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(Qs. 2350-2366.)

For Subhead "O" as a whole the relative cost of free labour and materials respectively (excluding contracts) is as follows:

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Notes.

1. Item I includes many items for both building and engineering work. Some engineering undertakings require skill not available in prisons, such as setting of large boilers, installing hot water and steam systems of centralized heating schemes, electric power and light installations. Such special services were included under Item I.

2. Under the housing schemes, the conditions at Manchester were quite exceptional, the expenditure under Items III 1 and 5 includes Subordinates quarters at Waterloo Road and the Superior Officers quarters (Item III 7) are also at Waterloo Road. This site is at a distance from the prison, and the building had to be entirely by direct free labour, because for disciplinary reasons it was not possible to employ prisoners on the site.

For Waterloo Road, Manchester, the division of the expenditure is as follows:

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Thus for Manchester housing the relative costs of free labour and materials respectively (excluding contracts) is as follows:

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It will be seen that on the housing schemes, Manchester used the major portion of the money paid for free labour and that at the other 11 prisons where quarters were in hand free labour was kept at a minimum.

3. General analysis.

Out of a total expenditure of £69,402, the amount paid for free labour was £16,134, but the conditions at Manchester were exceptional (see note 2) where the expenditure on housing was £21,909 with a labour bill of £9,594.

By deducting the Manchester expenditure the normal prison work (cost of labour and materials) is represented by the following:

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For Subhead "O" excluding Manchester (and contracts) the relative cost of free labour and materials respectively is arrived at as follows:

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These figures should represent the normal division of expenditure on new work in prisons.

Statistics of costs of building work show that for ordinary brick buildings erected by contract or direct labour, the cost of labour amounts to about 45 per cent. and the cost of materials to 55 per cent. of the total cost.

Assuming that the work which cost £43,934 compares in cost with that of ordinary brick buildings the value of prison labour can be calculated as follows: :

The cost of material was £37,394, but if outside labour had been exclusively used the cost of labour would have been :

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Work which cost £43,934 would therefore have cost £67,991.

APPENDIX No. 26.

H. S. R.

16th May, 1927.

PAPER forwarded by Mr. M. L. Waller, C.B.

PRISON COMMISSION, HOME OFFICE.
MANUFACTURING AND FARMING OPERATIONS AT H.M. PRISONS.

(Qs. 2343-2348, 2367-2378.)

I much regret that I find that under the present system of accounting we cannot obtain the information asked for without a very great deal of clerical labour, for which we have not the staff.

We can give the following particulars, which I hope the Committee may in the circumstances find sufficient:

During the year under review the total expenditure under Subhead G amounted to £273,104-of which £74,252 was for the purchase of materials for prison consumption.

It is estimated that the expenditure under Farms amounted to about £10,000.

The statement of the Value of Stocks as on 31st March, 1926, has been further sub-divided as follows:

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With regard to the comments on the value of the stocks held, I have to inform the Committee that considerable stocks of materials to be made into goods for prison use, and of materials for certain staple articles for outside use such as mailbags, have to be kept for the following

reasons.

Prisoners must be regularly employed. Idleness is disastrous, and is never permitted.

Orders from other Government Departments come in somewhat irregularly. With the help of the Treasury, we are trying to remedy this, but it is still the case. They come unexpectedly and are usually accompanied with a request for prompt execution. Prisoners are then taken off the staple manufactures and employed on the new rush order till it is finished. When the rush order has been completed there may be a considerable interval before the next, during which recourse must be had to the staple manufactures.

It may be mentioned also that the stocks are distributed amongst 38 prisons, &c. As the Steward at each establishment has to have an ample and varied stock from which he can readily execute pressing demands, it follows that the total stock must be necessarily heavier than it would be if only one or two establishments were involved.

Stocks have been reduced in recent years, but so long as the demand for prison manufactures is irregular-a matter the Commissioners cannot control-the stocks held must be fairly large. They are watched and controlled from the Head Office.

(Signed) M. L. WALLER, 20th May, 1927.

APPENDIX No. 27.

PAPER forwarded by Brigadier-General Sir S. H. Wilson,
K.C.M.G., K.B.E., C.B.

COLONIAL OFFICE.

BUREAU OF HYGIENE AND TROPICAL DISEASES.

(Qs. 3784-3799.)

The Bureau of Hygiene and Tropical Diseases came into existence in 1912 as a development of the Sleeping Sickness Bureau founded in 1909. The main function of the Bureau is to collect from every possible source, information regarding hygiene and tropical diseases, and the prevalence, recognition, prevention and treatment of diseases in the tropics both of men and domesticated animals; to condense and, where necessary, to translate this information and to render it accessible to medical and veterinary officers in the tropics with as little delay as possible.

The Bureau issues three serial publications...

(i) The Tropical Diseases Bulletin, published monthly and now in its 24th volume.

(ii) The Bulletin of Hygiene.

(iii) The Tropical Veterinary Bulletin.

The larger part of each issue of these publications is distributed to the subscribing Government and the remainder is on sale.

It will be seen that the Bureau's task is of considerable magnitude. To make its survey as nearly world-wide and all-inclusive as possible, the

Bureau regularly keeps watch on a very large number of periodicals mostly obtained by exchange or purchase, published throughout the world in many languages, as well as on numerous reports. The value of this survey to the medical, sanitary and veterinary services in the tropics can scarcely be over-estimated. The literature of hygiene and tropical diseases has become so voluminous that such an intelligence service is essential if the full benefits, both economic and hygienic, accruing from the prompt and efficient application of knowledge to the control of diseases in the tropics are to be enjoyed. It is essential also for the avoidance of waste of time and energy arising from unnecessary duplication of work,

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Apart from its publications the Bureau has built up a valuable Library, now pooled" with that of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in which are included, among other selected works, complete or nearly complete files of all the tropical medical journals, over two hundred series in all, and a large number of pertinent reports and reprints. This library is open to medical men and others who come to this country from the Dominions, Colonies, and other parts of the Empire.

The Staff of the Bureau supply information on the subjects with which it deals to any inquirer, or indicate to him original sources of information, and copies of papers from its large collection or reprints are posted on loan to any part of the world on application. The Bureau also acts in an advisory capacity on matters relating to tropical diseases referred to it by Government Departments.

The Bureau is maintained, partly by a grant of £1,000 from Imperial Funds and partly by contributions by various Dominions, Colonies and Protectorates, Mandated Territories as well as contributions from certain Provinces of India, Egypt and the Soudan. The estimated revenue from this source during the forthcoming financial year is £6,075 inclusive of the Parliamentary grant-in-aid. A subsidiary source of income is derived from sales and advertisements which are estimated to produce in 1927-28, £1,750.

The annual grant of £1,000 from Home Funds was sanctioned for a further quinquennial period beginning in the financial year 1925-26 on the condition that the contributions from the Dominions and Colonies were substantially maintained, a condition which is so far satisfied.

The activities of the Bureau including staff questions and the disposal of the income it receives from the various contributing bodies are under the control of an Honorary Managing Committee appointed by, and responsible to, the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The Committee meets at the Colonial Office under the Chairmanship of the Chief Medical Adviser to the Secretary of State, and includes representatives of the Medical Research Council, Royal Society, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Ministry of Health, Foreign Office, India Office and the Veterinary Profession.

The Office Staff of the Bureau includes a Director, Assistant Director, Secretary and a subordinate clerical staff.

The Bureau has no direct connection with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine which was founded in 1899 by the late Sir Alfred Jones, K.C.M.G., President of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce The objects of the School are (1) to train medical men proceeding to the tropics in the special subjects of tropical diseases, (2) to conduct original researches into tropical diseases, and (3) to organise prophylatic measures against tropical diseases.

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