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broad muscular band has its origin, from stomach of the catnel, dromedary, and the coats of the first stomach, and passes lama, fitting them to live in the sandy down in the form of a solid parallel to the deserts where the supplies of water are to great ridge, till it enters the orifice of the precarious." iecond ftomach. This band on one side, From the comparitive view which Mr. and the great ridge on the other, form a Hone has taken of the Itomachs of the canal, which leads from the æfophagus bullock and canel, it appears that in the dowy to the cellular firucture in the lower bullock there are three stomachs formed part of the first ttoinach. The orifice of for the preparation of food, and one for the second ftomach, when this muscle is digeftio!. In the camel there is one itonot in action, is nearly thut, and at right mach fitted to answer the purposes of two angles to the side of the tirit
. Its cavity of the bullock; a second is employed as a is a pendulous bag with rows of cells, reservoir for water, having nothing to do above which, between them aud the with the preparation of the food; a third mufcle whichi passes along the upper part is so fuali and fimple in its ftrućture that of the stomach, is a finooth surface ex- it is not easy to ascertain its particular tending from the orifice of this stomach office. to the termination in the third. Hence The following gradations of raminatit is evident that the second ftomach nei- ing loinachs is now establifled: the ruther receives the folid food in the firft in- minants with horris, as the ox, sheep, &c. stance as the bullock, nor does it after- bave two preparatory fomachis for food wards pals into its cavity or cellular previoully to rumination, and oure for the ftrućture. The food tirft paffes into the food atter rumination before it is digestgeneral cavity of the first fioinach, and ed. The ruminants without horns, as that portion of it which lies in the recess the canel, droinedary, &c. have one preiminediately below the entraoce of the paratory fiuinach before rumination, and @sophagus under which the cells are litu- none in which thc cud can be afterwards ated, is kept moist, and is readily return-, retained before it goes into the digesting ed into the mouth, fo that the cellular stomach. Thore animals who eat the portion of the firli ftomach in ihe camel same kind of food with thoruminants and performs the fame office as the tecond in. yet do not rominate, as the horse and als, the ruminants with horns. While the have only one ftomach, but a part of it is camel is drinking, the action of the muf- lined with a cuticle, in which the food is cular band opens the orifice of the se- 'first deposited, and by remaining thore cond ftomach, at the fame time that it turne time is rendered more ealily digerdirects the water into it; and when the tible
, when received into the digetting cells of that cavity are full, the rest runs portion. off into the cellular structure of the tirft
In comparing the teeth of those animals ftomach iminediately helow, and after that ruminate with those of the borse and wards into the gencral cavity :. it ass, which live on nearly the same kind seems that camels, when accuttomed to of food, the following peculiarities are go long journeys, in which they are kept met with. The ruminants with hords without water, acquire the power of di- have molares in both jaws, and incisores lating the cells, so as to make them con- only in the lower jaw. The ruminauts Lain a more than ordinary quantity as a without horns, have, in addition to these, fupply for their journey. When the cud what may be called fighting-teeth, or a h:18 hecn chewed, it has to pass along the fùbstitute for horns. These are turks in upper part of the second ftomach before both jaws, intermediate teeth between it can reach the third; which is thus the molares and tulks, and in the upper managed : at the time that the cod is to jaw two timall teeth anterior to the tuiks; pals from the mouth, the inufcular band none of which can be of any ufe in eatcontracts with fo much furce, that it not ing. The camelo-pardalis forms an inonly opens the orifice of the fecond tio- termediatc link in theic refpects. It has mach, but acting on the inouth of the nort horns, and no tulks. third, brings it forwards into the second, We have next an account of the atia. by which means the muscular ridges that lysis of the urine of the camel, and of thic separate the rows of cells are brought' leveral experiments upon that, and upon clofe together, fo as to exclude thefe cn- the urine of a cow. The presence of vities from the canal, through which the uric acid in the former, and that of phoscud paffes. “It is this beautiful and phat of line in both, are new facts, which very curious mechanilin, (lays Mr.llomc,) reflect additional light on the computiskich forms the peculiar character of the tion of the urine of graininivorous ani
wals. Without specifying the experi- blow-pipe, it assumes a darker colour ; at ments we shall prefent the readers with a lironger heat it melts to litharge. On the results :
charcoal it is reduced to lead. Ia dilate In 100 parts of camel's urine, wbite acid of nitre, it becomes of a brown Water
75 coffee colour. On the addition of a little Phosphat of lime, muriat of ammonia, fugar, this brown cal x diffolves and pro
fulphat of potass, urea of potass, duces a colourless folution. By putting Carbonat of potass
6 iuto muriatic acid with a little leaf gold, Mariat of potnis
8 the gold is foon entirely difplved. When Ureu
6 it is inclosed in a linall bottle with muri
atic acid, and a little bit of paper tinged
95 by turnfol is fixed to the cork, the paper In 100 parts of cow's urine, loses its blue colour, and becomes white. Water
65 Altrip of common blue paper, whole coPhosphat of lime,
3 louring matter is indigo, placed in the Muriat of time, of ammonia 15 same lituation undergoes the same change. Sulphat of potass
6 Mr. S. imagines that this native miniuma Carbonat of potass, of ammonia - 4 is produced by the decay of a galena, Urea
4 which he suspects to be itself a secondary
production froin the metallization of
97 white carbonate of lead by hepatic gas. The lofs is supposed to have occurred This is particularly evident froin a lpecifrom the animal matter, probably albu- men, in one part of which there is a club men and gelatine. The principal and ter of large crylials. laxing broken one only eflentiat difference between the of these, Mr. S. found that it was conurine of the camel and that of the cow, verted into miniuin to a confiderable is, that the former contains uric acid thickness, while its centre is still galena They are both deftitute of soda. Mr. :Two very: excellent mathematical paHatchet observes that it is remarkable pers were comaunicated to the Royal that uric acid should be found in the ca- Society, and read on the 5th of June lalt; mel's urine, and tic thinks it is the firft the one from the Rev.ABRAAM ROBERTS inftance on record, as fat'as relates to son, Savilian proteilor of geometry in tho the urine of graminivorous wimals. univerlity of Oxford, 'was a new demon"Dr. Smitusox has presented to the Itration of the Binomial Tlieorem, when fociety an account of a discovery of na- the exponent is a fraction. The other tive minium, which is diffeminated in was a new method of coinputing logafinall quantities in the fubitance of com. rithms by THOMAS MANNING, efq. Thele, pact carbonat of lime. Its colour is however, not adınitting of an analysis thm of faćtitious miniuin, a vivid red we mult content ourselves with barely with a calt of yellow. Heated with a noticing:
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THE NEW PATENTS LATELY ENROLLED.
ir.. ROBERT NEWMAN'S (DARTMOUTO,) below the deck, and moved by one wheel, for Improvement in the Forin und winch or other engine, placed amid thips Construction oj Ships and other Peljels or elsewhere, and connected by chains or of Itur, &c.
ropes, in the ordinary way, with a thort VIIIs improvement consists in, and iron lever projecting from each rudder,
extends to, the following matters: the length of which need not exceed the first, an apparatus or helm contaming two fixth part of the tiller required for the rudders, formed and worked in the di- cominou rudder. “ In this manner," rection of the sides, in lieu of one placed says Mr. N. “I found by an experiment in the centre line of the veffel, by which tried on a temporary form, ot' not less bodies of the greatest capacity may be than one hundred and fifty tons burthen, governed, guided, or steered, wore and conttructed by me for the purpose about stayed withi greater certainty, case, and four years since, that a fingle inan or boy fafety: secondly, in a concave or hollow could not only sicer with the greatesi eute, forn of fide and bottom that will make but manage at the fune tiine the largest veffels of a liglit draoght of water keep a fail of the veifel, in an open and rougis beuter wind, carry more fail, and roll fea." In one of the figures attached to leis: thirdly, in an inverted reduction of this specification, we have a representacapacity toward the ilern, commonly tion of the transverse fećtion of a vellel, called the run, by which the retintance is whose lides and bottom are an invertion helfened, without the stability or power of of the ordinary forin, curving outwarıls, rurrying fail being diininithed by external and extending down to a level with the ponitruction.
under part of her keel, oppoling by their The Patentee has exhibited in draw- extent and thape the greatest resistance, ings, attached to the specification before to a lee course with less tendency to roll #s, the ordinary rudder in its utual fitu- or upset, and presenting at the fame time ation, where it requires a magnitude that a stronger surface to the pressure of the Tenders it burb incommodious and dunge- 'cargo or weight within the fiip. Re. rous, and even inadequate to its purpose; fistance to leeway may also, we are told, and also one which, if differently placed, be increased, by ribbing, or indenting the might be reduced to one ball, or even coat of the side, with projecting or binding one fourth part of its preient dimensions, planks, that obstruct in a lide direction, with increased effect, its power being not only while they ftrengthen the veffel and only greater by projecting into more protect the caulking. For farther inforactive water, and ineeting the current in ination on this fubjcct, we must refer the its undiverted course, but also increased reader to the fpecitication itself, the formas by its relative dittance from the centre which are there given are contined to line of the vetlol's progress.
fucb parts of the vetlel as are below thre The manner of working a helon of this lead water line, being limited to the acdescription mult depend on the nature, tive or immerged fubftauce, and capable lize, and service of the vefiel. It mav act of being executed by ordinary modes of outwards or either way, he without or in- workmanship. closed withun the iteru and Gde, abore or