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We can answer for the deliciousness of those same strawberries, having often been regaled with them in Willow bank arbours.

Should a new edition of this work be called for, we should recommend the author to furnish short tables of profit and loss in the several departments; and if no call is made for a new edition, we think Mr. Harley could not confer a greater benefit on the public than extending the instructive account which he has given of his own life, into a separate volume, like those of Bracebridge, and Hutton of Birmingham. The religious parts would be certain to insure a sale among serious readers, while the worldly would be eagerly devoured by young men entering into life.

Art. VI.-Geschichte der Kreuzzüge nach morgenländischen und abendländischen Berichten. Von Dr. Friedrich Wilken. Vierter Theil. Der Kreuzzuge des Kaiser's Frederich des Ersten und der Könige Philipp August von Frankreich und Richard von England. Leipzing.

1826. Vogel. London. Black and Young. History of the Crusades according to Eastern and Western writers. By

Dr. F. Wilken. Volume the fourth. The Crusade of the Emperor Frederic the First, and of the Kings Philip Augustus of France and Richard of England. Leipsic: 1826. Vogel. London: Black and

Young. When we express our regret that the valuable work before us proceeds so slowly towards its completion, we are very far from wishing in the slightest degree to involve the author in that censure which we have sometimes felt it our duty to cast on the manner in which iinportant works are published in Germany. We rejoice that the merit of Dr. Wilken, as an able and impartial historian, has been duly appreciated and rewarded by successive promotions, although his valuable labours suffer by the frequent interruptions. The important and interesting period which is here recorded, has been often treated, and without making insidious comparisons, we are merely desirous of enabling our countrymen, by viewing the subject from different and sometimes opposite points of sight, to elicit as much of the truth as possible. Nothing can more distinctly show the vast change of opinion which has taken place in Europe, than the manner in which the Crusades are mentioned. In earlier ages, when men’s minds were not only inflamed by enthusiasm, but even the moderate and sober were roused into action by a sense of positive danger, every virulence was heaped on the opposite party; kings and courtiers, although treating each other with chivalrous politeness, expressed their sentiments with a strength and coarseness that are now absolutely revolting : on the other hand, the forms of modern ceremony have imposed restraints that are not unfrequently prejudicial to truth, and we find historians gravely deprecating the spirit in which Mahometis

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held up to scorn as the lying prophet.We yield to none in acknowledging the extraordinary powers and merits of Saladin ; wė do not shrink from exposing and regretting the faults and crimes committed by men who fought under the sacred banner of the Cross; why, therefore, should we hesitate to brand with its proper names the vices and crimes of Mahomet or his followers., Truth is always consistent with itself, nor do we see the policy or sense of exposing our own errors, if by a false shame or maudlin sentimentality we allow our opponents to remain unconvicted of their's. Mahomet was a false prophet, nor do we risk our reputation for liberality in the assertion. Away with this affected generosity, which too often springs from real indifference; if there be any merit in historical truth, it certainly consists in viewing all the parts of the subject in the same spirit, giving blame where blame is due, and bestowing praise, when deserved, on Christian and Maho-3 metan. Should any squeamish, lackadaisical patron of indifference, and Mahomet, ask us how we can come to a conclusion which admits phrases so opposite to his ideal of liberal criticism, we would refer him to the principles of our common nature, which display themselves alike in all ages and in all countries. We are not blind to the extraordinary qualities which the founder of the Mahomedan religion must have possessed_such a mighty impulse could have been impressed by no common mind—but when we consider his doctrines, when we behold them so flattering to all the enjoyments of the senses, promising an eternity of happiness so admirably calculated to excite the hopes and passions of the warm natives of the East, we cease to wonder at the strong hold which it has so long retained. To those who are acquainted with the tendency which criticism has displayed on this subject, not only on the continent, but likewise here at home, these remarks will not seem misplaced.

The first volume of the work before us, which is confessedly the best that has been published in Germany on this interesting period, was published in 1807. In it the author, after a copious introduction, treated of the establishment of the kingdom of Jerusalem, or as it is generally called, the first Crusade. The second, which appeared in 1811, concluded the history of the kingdom of Jeru-, salen, and of the different pilgrimages which took place to the holy city. The third contained the second Crusade, viz. that of the Germans under Conrad III., and of the French under Louis VII., and in the second part, the battles of the Christians against Noureddin and Saladin, from 1148 to the loss of Jerusalem in 1187. The fourth volume contains the third Crusade, and we shall principally confine our observations to this part of the work, as the most recent. The author, who was well qualified for the task, by his knowledge of the eastern languages, determined to compare the accounts which the European writers had given of these great transactions, with the descriptions of the Eastern his

torians, some of whom lived at the time of the events which they narrate. For this purpose, in the year 1811 (consequentiy before the appearance of the second volume) he made a journey to Paris to consult the library of that capital, which is so rich in oriental manuscripts. Amongst those which he principally consulted, we should mention the history of Jerusalem and Hebron, the history of Noureddin and Saladin (properly Salaheddin, the saviour of the faith) by Abuschamach, and an extract from a French translation of Kemaleddin's history of Halet. This last writer lived in the times of the second Crusade, and his history often presents a striking confirmation of the Christian reports. The work derives additional value from the conscientious quotation of authorities, a most important adjunct, and which, in these days of investigation, should never be omitted. The advantages of the plan adopted by Dr. Wilken are more conspicuous in the present volume, where the attention of the historian is so often exclusively directed to the East

. The importance of the object of the third Crusade, well deserved the attention which the author has bestowed upon

it. By the termination of this undertaking was the fate of the Holy Land decided, for as the great exertions that had been made for the recovery of the holy monument, in this crusade, remained unsuccessful, the hope of the attainment of this object, and a permanent superiority of the Europeans in the East, naturally expired. It is, therefore, of importance completely to explain the causes of the failure of these great exertions, and the extraordinary valonr of the Western Knights, which never shone more brightly than in the contest against the noble Saladin, deserves an exact and circomstantial narration. The abundance of the materials selected by Christians and Mussulmen, requires a full representation of this crusade, and the fidelity manifest in the different accounts on both sides (partly from eye-witnesses, as Godfrey, Vinisauf, Boaddin, Ebn al Athir, Omad, and others), enables us, by a comparison of their histories, to proceed more surely than in the most other parts of history.- Preface, p. vi. vii.

Dr. Wilken also acknowledges the merit of “Raumer's History of the Hherstanfen,” and of “ M. Michaud's Bibliographie des Črusades.” The style of the present work is simple and uniform, although, perhaps, some readers might occasionally have wished for a little more warmth of description in some of the heart-stirring scenes between the celebrated generals of the times. It is impossible to withhold from it the praise of learning, perseverance, and a love of truth, which displays itself in doing justice to all parties. If our self-love, as Englishmen, be somewhat wounded by the faults which disfigure the character and obscure the splendid qualities of our Lion-hearted Richard, we feel that the description is here too

probably true, and that the imperfections here recorded are very likely to have been component parts of a sovereign who earned so

proud a name in those adventurous days. We most sincerely i wish Dr. Wilken health and leisure to complete his valuable work.

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• Many causes contributed to render the battle of Tiberias and the loss of the holy city, Jerusalem, an object of grief to the Western world. Although the vices of the Europeans who inhabited the Holy Land had drawn upon them the contempt of their fellow Christians, and had induced them to fear that the wrath of God would display itself in signal vengeance against the unworthy polluters of the holy city, it was inipossible that the western world could behold with indifference the extinction of the hopes which they had formed, the loss of the territory which had been acquired at such a dreadful expence of human blood. But there were also nearer interests which tended to make them still feel more deeply the loss which Christendom had sustained. An uninterrupted communication of nearly a hundred years with the East, had introduced a new state of things into Europe ; the constant traffic of pilgrims was of the highest importance to the different states through which they passed, and consequently very few states remained unaffected by this violent interruption. The church could not behold with indifference so fatal a blow to her interests. The sovereigns of Germany, France, and England, with the entire concurrence of the Popes George VIII. and Clement III., determined 10 make a noble effort to rescue Jerusalem from the hands of the infidels. The enthusiasm wbich had produced such wonderful efforts in the former crusades was again excited, and the princes, either warned by the errors of their predecessors, or, perhaps, fearing that the vices of the tiines had called down the wrath of Heaven, adopted wiser measures of precaution and discipline. No soldier was accepted who was not possessed of at least three silver marks, or means to provide himself with all things necessary for his support for two years; and the Kings of France and England enforced the payment of Saladin's tithes throughout their dominions, to procure funds for the execution of their project. The misfortunes which attended the march of the German troops, the bickerings and quarrels of the two kings, are too well known to be here alluded to. The Christian sovereigns, who, had they entered upon their undertaking in the spirit which their holy object required, might have achieved something worthy of their immense preparations and great talents, were opposed to an enemy who was every way worthy of them, who united in his person the most opposite qualities, who was equally the object of love and fear to his subjects, uniting the greatest gentleness of mind to the most ardent and undoubted courage. Aware of the advantages of discipline and unity, the conduct and character of Saladin secured to him the advantage of powerful assistants; and whilst the allied Christians were wasting their powers in childish and unworthy strise, his allies were ready to barass them on their first approach to the land, the object of their wishes and their grief. Believing that persecution of the Christians was a sacred duty, he was yet merciful, whenever he could possibly exercise it, and this singular Crusade presents objects which have long been, and will ever reinain, of the highest interest even to the most careless observer.

We shall commence our extracts with the character of Richard, as described at the commencement of the 10th chapter :

* Although Richard was a brave and fearless knight, and in lists and tournaments, few could remain in the saddle against the power of his lance, and no one in battle braved danger more boldly, or wielded the sword with a more powerful arm, yet he was by no means a distinguished General; and in this respect he cannot be compared with Saladin. Although celebrated by his cotemporaries and posterity as a singer of tender love and longing melancholy, in his manners and behaviour he belied every expression of gentle feeling, and in general councils he could not, by his eloquence, or the convincing clearness of his views, guide or limit the opinions of others; but he either repressed contradiction by fierce raging anger, and uncontrolled violence; or he obtained the apparent acquiescence in his designs by lavish presents to those who suppressed their contradiction. But the natural consequence of this conduct of King Richard was, that secret contradiction was excited, in proportion as a public opposition to his views and plans was not possible or advisable. Sometimes active to excess, he was frequently without energy in decisive moments; in difficult circumstances, which could not be overpowered by violence, be displayed neither power nor prudence; and his will was rather stiff and capricious, than firm and consistent. His warlike bravery was not the valour of a pious hero fighting for God, who, even in murderous battle, and embittered enmity, honours humanity. Richard stained the renown of his bravery by cruelty and blood-thirstiness. By his generosity, which sometimes bordered on extravagance, he gained, indeed, Aattering adherents, but no true friends; and the authority which he acquired was founded more in fear of his fierceness, thau esteem, confidence, or inclination. To inspire and preserve obedience, a.common spirit, and sustained enthusiasm, in an army like that of the pilgrims which Richard was to lead to battle for the holy tomb, the chivalrous courtesy, pious valour and virtue, tried experience and circumspection, and inild seriousness of a Godfrey of Boulogne, had scarcely been sufficient; much less, then, could the wild violence, the rough levity, and hard unfriendliness of King Richard prevail, upon whom only indulgent cotemporaries, for

some single astonishing exploits of extraordinary power, could confer the in splendid name of Lion-hearted.

* The cruel disposition of King Richard displayed itself in the treatment of the Turks who had remained as hostages for the garrison of Ptolemais ; for however different are the accounts and opinions of his cotemporaries on this circumstance, the terrible massacre of warriors, who, by their valour, had acquired the esteem and admiration of the Christians, remains one of the most revolting actions, by which the renown of Western chivalry, hardly earned by many glorious deeds, was obscured.' -vol. iv. pp.


We have given the whole of this extract, that we might not be accused of partiality; and although, as we have already admitted, there is much in it that is too probable, and we are ready

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