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weakness. In youth and manhood the excitability of its inventor, it does not follow that they tend is yet entirė, the stamina are strong : the powerful to produce the same propensities in others.' stimuli are applied, and high passions prevail : Dr. Beddoes has, with great candor as well as these are the periods of vigor, and the æra of judgment, pointed out a few of the imperfections inflammatory disease. In old age the stamina of this doctrine. 1. He observes, that, as Dr. are worn, the excitability is exhausted, the com- Brown' assumes, that a certain portion of excimon stimuli have lost their power, and the tability is originally assigned to every living syssystem begins to decline; we have weakness of tem, by his very assumption, he denies its body, imbecility of mind, and asthenic diseases. continual production, subsequent diffusion, and We may, last of all, have recourse to more expenditure.' Dr. Beddoes thinks that the brain generous diot, and raise the stimulant powers by is destined to secrete a successive supply of this substituting wine to water, or brandy to wine; principle. 2. He next objects against the Dr’s thus perhaps excitement may be a while sup- uniformity of operation in stimulants.'-— Heat ported, and life prolonged; but in a few years, and wine (he justly observes) can never act in these also fail. This doctrine farther teaches, the same manner, for no person is intoxicated that the body is never moved but by exciting by heat.' He adds, . had it been once allowed powers. None but stimuli affect our system. by Brown, that the different constituent parts of Health is the due operation of stimuli on a well the body bear a different relation to the same regulated excitability, producing a moderate ex- agents, he must have admitted the operation of citement, and a pleasant sensation ; moving the specific stimulants to an unlimited extent.' On whole system with a just degree of power, and the subject of Predisposition to Disease, he obgiving all the functions their due energy and serves that 'though facts have been noted, the tone. Asthenic disease, disease of debility or principle lies involved in total obscurity. Brown of weakness, is the result of stimuli applied in a does not purposely elude the difficulty, but his low degree, or of the system less easily excited. principles lead him beside it; and we may doubt Sthenic disease, or disease of strength, is the whether the term predisposition ought in strict result of stimuli applied in too great a degree, propriety to have appeared in his Elements; for or of a system too susceptible of excitement. predisposition is with him a slight disease, difThe first is depression of excitement below the fering only in degree from that into which the healthy state : it produces languid motions and person predisposed falls. 4. • There are several functions; and requires excitement for its cure. Other opinions,' he adds,' which, in a complete The second is a strong state of the system, wound revisal of the Brunonian system, would require up to too high a pitch of excitement. It is a particular examination, such as his doctrine conexuberance of health and strength. It is marked cerning hereditary diseases,' which Brown denies by violent movements, and is cured by abstrac- thc existence of, the peculiar state of sthenic tion of stimuli. Thus are all our maladies either inflamation, and the nature of the passions.' 5. diseases of weakness or of excessive strength, And in a note upon Brown's preface, he styles and this is the foundation of the Brunonian the Dr's opinion, that nearly all the diseases of scale, which has for its middle point health ; children depend on debility,'—' a gross and below that are arranged the diseases of weakness; dangerous error,' though he admits that 'thouabove it the diseases of excessive strength : and, sands of them are cut off at an early period of in both divisions of the scale, diseases are so ar- life, and tens of thousands kept languishing in ranged, that the worst forms are set off at the misery, by asthenic diseases, for want of 'he greatest distance from the middle point, to mark necessaries of life.' This admission of Dr. Bedthem as the widest deviations from the healthy does might have superseaed his criticism. Dr. state.

Brown did not say all diseases of children were • The Brunonian system,' says Dr. Beddoes, asthenic. But if thousands and tens of thousands has been frequently charged with promoting are, they may be surely said to be nearly all such. intemperance; the objection is serious, but the Neither Dr. Brown nor any man in his senses view given of its principles shows it to be would prescribe stimulants in croup, peripneugroundless. No writer has insisted so much mony, or the first stage of hooping cough ; upon the dependence of life upon external causes, though we have known the most speedy and or so strongly stated the inevitable consequences effectual cures performed by opium in this last of excess : and there are no means of promoting disease, after the sthenic diathesis was gone. morality upon which we can rely, except the Some have asserted that Dr. Brown borrowed knowledge of the true relations between man and the first idea of his doctrine from some hints other beings or bodies. For by this knowledge thrown out by his then intimate friend Dr. Culwe are directly led to shun what is hurtful, and len; but Dr. Beddoes, after quoting the passage pursue what is salutary. It may be said that from Cullen's Institutions (parag. cxxx.), where the author's life disproves the justness of this excitement is mentioned, shows plainly that when representation. His life, however, only shows Dr. Cullen wrote it, ' his thoughts were turned the superior power of other causes, and of bad from a living body to an electrical machine,' and habits in particular; and I acknowledge the that ‘his idea of excitement has therefore nothing litile efficacy of instruction when bad habits are in common with that of Brown.'-Others have formed. Its great use consists in preventing affirmed, that Dr. Brown only revived the old their formation, for which reason, popular instruc- doctrine of the Methodic sect, and that Themison tion in medicine would contribute to the happi- was the discoverer, and Thessalus and Soranus ness of the human species. But though the princi- the improvers, of the doctrine now called Brunoples of the system did not correct the propensities nian. "But nothing can be more distant from the truth than this. The methodic doctrine of stric- with three membranous wings : SEED. numerous ture and relaxation hears no analagy to Brown's and pointed. The species are, 1. B. multiflora, definitions of sthenic and asthenic diseases; and broad-leaved brunsvigia. 2. B. marginata, red the doctrine of spasm itself is not more opposite edged brunsvigia. 3. B. radula, rasp-leaved to the Brunonian system, than Themison's notion brunsvigia. 4. B. striata, striated brunsvigia. of a third class of diseases, which partook of These are all natives of the Cape of Good both stricture and relaxation. The truth is Hope. incontrovertible, that the discovery, such as it is,

BRUNSWICK, a duchy of Germany, in the is wholly Brown's own. Dr. Darwin suggested former circle of Lower Saxony, and having for an ingenious modification of this system ; but its boundaries Luneburg on the north, Westphalia the system itself has, of late, been almost entirely on the west, the duchy of Hesse on the south, abandoned by medical men.

and Magdeberg, Anhalt, and Halberstadt, on BRUNSFELSIA, in botany, a genus of the the east. It is sometimes considered in two dismonogynia order, and pentandria class of plants. tinct parts: the principality of Wolfenbuttle, and cal. five-toothed, angular; cor. a long tube: the county of Blankenburg, containing altogether CAPS. berried, one-celled, many-seeded. Two about 1452 square miles, and a population of species, both natives of the West-Indies. 208,700 persons, or nearly 144 persons to each

BRUNSVIGIA, in botany, a genus of plants square mile, and is, in its civil government diviclass hexandria, order monogynia, natural order ded into two cities and six districts, which, with narcissi ; essential characters, COR. superior, their extent, population, and chief towns, have having six deep segments : CAPs. turbinate, been thus exhibited ;Districts. Extent in Eng. Sq. miles.

Population.

Chief Towns. Wolfenbuttle 456

56,593

Wolfenbuttle Schöningen 296

32,880

Helmstadt Hartz. 209

19,841

Langelsheim The Leine

95

15,748

Gandersheim Weser 252

31,468

Stadtoldendorf Blankenburg

144

16,317

Blankenburg

.

1452

208,697 Brunswick and Wolfenbuttle are cities, ranking its descent from Azo I., marquis of Este, in Italy, as distinct districts, the former containing a who died in 964. It consists of two branches, population of 29,050, and the latter 6,800 inha- the Brunswick Luneburg, and that of Brunswick bitants. A late survey gives the following dis- Wolfenbuttle ; the head of the former being the tribution of the surface of this duchy.

king of Great Britain and Hanover, and of the

Eng. Acres. latter the duke of Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, the Under the plough

291,575 ruling prince of Brunswick, who holds the Under garden culture

16,752 twelfth place in rank among the princes of the In meadows

42,049 empire. In the modern arrangement of the Pasture land

207,751 German states it has its place in the third class. Woods and plantations

284,423 Brunswick, the capital, is composed of five Fish-ponds and lakes

2,217 towns, viz. the Old Town, the New, the Hagan The most valuable are the mineral productions or Burg, the Old Wieck, and the Sack, which of the duchy, particularly its iron, the mines of make it a large place, but the houses are almost which, with the marble and timber, are the chief all built of wood. There are several churches, basis of its revenue. The northern part is flat, one of which is an ancient Gothic building, but but the southern district a mountainous region, the appearance of its antiquity is almost absorbed forming the thickest part of the Hartz, and large- by modern repairs. It is a fortified place, but ly covered with forests. The lower tracts, besides not of much strength. The inhabitants carry abundance of timber, and metals, produce on a considerable trade with Bohemia. Brunsvarious kinds of grain. The rivers are the wick mum is well known in England; a small Weser, the Ocker, the Innerste, and the Leine. sort of which is the common drink of the inhabiThe principal exports, – rye, wheat, wool, linen, tants of the city. Here spinning-wheels are said rape-seed, hops, vitriol, sulphur, zinc, and a few to have been invented. The buildings most deother articles, amount to two millions and a serving of notice here, are the cathedral of St. half of Rix-dollars annually. The imports are Blasius, with the tombs of deceased members wine, sugar, tea, and coffee. The inhabitants of the royal family; the Graue-Hof, the resiare principally Lutherans ; the whole of the dence of the duke, originally a monastery, the Catholics and Calvinists being only estimated at public wine cellars, the exchequer, the meetingbetween 3000 and 4000. About 3000 men house of the diet, the mint, the opera-house, the includes the whole military establishment. The new town-house, and the arsenal. The Collegium annual revenue arising from taxation is about Carolinum was founded in 1745, and affords in£170,000 a year, but, in addition to this, the struction in the languages, arts, sciences, and prince has a yearly income of about £210,000, polite exercises. Here are also two other acadefrom his patrimonial domains.

mies. The manufactures beside mum, are wool, The illustrious house of Brunswick has been yarn, linen, porcelain, pasteboard, and paperone of the most distinguished in history, and traces hangings The great Brinswick fairs rank next to those of Leipsic and Frankfort. Between battle of Crevelt. Shortly after followed the 1807 and 1814, Brunswick was the capital of the famous victory of Minden, in which Lord George department of the Ocker, in the kingdom of Sackville, who commanded the British and HanWestphalia. It is seven miles north of Wolfen- overian cavalry, was accused of standing aloof buttle, and forty-seven W.N.W of Magdeburg. in the action. In 1762 Ferdinand drove the

BRUNSWICK, a maritime county of North Ca- French out of the territory of Hesse: the peace rolina, America.

of the following year terminated his career as a BRUNSWICK, formerly the best built town in general, and he retired to Brunswick, where his the above county, and one that carried on the death took place July 3rd, 1792. most extensive trade; but having been burnt BRUNSWICK LUNENBURG (Charles William down in the year 1780, by the British, it has Ferdinand, duke of), nephew of the preceding, never since recovered.

and born at Brunswick in 1735, studied the art BRUNSWICK, a town of New Jersey, United of war under his uncle and Frederic the Great of States of America, is situated on the south-west Prussia. When only twenty-two, he distinbank of the Rariton river. It contains about guished himself at the battle of Hastenbeck, and 2500 inhabitants, most of whom are Dutch. The afterwards served with reputation. The king of commodious wooden bridge across the Rariton Prussia employed him in a military capacity in river, is about 200 paces long, and the only object 1770 and 1771; and in 1778 the war concerning worth notice. The part over the channel is con- the succession of Bavaria gave him an opportutrived to draw up, and on each side is a footway, nity of establishing his fame. He succeeded to with rails and lamps. It carries on a considerable the duchy on the death of his father in 1780. trade, and is eighteen miles north-east of Prince- In 1787 he conducted his memorable campaign town, sixty north-east from Philadelphia, and in Holland, quieted its disturbances, and estathirty-five south-west from New York.

blished for a time the prepouderance of Prussia. BRUNSWICK, a town of the United States, in The revolution now rising in France furnished Cumberland county, district of Maine, contains him with fresh employment: in 1792 he was about 1400 inhabitants, and lies thirty miles appointed to the command of the allied forces north-east of Portland, and 151 north-east of destined to act against France, with a view to Boston.

liberate Louis XVI. Nothing could be more BRUNSWICK, a town of the United States, the unfortunate than the result of this expedition; chief town of Glynn county, Georgia, is situated the duke resigned his command in the beginning at the mouth of Turtle river, in Simon's sound. of 1794. He once more took up arms against It has a safe and capacious harbour. From its France in 1806, and received a wound, while in advantageous situation, and the fertility of the command of the Prussians at the battle of Auerback country, it promises to be a most commer- stadt, of which he died at Altona, November cial and flourishing place. It is sixty miles S.S.W 10th, 1806. In 1764 this prince married the from Savannah, and 110 south-east from Louis- princess Augusta of England, by whom he had ville.

three sons and four daughters. His eldest son BRUNSWICK New, one of the four British and successor fell in the midst of his brave provinces in North Ainerica, bounded on the Brunswickers early in the battle, fought in 1815, south by the bay of Fundy, on the west by the near Waterloo. For a sketch of the life of his United States, and part of Lower Canada, on not less brave but unhappy daughter, Caroline, the north by Chaleur bay, and on the east by the see AROLINE. gulf of St. Lawrence. Its chief towns are St. BRUNSWICK-Oels (Frederick Augustus, duke John's the capital, Fredericktown, St. Andrews, of), younger brother of the preceding, was born and St. Ann, the present seat of government. in 1741 at Brunswick. Destined, from his staThe rivers, St. John's, Magegadavick, or eastern tion, to a military life, he had yet a strong preriver, Dicwasset, St. Croix, Merrimichi, Petit- dilection for the belles lettres; and, while acting codiac, Memramcook; all, the three lastexcepted, as a general officer in the service of Prussia, disfalliug into Passamaquoddy bay. St. John's tinguished himself by his literary acquirements. river opens a vast extent of fine woody country, His productions, printed and circulated among the pines of which are said to be the best yielded his friends, but never published, were Critical in America. The Passamaquoddy is surrounded Remarks on the Character and Actions of Alexwith noble meadows. See AMERICA, British. ander the Great; a Treatise on Great Men; The

BRUNSWICK GREEN. This is an ammoniaco- Thoughts of a Cosmopolite on Air Balloons ; muriate of copper, much used for paper-hang- Military Instructions; A Discourse on Taking ings, and on the continent in oil-painting. See the Oath ; Considerations on the Grandeur, &c. COPPER.

of Ancient Rome; An amusing Historical, PoBRUNSWICK (Ferdinand, duke of), a cele- litical, and Literary Journal; all in 8vo.: and brated general of the last century, was born in a History of the Military Life of Prince Frede1721, and travelled in Holland, France, and rick Augustus of Brunswick Lunenburg, 4to. Italy. Returning home in 1740, he entered the His highness was an honorary member of the service of the king of Prussia, and soon distin. Berlin Academy of Sciences. In 1792 he sucguished hiinself in Silesia. After the rupture of ceeded to the principality of Brunswick Oels, the convention of Closterseven, he was employed and died in 1805 at Weimar. by George II. in the command of the English William Adolphus, another brother, belonged and Hanoverian forces destined to act against to the Academy at Berlin, and published a l'ransthe French. He now drove the enemy beyond lation of Sallust, a Discourse on War, and a the Rhine, and won, hy a daring manæuvre, the Poem on the Conquest of Mexico, in French. He served in the armies of the king of Prussia, which a catalogue is given in Gesner's Biblioand died of a fever in 1771, when about to join theque. lle was very poor, subsisting almost the Russian army.

entirely by the benefactions of his poetical paBRUNT'. Swed. branud, Belg. brand, from frons, and by presents from the alibots whose Goth. brenna. To burn; ardor; vehemence; monasteries he described. The liberality of some shock ; violence; blow; stroke.

abbots at Basil enabled him to buy a new suit of

clothes; but when he found that appearing well Erona chose rather to bide the brunt of war, than dressed in the streets procured him respect from venture him.

Sidney, the vulgar, he tore his new finery to pieces, “as A wicked ambush, which lay hidden long

slaves that had usurped their master's honors.' In the close covert of her guileful eyen,

He was murdered in the forest of Schlingenbach Thence breaking forth, did thick about me throng, Too fccble I to' abide the brunt so strong. Spenuer. gentlemen (it was supposed) against whom he

between Rottemberg and Winsheim, by some The friendly rug preserved the ground,

was about to write soinething. And headlong knight, from bruise or wound, Like feather-bed betwixt a wall,

BRUSH', v. & n. Swed. borst, Dan. baerst, Or heavy brunt of cannon-ball.

Hudibras,

Brush'er, Fr. brosse. This in the God, who caused a fountain, at thy prayer,

Brush'Y. Ssense of an instrument Froia the dry ground to spring, thy thirst to'allay

made with bristles of hair : but Goth. brask, bradAfter the brunt of battle.

Milton. ska, Swed, brædska, Scot. brash, Bel. brusk, Fr.

brusque, Ital. brusco. In this it signifies a sudBRUNTON (Mary), an authoress of some

den effort, a strenuous act, an assault. To brush, repute, was the daughter of Colonel Thomas is with a brush either to clean, rub, or paint anyBalfour, and born in the island of Barra, Ork- thing; to strike with quickness, to move with ney, in 1778. She married, in her twentieth rapidity, or to fly over, to skim lightly. The year, Dr. Alexander Brunton, minister of Bolton, adjective is used in the sense of rough or shaggy. near Haddington, and afterwards of Edinburgh. A fox's tail is on this account called a brush. She wrote Discipline, and Self-Control, two very successful novels of the religious class, and died And him so rudely passing by, did brush

The wrathful beast about him turned light, in 1818, leaving Emmeline, a tale, and other with his long tail, that horse and man to ground did pieces, which have been published by Dr. B. rush.

Faerie Queene. with a sketch of her life.

If he be not in love with some woman, there is no BRUNY'S Isle, an island on the south-east believing old signs : he brushes his hat o' morning; coast of Van Diemen's land, of an irregular what should that bode ?

Shakspeare. figure, and about thirty miles in length. On the Let grow thy sinews till their knots be strony, east it is penetrated by Adventure Bay, and by And tempt not yet the brushes of the war. Id. Isthmus Bay on the west; the tides nearly meet Sir Henry Wotton used to say, that criticks were

Васота. on each side of the narrow intervening lands. like brushers of noblemen's cloatbes. From the mainland this island is separated by

Another bolder stands at push D'Entrecasteaux's channel, and has a beautiful

With their old holy-water brush. Marvell.

And from the boughs brush off the evil dew, sandy beach, of which the interior is covered

And heal the harms of thwarting thunder blue. with lofty trees, many of which seem peculiar to

Milton. the island. Enormous rays are found here, Has Somnus brush'd thy eyelids with his rod ? weighing 300 or 400 pounds. Mosquitoes are

Dryden numerous, and a species of large black ant, which His son Cupavo brushed the briny flood, inflicts a very painful bite. Eagles, hawks, par- Upon his stern a brawny centaur stood.

!d. roquets, and several kinds of crows, frequent the

Nor wept his fate, nor cast a pitying eye, shore, where numbers of aquatic birds are taken. Nor took him down, but brushed regardless by. Kangaroos are also found here, and a singular High o'er the billows flew the masey load, species of the duck-billed ant eater. It is seven- And near the ship came thundering on the food, teen inches long, two inches high when walking, It almost brushed the helm.

Pose and covered by spines, just projecting above the

You have commissioned me to paint your shop, and skin. It is a sort of connecting link between I have done my best to brush you up like your neigh

bours. birds and quadrupeds. The few inhabitants here are of similar tribes to those of Van Die

The French had gathered all their force,

And William met them in their way; men's land, dark, and tattooed with fanciful ele

Yet off they brushed, both foot and horse. vated punctures. Both sexes go naked, and are

Prior. very barbarous and treacherous. Long. 147° 29° With a small brush you must smear the glue weli E., lat. 43° 21' S.

upon the joint of each piece.

Moron. BRUSCHIUS (Gasper), a Latin historian and Whence comes all this rage of wit? this arming all poet, born at Egra, in Bohemia, in 1518. He the pencils and brushes of the town against me? was devoted to literature from his childhood, and

Stilling fleet. especially to poetry, in which he gained so much

As on a time the fox held forth, reputation, that he attained to the poetical crown,

On conscience, honesty, and worth, to the dignity of poet laureat, and of count pala

Sudden he stopped; he cocked his ear; tine. He wrote with prodigious facility; and

Low dropt his brushy tail with fear.

Gay's Fables. his verses are easy, and natural. He published

Alike the busy and the Latin poems on various subjects; the History of But flutter through life's little day, the Bishops and Bishoprics of Germany; of Ger- In fortune's varying colours drest, man Monasteries; and inany other works, of Brushed by the hand of rough mischance. Gray.

Id.

gay

Brugh, in electricity, denotes the luminous of the nobility are also elegant structures, mostly appearance of the electric matter issuing in a decorated with the finest paintings of the Flemish parcel of diverging rays from a point. Beccaria school. Of twenty public fountains which supascribes this appearan

rance to the force with which ply the city with water, some are elegantly exethe electric fluid, going out of a point, divides cuted and ornamented. The church of the Cathe contiguous air, and passes through it to that puchins is one of the finest they possessed in which is more remote.

Europe. Brussels has also a public library, conBrush Making. This is done by folding the taining 100,000 volumes; an academy of sciences, hair or bristle in two; and bringing it by means instituted in 1772, which holds its meetings in of a packthread, which is engaged in the fold, the library; a botanic garden, with more than through the holes with which the wood is pierced 4000 exotics; a cabinet of curiosities; collection all over, being afterwards fastened therein with of paintings; &c. Besides, being the permaglue. When the holes are thus filled, the ends nent abode of the hereditary prince, and the of the hair are cut to make the surface ever. usual residence of the court of the Netherlands, The Chinese painter's brush consists of the stalk the states-general of the kingdom meet here and of a plant; whose fibres being fretted at both at the Hague alternately. The magistracy is ends, and tied again, serve for a brush.

composed of a superior officer, a burgomaster, Brusu, SHEARMEN's, is made of wild boar's seven echevins, two treasurers, and a pensionary, bristles; and serves to lay the wool or nap of besides nine councillors and three receivers. cloth, after shearing it for the last time.

Brussels has long been celebrated for its lace Brush, Wine, is made of brass or iron wires and carpets, of a superior manufacture. The instead of hair. These are used by silver-smiths former alone employs about 10,000 people. and gilders, for scrubbing silver, copper, or brass, Silks and earthenware are also wrought, woollen previous to gilding them.

and cotton stuffs of various kinds, and potash. Brush of a Fox, among sportsmen, signifies Since the peace of 1814, its population has inhis drag or tail.

creased from 60,000 to 80,000, which includes a BRUSH'WOOD. Teut. brusch, Fr. brusc, great number of English families. Brussels has brosse, brossailles, Ital. brusca. Young trees, or

also a respectable foreign trade, by means of the branches that are stunted by cattle. See BROWSE Scheldt, with which it is connected by a canal.

The environs of Brussels are well cultivated, and Risewood.

and, striking along the whole southern line, It smokes, and then with trembling breath she stretches the large forest of Soignies. The city blows,

was the head-quarters of the British troops on Till in a cheerful blaze the flames arose.

the eve of the memorable battle of Waterloo ; With brushwood, and with chips, she strengthens and, both before and after that glorious victory,

these, And adds at last the boughs of rotten trees. Dryden. nation and country of Europe. The numerous

a scene of the deepest interest to every BRUSSELS, the capital of the southern pro- tours, sentimental, descriptive, or of a mixed vinces, and second town of the kingdom of the character, which the vanity or industry of its Netherlands, is a handsome city of South Bra- visitants bas given the public, must bave renbant, situated partly on a gentle eminence, and dered the city and its scenery familiar to most of partly on a plain watered by the Senne. It is our readers. stated to be seven English miles in circum- Brussels was founded by St. Gery, bishop of ference, and was formerly surrounded by a wall, Cambray, about the beginning of the seventh ditch, and other fortifications; but these were century, who commenced with a small chapel, demolished by Joseph II. and the ramparts are built on an island formed by the Senne. The laid out in public walks. No town in Europe labors of the bishop, it is said, and the pleasanthas finer walks. That part of the city on the ness of the situation, soon surrounded him with hill has a very imposing appearance. The park a considerable village; and in the year 900 both is an immense square, laid out in regular walks, a market and a castle are found here. It reshaded with trees, and surrounded by the pa- ceived its walls and towers when, about the laces, public offices, and houses of the great. 'In middle of the eleventh century, it became the one of these walks, there is a fountain into which residence of the dukes of Brabant. Subsequently the czar Peter, when ou a visit to this city, fell the Austrian governors of the Netherlands resided one evening after dinner, while strolling through here. In 1555 Charles V. here resigned bis dothe park; an event recorded on a marble tablet. minions to his son Philip; the chair of state In the lower town are many narrow streets of which he used is still preserved. In 1695 Marthe character of all bustling towns; but the great shal Villeroy bombarded it for sixteen hours, market-place here is beautiful; and the public when fourteen churches and 4000 houses became buildings are good specimens of the florid Gothic. a prey to the flames. After the battle of RamilThe Hotel de Ville is a magnificent structure of lies, the keys were resigned to the duke of Marlthis kind, with a spire of curious architecture, borough. The Elector of Bavaria made an un364 feet high, and surmounted by a statue of St. successful attack upon this city in 1708 ; but it Michael with the dragon, in gilt copper. The was taken by the French in 1746, and restored internal decorations of this edifice correspond at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.

It was first with its external appearance.

Some of the entered'hy the French revolutionary troops in apartments are adorned with beautiful specimens 1792, about ten days after the battle of Jemappe; of tapestry, representing the resignation of was afterwards evacuated, but again taken on Charles V. Many of the churches and palaces the 10th of July, 1794, and kept till the general

was

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