible to terminate their diferpersons who had been seized were publicly ences in an amicable manner; and Charles, findburnt before the procession was finished, and in ing him so eager to run into the snare, favored the the most cruel manner. They were fixed upon deception, and, by seeming to listen to his a machine which descended into the flames and proposals, gained yet more time for the execution retired alternately, until they expired. No won of his ambitious projects. If misfortunes had render that the Protestant princes were incensed at dered Francis too diffident, success had made such barbarity! But Francis, though unsup- Charles too sanguine. He presumed on nothing less ported by an ally, commanded his army to ad- than the subversion of the French monarch ; nay, vance towards the frontiers of Italy, under he considered it as an infallible event. Having pretence of chastising the duke of Milan for chased the forces of his rival out of Piedmont and

Savoy, he pushed forward at the head of 50,000 such a reverse of fortune, he embarked directly men, contrary to the advice of his most experi for Spain. Meanwhile Francis gave himself up enced ministers and generals, to invade the south to that vain resentment which had formerly disern provinces of France; while other two armies graced the prosperity of his rival. They had were ordered to enter it, the one on the side of frequently, in the course of their quarrels, given Picardy, the other on the side of Champagne. He each other the lie, and mutual challenges had thought it impossible that Francis could resist so been sent; which, though productive of no many unexpected attacks on such different quar serious consequences between the parties, had a ters; but he found himself mistaken. he powerful tendency to encourage the pernicious French monarch fixed upon the most effectual practice of duelling. Charles, in his invective plan for defeating the invasion of a powerful pronounced at Rome, had publicly accused enemy; and he prudently persevered in follow Francis of perfidy and breach of faith ; Francis ing it, though contrary to his own natural tem now exceeded Charles in the indecency of his per, and to the genius of his people. He deter- accusations. The Dauphin dying suddenly, his mined to remain altogether upon the defensive, death was imputed to poison; Montecuculi his and to deprive the enemy of subsistence by laying cup-bearer was put to the rack; and that unhappy waste the country before him. The execution nobleman, in the agonies of torture, accused the of this plan was committed to the mareschal emperor's generals, Gonzaga and de Leyva, of Montmorency its author, a man happily fitted instigating him to the detestable act. The emfor such a trust by the inflexible severity of his peror himself was suspected ; nay, this extorted disposition. He made choice of a strong camp, confession, and some obscure 'hints, were conunder the walls of Avignon, at the confluence of sidered as incontestable proofs of his guilt: the Rhone and Durance, where he assembled a though it was evident to all mankind that neither considerable army; while the king, with another Charles nor his generals could have any inducebody of troops, encamped at Valence, higher up ment to perpetrate such a crime, as Francis was the Rhone. Marseilles and Arles were the only still in the vigor of life himself, and had two sons towns he thought it necessary to defend ; and besides the dauphin, grown up to a good age. each of these he furnished with a numerous gar But the incensed monarch's resentment did not rison of his best troops. The inhabitants of the stop here. Francis was not satisfied with enother towns were compelled to abandon their deavouring to blacken the character of his rival habitations; the fortifications of such places as by an ambiguous testimony which led to the might have afforded shelter to the enemy were most injurious suspicions, and upon which the thrown down; corn, forage, and provisions of most cruel constructions had been put; he was every kind, were carried off or destroyed; the willing to add rebellion to murder. For this mills and orens were ruined, and the wells filled purpose he went to the parliament of Paris; up or rendered useless. This devastation ex- where, being seated with the usual solemnities, tended from the Alps to Marseilles, and from the the advocate-general appeared, and accused sea to the confines of Dauphiny ; so that the Charles of Austria (so he affected to call the emperor when he arrived with the van of his emperor) of having violated the treaty of Camarmy on the confines of Provence, instead of that bray, by which he was freed from the homage rich and populous country which he expected to due to the crown of France for the counties of enter, beheld nothing but one vast and desert Artois and Flanders; adding, that this treaty solitude. He did not, however, despair of suc- being now void, he was still to be considered as cess, though he saw that he should have many a vassal of France, and consequently had been aifficulties to encounter; and, as an encourage guilty of rebellion in taking arms against his ment to his officers, he made them liberal pro- sovereign. The charge was sustained, and Charles mises of lands and honors in France. But all was summoned to appear before the parliament the land which any of them obtained was a grave, of Paris at a day fixed. The term expired; and their master' lost much honor by this rash and, no person appearing in the emperor's name, and presumptuous enterprize. After unsuccess the parliament gave judgment, that Charles of fully investing Marseilles and Arles, after at Austria had forfeited, by rebellion and contutempting in vain to draw Montmorency from his macy, the counties of Flanders and Artois, and camp at Avignon, and not daring to attack it, declared these fiefs reunited to the crown of Charles having spent two inglorious months in France. Francis, soon after this vain display of Provence, and lost one-half of his troops by animosity, marched into the Low Countries, as disease or by famine, was under the necessity of if he had intended to execute the sentence proordering a retreat; and, though he was some time nounced by his parliament; but a suspension of in motion before the enemy suspected his inten arms took place, through the interposition of the tion, it was conducted with so much precipita- queens of France and Hungary, before any thing tion and disorder as to deserve the name of a of

consequence was effected; and this cessation flight, since the light troops of France turned it of hostilities was followed by a truce, concluded into a perfect rout. The invasion of Picardy at Nice, through the mediation of the reigning was not more successful; the imperial forces pontiff, Paul III, of the family of Farnese, a were obliged to retire without effecting any con man of a venerable character and pacific dispoquest of importance.

sition. Each of these rival princes had strong Charles had no sooner conducted the shattered reasons to incline them to a peace. The finances remains of his army to the frontiers of Milan, of both were exhausted; and the emperor, the than he set out for Genoa ; and, unwilling to ex most powerful of the two, was deeply impressed pose himself to the scorn of the Italians after with the dread of the Turkish arms, which

Francis had drawn upon him by a league with pecting the embrace of the lovely fair, whom be Soliman. In consequence of this league, Bar- had often solicited in vain. Lorenzo, however, barossa with a great fleet appeared on the coast did not reap the fruits of his crime; for though of Naples; filled that kingdom with consterna some of his countrymen extolled him as a third tion ; landed without resistance near Taranto; Brutus, and endeavoured to seize this occasion obliged Castro, a place of some strength, to sur for recovering their liberties, the government of render; plundered the adjacent country; and Florence passed into the hands of Cosmo II. was taking measures for securing and extending another kinsman of Alexander. Cosmo vas de his conquests, when the unexpected arrival of sirous of marrying the widow of his predecessor; Doria, the famous Genoese admiral, together but the emperor chose rather to oblige the pope, with the pope's galleys and a squadron of the by bestowing his daughter upon Octavio FarVenetian fleet, made it prudent for him to retire. nese, son of the duke of Parma. Charles had The sultan's forces also invaded Hungary, where soon farther cause to be sensible of his obligationis Mahomet, the Turkish general, after gaining to the holy father for bringing about the ireaty of several inferior advantages, defeated the Germans Nice. His troops every where mutinied for wan: in a great battle near Essek, on the Drave. Hap- of pay, and the ability of his generals only could pily for Charles and Europe it was not in have prevented a total revolt. He had depended, Francis's power, at this juncture, either to join as his chief resource for discharging the arrears the Turks or assemble an army strong enough to due to his soldiers, upon the subsidies which he penetrate into the Milanese. The emperor, how- expected from his Castilian subjects. For this ever, was sensible that he could not long resist purpose he assembled the cortes of Castile at Tothe efforts of two such powerful confederates, ledo; and, having represented to them the great nor expect that the same fortunate circumstances expense of his military operations, he proposed would concur a second time in his favor; he to levy such supplies as the exigency of affairs therefore thought it necessary, both for his safety demanded, by a general excise on commodities; and reputation, to give his consent to a truce : but the Spaniards, who already felt themselves and Francis chose rather to run the risk of dis. oppressed by a load of taxes unknown to their obliging bis new ally, the sultan, than to draw on ancestors, and who had often complained that his head the indignation, and perhaps the arms, their country was drained of its wealth and inha. of all Christendom, by obstinately obstructing bitants, to prosecute quarrels in which they had the re-establishment of tranquillity, and con no interest, determined not to add voluntarily to tributing to the aggrandisement of the infidels. their own burdens. The nobles, in particular, These considerations inclined the contending inveighed with great vehemence against the impas. monarchs to listen to the arguments of the holy sition proposed, as an encroachment on the valu. father ; but he found it impossible to bring about able and distinguishing privilege of their order, a final accommodation between them, each in- that of being exempted from the payment of any hexibly persisting in asserting his own claims. tax. After employing arguments and promises Nor could he prevail on them to see one another, in vain, Charles dismissed the assembly with inthough both came to the place of rendezvous; so dignation; and from that period neither the great were the remains of distrust and rancor, or nobles nor the prelates have been called to the such the difficulty of adjusting the ceremonial! Cortes, on pretence that such as pay no part of Yet, improbable as it may seem, a few days after the public taxes should not claim a vole in signing the truce, the emperor, in his passage to laying them on. These assemblies have since Barcelona, being driven on the coast of Pro- consisted merely of the procurators or represenvence, Francis invited him to come ashore, frankly tatives of eighteen cities, two from each ; in all visited him on board his galley, and was received thirty-six members, who are absolutely at the deand entertained with the warmest demonstrations votion of the crown. The citizens of Ghent, of esteem and affection. Charles, with an equal still' more bold, broke out not long after into degree of confidence, paid the king next day a . open rebellion against the emperor's governvisit at Aigues-mortes; where these two hostile ment, on account of a tax which they judged rivals and vindictive enemies, who had accused contrary to their ancient privileges, and a decision each other of every kind of baseness, conversing of the council of Mechlin in favor of the imtogether with all the cordiality of brothers, seem- perial authority. Enraged at an unjust impoed to vie with each other in expressions of re- sition, and rendered desperate on seeing their spect and friendship.

rights betrayed by that very court which was Besides the glory of having restored tran. bound to protect them, they few to arms, seized quillity to Europe, the pope gained a point of several of the emperor's ofticers, and drove such much consequence to his family. He obtained, of the nobility as resided among them out of the for his grandson, Margaret of Austria, the empe- city. Sensible, however, of their inability to ror's natural daughter, formerly wife of Alexander support what their zeal had prompted them to de Medicis, whom Charles had raised to the su- undertake, and desirous of securing a propreme power in Florence. Lorenzo de Medicis, tector against the formidable forces with which the kinsman and intimate companion of Alex- they might expect soon to be attacked, they ander, had assassinated him by one of the blackest offered to acknowledge the king of France as treasons recorded in history. Under pretence of their sovereign, to put bin into immediate poshaving secured him an assignation with a lady of session of their city, and to assist him in recothe highest rank and great beauty, he drew him vering those provinces in the Netherlands which into a secret apartment of his house, and there had anciently belonged to his crown. True stabbed him as he lay carelessly on a couch, ex- policy should have directed Francis to comply

with this proposal. The counties of Flanders that scene of falsehood and dissimulation with and Artois were more valuable than the duchy of which he had amused the French monarch, Milan, for which he had so long contended; and Charles began gradually to throw aside the veil their situation in regard to France made it more under which he had concealed his intentions easy to conquer or to defend them. But Francis with respect to the Milanese, and at last peover-rated the Milanese. He had lived in friend- remptorily refused to give up a territory of ship with the emperor ever since their interview such value, or voluntarily to make such a at Aigues-mortes, and Charles had promised him liberal addition to the strength of an enemy by the investiture of that duchy. Forgetting, there- diminishing his own power. lle even denied fore, all his past injuries, and the deceitful pro- that he had ever made any promise which could mises by which he had been so often duped, the bind him to an action so foolish, and so concredulous, generous Francis, not only rejected trary to his own interest. This transaction exthe propositions of the citizens of Ghent, but posed the king of France to as much scorn as it communicated to the emperor his whole negocia- did the emperor to censure. The credulous tion with the malcontents. Judging of Charles's simplicity of Francis seemed to merit no other heart by his own, Francis hoped by this seem return, after experiencing so often the duplicity ingly disinterested proceeding to obtain at once and artifices of his rival. He remonstrated, howthe investiture of Milan; and the emperor, well ever, and exclaimed as if this had been the first acquainted with the weakness of his rival, flat- circumstance in which the emperor had deceived tered him in this apprehension, for his own him. The insult offered to his understanding selfish purposes. His presence being necessary in affected him even more sensibly than the injury the Netherlands, he demanded a passage through done to his interest; and he discovered such reFrance. It was immediately granted him; and sentment as made it obvious that he would seize Charles, to whom every moment was precious, on the first opportunity of revenge, and that a set out, notwithstanding the remonstrances of his new war would soon desolate the European concouncil and the fears of his Spanish subjects, with tinent. Meanwhile Charles was obliged to turn a small but splendid train of 100 persons. He was his attention towards the affairs of Germany. met on the frontiers of France by the dauphin The Protestants, having in vain demanded a geand the duke of Orleans, who offered to go into neral council, pressed him earnestly to appoint a Spain, and remain there as hostages, till he should conference between a select number of divinez of reach his own dominions; but Charles replied each party, to examine the points in dispute. For that the king's honor was sufficient for his safety, this purpose a diet was assembled at Ratisbon ; and prosecuted his journey without any other and such a conference, notwithstanding the opposecurity. The king entertained him with the sition of the pope, was held with great solemnity utmost magnificence at Paris, and the two young in the presence of the emperor.

But the divines princes did not take leave of him till he entered chosen to manage the controversy, though men ihe Low Countries; yet he still found means to of learning and moderation, were only able to evade his promise, and Francis continued to settle a few speculative opinions, all points relabelieve him sincere. The citizens of Ghent, tive to worship and jurisdiction serving to inalarmed at the approach of the emperor, who flame the minds of the disputants. Charles, was joined by three armies, sent ambassadors to therefore, finding his endeavours to bring about implore his mercy, and offered to throw open an accommodation ineffectual, and being impatheir gates. Charles only condescended to reply, tient to close the diet, prevailed on a majority of • That he would appear among them as a sove the members to approve of the following edict reign and a judge, with the sceptre and the of recess; viz. that the articles concerning which sword.' He accordingly entered the place of his the divines had agreed should be held as points nativity on the anniversary of his birth! and, decided : that those about which they had differed instead of that lenity which might have been should be referred to the determination of a expected, exhibited an awful example of his seve- general council, or, if that could not be obtained, rity. Twenty-six of the principal citizens were to a national synod; and, should it prove impracput to death; a greater number were banished; ticable also to assemble a synod of Germany, the city was declared to have forfeited its privi- that a general diet of the empire should be called leges; a new system of laws and political admi- within eighteen months, to give final judgment nistration was prescribed ; and a large fine was on the whole controversy : that, in the mean imposed on the inhabitants, to defray the expense time, no innovations should be attempted, nor of erecting a citadel, together with an annual tax any en eavours employed to gain proselytes. for the support of a garrison. They were not This diet gave great offence to the pope. The only despoiled of their ancient immunities, but bare mention of allowing a diet, composed made to pay, like conquered people, for the chiefly of laymen, to pass judgment in regard to means of perpetuating their own slavery. We articles of faith, appeared to him no less criminal need not wonder that the descendants of these and profane than the worst of those heresies ill-used people should have been the readiest and which the emperor seemed so zealous to suppress. most zealous of all the German democrates in The Protestants also were dissatisfied with it as joining the French, in the last war, and throwing it considerably abridged the liberty which they at off the yoke of Austria. They could have hardly that time enjoyed. They murmured loudly been worse used by Buonaparte. Having thus re- against it; and Charles, unwilling to leave any established his authority in the Low Countries, seeds of discontent in the empire, granted them a and being now under að necessity of continuing private declaration, exempting them from what

Vol. XX.

2 Y

ever they thought injurious or oppressive in the having got intelligence of the motions and deetj. recess, and ascertaining to them the full posses- nation of two ambassadors, Rincon and Fergosa, sion of all their former privileges.

whom Francis had despatched, the one to the The situation of the emperor's affairs at this Ottoman Porte, the other to the republic of Ve juncture made these extraordinary concessions nice; knowing how much his master wished to gecessary. He foresaw a rupture with France to discover the intentions of the French monarch, be unavoidable, and he was alarmed at the rapid and of what consequence it was to retard the progress of the Turks in Hungary. A great execution of his measures, he employed some revolution had happened in that kingdom. John soldiers belonging to the garrison of Pavia to lie Zapol Scæpus, by the assistance of Soliman, had in wait for these ambassadors as they sailed down wrested from the king of the Romans a consi- the Po, who murdered them and most of their derable part of the country. John died, and attendants, and seized their papers. Francis imleft an infant son. Ferdinand attempted to take mediately demanded reparation for this barbarous advantage of the minority, in order to repossess outrage; and as Charles endeavoured to put him himself of the whole kingdom; but his ambition off with an evasive answer, he appealed to all the was disappointed by the activity and address of courts of Europe, setting forth the heinousness of George Martinuzzi, bishop of Waradin, who the injury, the iniquity of the emperor in disreshared the regency with the queen. Sensible that garding his just request, and the necessity of venhe was unable to oppose the king of the Romans geance. But Charles, who was a more profound in the field, Martinuzzi satisfied himself with negociator, defeated in a great measure the efects holding out the fortified towns, all of which he of these representations; he secured the fidelity provided with every thing necessary for defence; of the Protestant princes in Germany, by graniand at the same time he sent ambassadors to ing them new concessions; and he engaged the Soliman, beseeching him to extend towards the king of England to espouse his cause, under preson that imperial protection which had so gene tence of defending Europe against the infidels; rously maintained the father on his throne. Fer- while Francis was only able to form an alliance dinand used his utmost endeavours to thwart this with the kings of Denmark and Sweden (who for negociation, and even meanly offered to hold the the first time interested themselves in the quarrels Hungarian crown on the same ignominious con- of the more potent monarchs of the south), and dition by which John had held it, that of paying to renew his treaty with Soliman, which drew on tribute to the Porte. But the sultan saw such ad him the indignation of all Christendom. But the vantages from espousing the interest of the young activity of Francis supplied all the defects of his king, that he instantly marched into Hungary; negociation. Five armies were soon ready to take and the Germans, having formed the siege of the field, under different generals, and with difBuda, were defeated with great slaughter before ferent destinations. Nor was Charles wanting in that city. Soliman, however, instead of becoming his preparations. He and Henry a second time the protector of the infant sovereign whom he had made an ideal division of the kingdom of•France. relieved, made use of this success to extend his But as the hostilities which followed terminated own dominions; he sent the queen and her son in nothing decisive, and were distinguished by no into Transylvania, which province he allotted remarkable event, except the battles of Cerisole them, and added Hungary to the Ottoman em- (gained by count d'Enguien over the imperialisis, pire. Happily for the Protestants, Charles re and in which 10,000 of the emperor' best ceived intelligence of this revolution soon after troops fell), at last Francis and Charles, mutually the diet at Ratisbon; and, by the concessions tired of harassing each other, concluded at Crespy which he made them, he obtained such liberal a treaty of peace in which the king of England supplies, both of men and money, as left him was not mentioned ; and, from being implacable under little anxiety about the security of Ger- enemies, became once more, to appearance, cormany. He therefore hastened to join his feet and dial friends, and even allies by the ties of blood. army in Italy, in order to carry into execution a The chief articles of this treaty were, that all the great and favorite enterprise which he had con- conquests which either party had made since the certed against Algiers ; though it would certainly truce of Nice should be restored; that the enhave been more consistent with his dignity to peror should give in marriage to the duke of Orhave conducted the whole force of the empire leans, either his eldest daughter, with the Low against Soliman, the common enemy of Christen- Countries, or the second daughter of his brother dom, who was ready to enter his Austrian domi- Ferdinand, with the investiture of the Milanese ; nions. But many reasons induced Charles to pre- that Francis should renounce all pretensions to fer the African expedition; he wanted strength, the kingdom of Naples, as well as to the soreor at least money, to combat the Turks in so dis- reignty of Flanders and Artois, and Charles gire tant a country as Hungary; and the glory which up his claim to the duchy of Burgundy; and that he had formerly acquired in Barbary led him to both should unite in making war against the Turks. hope for the like success, while the cries of his The emperor was chiefly induced to grant Spanish subjects roused him to take vengeance

conditions so advantageous to France, by a deon their ravagers. The loss which the emperor sire of humbling the Protestant princes in Gersuffered in this calamitous expedition encouraged many. With the papal jurisdiction, he foresaw the king of France to begin hostilities, on which they would endeavour to throw off the impehe had been for some time resolved; and an ac rial authority; and he determined to make his tion dishonorable to civil society furnished him zeal for the former a pretence for enforcing and with too good a pretext for taking arms. The extending the latter. However, the death of the marquis del Guasto, governor of the Milanese, duke of Orleans, before the consummation of his

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