Abbildungen der Seite

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knead might pair rain shone their need mite

pare reign shown there knew

rein sighs throne new mist

peace rice size thrown know moan piece rise

scull threw mown peal ring skull through lain

mourn peel wring slay to lane morn plain reck

sleigh too lead muscle plane


soar two led

mussel plait rye sore vail lessen knot plate wry

sole vale lesson not


road soul veil loan nay pour


vain lone neigh pray


sum vane lute

none prey rough son vein loot nun pride ruff sun wade made oar pried rose

stair weighed maid o'er profit rows stare waist mail ore

prophet sail stake waste male ode

quarts sale steak wait main owed quartz scene steal weight mane one read seen steel

way mantel won

reed sea straight weigh mantle pail


see strait weak meat pale red

seam tail week meet pain, right seem

wood mete pane write sew

the would medal pause rite

thee wooed wright SOW


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A1. first class

Dr. Doctor, debt, abbr. abbreviation

debtor acct. account

Ed. Editor, edition A.D. In the year of our e.g.

for example Lord

Esq. Esquire agt. agent

et al. and others A.B. Bachelor of Arts etc., &c. and so forth A.M. Master of Arts, F., Fahr. Fahrenheit before noon

f.o.b. free on board Amer. America

frt. freight amt. amount

G.A.R. Grand Army of the anon. anonymous

Republic association

Gen. General asst. assistant

Gov. Governor bal. balance

hdkf. handkerchief B.C. before Christ hist. history B.L. bill of lading

Hon. Honorable chap., ch. chapter i.e. that is coll. collect

ins. insurance Co. company, county inst.

instant, present C.O.D. cash on delivery

month Col. Colonel

int. interest cr. credit, creditor inv. invoice do. ditto, the same Jr. Junior D.C. District of Co- lat. latitude lumbia

Lt., Lieut. Lieutenant D.D. Doctor of Divinity LL.D. Doctor of Laws

long. longitude Prof. Professor M. noon, thousand prox. next month Maj. Major

P.S. postscript M.C. Member of Con- ques.

question gress

recd. received M.D.

Doctor of Medi- recpt. receipt

Rep. Representative mdse. merchandise R.R. Railroad mem. memorandum Rey. Reverend Messrs gentlemen Rt. Rev. Right Reverend mfg. manufacturing Ry. Railway Nat. National

Sec. Secretary
N.B. take notice Sen. Senator
N.E. northeast, sing. singular

New England Soc. Society
N.W. northwest Sr. Senior
all right


Sunday School payt. payment

Supt. Superintendent Ph.D. Doctor of Phi- S.W. southwest

losophy Treas. Treasurer pl. plural


last month P.M. afternoon, V.P. Vice-President

Postmaster vol. volume P.O. Post Office W.C.T.U. Women's Chrispop. population tian Temperance Union

wt. weight Pres. President Y.M.C.A. Young Men's Prin. Principal

Christian Association

pr. ct.

per cent



The plurals of nouns are generally made by adding 8 to the singular.

Nouns ending in 8, X, 2, sh, or soft ch, and nouns that end in i, o, u, or y, preceded each by a consonant, are made plural by adding es to the singular. (Y is changed to i when adding es.)

In our language, as written in England, the plural of story, or storey, meaning floor, is storeys. We write stories. We notice these interesting differences when reading books printed in England.

A few nouns in o are exceptions to the above rule, and add s only. See opposite page.

Nouns ending in o or y, preceded by a vowel, add : to the singular to form the plural.

Nouns ending in silent e, preceded by the sound of 8, x, z, j, sh, or soft ch, add s to the singular.

Some nouns ending in f and fe change f to v and add es, and others add only 8 to form the plural.

The plurals of letters, figures, and other characters are formed by adding the apostrophe () and 8, that is ( 's), to the singular.

EXCEPTION. — Wharf has both forms, wharfs and wharves. Staff becomes staves in the plural, but its compounds are regular; as, flagstaff, flagstaffs.

The plural of many nouns is irregular, as man, men. Give the singular form of each of the following nouns and the rule, if any, for forming the plural :

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dresses galleys griefs bamboos wedges fancies latches folios calicoes buggies gulfs pebbles squashes thieves classes shelves sopranos hoofs

haunches pulleys lassos proofs pianos chimneys violets pansies tomatoes knives buffaloes studios gifts sheaves heroes colleges scarfs boxes

ratios libraries negroes images loaves breeches berries hearses calves

sponges races mustaches valleys flies

octavos vetoes damages lilies tassels radishes beeves potatoes gnues


glasses ledges phrases daisies altos strifes porticoes markets matches


guesses dominoes mottoes volcanoes halves thrushes lives turkeys poppies reefs

mosquitoes chaises elves twos monkeys wolves cuckoos cuffs trios taxes kangaroos duties dwarfs safes waifs leaves flashes horses torpedoes coaches wretches lasses echoes selves


tornadoes adieus zeros fifes spices bushes foxes breezes pennies gases

's stories women children oxen

weaknesses 3's

?'s staffs (meaning officers)

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