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knead might pair rain shone their need mite
pare reign shown there knew
rein sighs throne new mist
peace rice size thrown know moan piece rise
scull threw mown peal ring skull through lain
mourn peel wring slay to lane morn plain reck
sleigh too lead muscle plane
soar two led
mussel plait rye sore vail lessen knot plate wry
sole vale lesson not
road soul veil loan nay pour
vain lone neigh pray
sum vane lute
none prey rough son vein loot nun pride ruff sun wade made oar pried rose
stair weighed maid o'er profit rows stare waist mail ore
prophet sail stake waste male ode
quarts sale steak wait main owed quartz scene steal weight mane one read seen steel
way mantel won
reed sea straight weigh mantle pail
see strait weak meat pale red
seam tail week meet pain, right seem
wood mete pane write sew
the would medal pause rite
thee wooed wright SOW
A1. first class
Dr. Doctor, debt, abbr. abbreviation
debtor acct. account
Ed. Editor, edition A.D. In the year of our e.g.
for example Lord
Esq. Esquire agt. agent
et al. and others A.B. Bachelor of Arts etc., &c. and so forth A.M. Master of Arts, F., Fahr. Fahrenheit before noon
f.o.b. free on board Amer. America
frt. freight amt. amount
G.A.R. Grand Army of the anon. anonymous
Gen. General asst. assistant
Gov. Governor bal. balance
hdkf. handkerchief B.C. before Christ hist. history B.L. bill of lading
Hon. Honorable chap., ch. chapter i.e. that is coll. collect
ins. insurance Co. company, county inst.
instant, present C.O.D. cash on delivery
month Col. Colonel
int. interest cr. credit, creditor inv. invoice do. ditto, the same Jr. Junior D.C. District of Co- lat. latitude lumbia
Lt., Lieut. Lieutenant D.D. Doctor of Divinity LL.D. Doctor of Laws
long. longitude Prof. Professor M. noon, thousand prox. next month Maj. Major
P.S. postscript M.C. Member of Con- ques.
recd. received M.D.
Doctor of Medi- recpt. receipt
Rep. Representative mdse. merchandise R.R. Railroad mem. memorandum Rey. Reverend Messrs gentlemen Rt. Rev. Right Reverend mfg. manufacturing Ry. Railway Nat. National
New England Soc. Society
Sunday School payt. payment
Supt. Superintendent Ph.D. Doctor of Phi- S.W. southwest
losophy Treas. Treasurer pl. plural
last month P.M. afternoon, V.P. Vice-President
Postmaster vol. volume P.O. Post Office W.C.T.U. Women's Chrispop. population tian Temperance Union
wt. weight Pres. President Y.M.C.A. Young Men's Prin. Principal
RULES FOR SPELLING
PLURALS OF NOUNS
The plurals of nouns are generally made by adding 8 to the singular.
Nouns ending in 8, X, 2, sh, or soft ch, and nouns that end in i, o, u, or y, preceded each by a consonant, are made plural by adding es to the singular. (Y is changed to i when adding es.)
In our language, as written in England, the plural of story, or storey, meaning floor, is storeys. We write stories. We notice these interesting differences when reading books printed in England.
A few nouns in o are exceptions to the above rule, and add s only. See opposite page.
Nouns ending in o or y, preceded by a vowel, add : to the singular to form the plural.
Nouns ending in silent e, preceded by the sound of 8, x, z, j, sh, or soft ch, add s to the singular.
Some nouns ending in f and fe change f to v and add es, and others add only 8 to form the plural.
The plurals of letters, figures, and other characters are formed by adding the apostrophe () and 8, that is ( 's), to the singular.
EXCEPTION. — Wharf has both forms, wharfs and wharves. Staff becomes staves in the plural, but its compounds are regular; as, flagstaff, flagstaffs.
The plural of many nouns is irregular, as man, men. Give the singular form of each of the following nouns and the rule, if any, for forming the plural :
dresses galleys griefs bamboos wedges fancies latches folios calicoes buggies gulfs pebbles squashes thieves classes shelves sopranos hoofs
haunches pulleys lassos proofs pianos chimneys violets pansies tomatoes knives buffaloes studios gifts sheaves heroes colleges scarfs boxes
ratios libraries negroes images loaves breeches berries hearses calves
sponges races mustaches valleys flies
octavos vetoes damages lilies tassels radishes beeves potatoes gnues
glasses ledges phrases daisies altos strifes porticoes markets matches
guesses dominoes mottoes volcanoes halves thrushes lives turkeys poppies reefs
mosquitoes chaises elves twos monkeys wolves cuckoos cuffs trios taxes kangaroos duties dwarfs safes waifs leaves flashes horses torpedoes coaches wretches lasses echoes selves
tornadoes adieus zeros fifes spices bushes foxes breezes pennies gases
's stories women children oxen
?'s staffs (meaning officers)