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COMPENSATIONS.

That pace the green mound to and fro

Till all their drifting petals rest, What care I for the bitter things men

Blurred heaps of red and white, below say,

His-"Dulce et decorum est-". The slanderous idle talk, the foolish words,

I wonder, was it sweet to die? Whilst I may listen to the song of For just an English lad, you know, birds?

Straight, sure of foot, and keen of Best let the world pursue its noisy

eye — way.

Such stuff as country homesteads Does not the wind yet murmur in the

growtrees,

With somewhat of his childhood's glow The water flow

Half sobered by his manhood's zest—? With soothing music? So I let

Ah think! Against it all to throw them go,

His-"Dulce et decorum est—!" And fill my soul with voices such as

I wonder if the heart was high, these.

Exultant, when the life was low,

If all his thirsting agony What though the room be narrow

Dragged downwards into darkness so, where I dwell,

Or wailing, in some helpless woe, Or hard conditions bound my life as

Of orchards in his quiet west, bars?

And women, who believed, we trow, Have I not yet the shining of the His—"Dulce et decorum est," stars, ...

Boy-brother, do the buds they strow, That multitude which never man could

Does all this ordered calm attest tell?

A something? Then I think they show
Have I not still my blue Italian sky, This—"Dulce et decorum est—"
My olive trees,

The Academy.
In terraced rows that whiten in the

breeze,
And are not these enough for such as I?

THE GOOD MOMENT.

Here are the heights and spaces-here, Why should I vex my soul for outward

in view things?

Of love and death, the silence and My room is narrow ... but the world

the sky, is wide.

We are content to put contentment Few things I own ... and yet am

by satisfied,

And work our sad salvation out anew: For Nature gives to beggars as to Here all mean ways of living, all untrue kings.

Measures of life, are done with you While for the world, though it

and I may slander, blame,

Can gauge our deeds by God's eterI heed it not: Such transient sound is easily for And find the right a simple thing to do. got:

But when the

uplifting moment The wind, the sea, the stars, are yet the same.

passes—when

The pitiful happenings of every day Dorothy Nevile Lees.

Encompass us, and windy words of The Pall Mall Magazine.

men,

Will not the years beset, perhaps beA BALLADE

tray?

-Now, 'tis not hard to plan the perGray towers, and a gray-blue sky,

fect way; And loot of little leaves that go

Will it be easy to walk in it then? Like ghosts of buried children by,

Gerald Gould. Ungathered where the breezes blow; The Fortnightly Review.

nity,

THE PROBLEM OF THE NEAR EAST.

.

The courses of domestic and foreign gary was condemned among the Great affairs are more or less connected in Powers to a rôle of compulsory conservevery country, but nowhere so inti- atism. However unpalatable to the remately as in the Dual Monarchy. cipients might be the most maladroit Nearly all its peoples have their racial of all the German Emperor's complicentre of gravity outside its frontiers. ments, the policy of Vienna could never On every side external events may ex- be more than "a brilliant second" to ercise the most vital internal effect. that of Berlin, and could not again play The transformation of Austria proper an initiating rôle in Europe. The by the introduction of universal suf- events of a single week have swept frage has been recognized. If it had away that assumption. Austria has been realized that as a matter of course shown that she can still act, and has these internal changes must exercise a dared to act with a vengeance. strong and, perhaps, decisive influence The Dual Monarchy was supposed upon external policy, the surprises of to be of all Powers the most anxiously the last few weeks would have been re- concerned for the preservation of the ceived with less amazement. British status quo. It is Austria which has depublic opinion, and even British policy, stroyed the diplomatic basis upon would have found themselves better which that status reposed. Without prepared. Baron Aehrenthal's diplo- the assurance of Austrian support Bulmatic antagonists might have riposted garia would not have risked a daring with a surer hand. Sufficient warning coup. Then followed the annexation of might well indeed have taken from Bosnia and Herzegovina in repudiation Baron Aehrenthal's action in securing not only of the general engagement to the right of direct railway communica- Europe by the Berlin Treaty, but of the tion from Salonika; from the vigor and pledges to Turkey contained in the seobstinacy of his resistance to Sir Ed- cret clause of 1878, and repeated with ward Grey's projects for Macedonian less emphasis in the Convention of reform. These things, however, were 1879. In preparing this action Baron regarded as the evidences of mere oh- Aehrenthal took certain Powers into structiveness rather than as the serious his confidence, but not others. This signs that an innovating, an adventur- country was conspicuously ignored. ous, and even an aggressive régime had Not only

Baron Aehrenthal's been introduced at the Ballplatz. The refusal to regard

signature internal distractions of Austria-Hun- to the Treaty of Berlin as a matter of gary, it was passively assumed, would practical importance is described by the still incapacitate that power for posi- organs of the Ballplatz as a deliberate tive action abroad. The venerable blow at British influence. The Austromaxim was repeated that from the Hungarian Minister must have been Hapsburg point of view, even more un- perfectly well aware that the Servian conditionally than from the British, race—already as effectually vivisected peace must be regarded as the greatest by the original occupation of Bosnia of interests, and peace at any price and Herzegovina as was Poland by the must be maintained. However sweep- first partition-would be thrown into a ing might be the triumph within the perilous agitation which would not soon monarchy of the democratic spirit, it subside; that Montenegro and Crete was held, in a word, that Austria-Hun would repudiate in their turn such

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clauses of the Berlin Treaty as affected Nevertheless, important traces upon them; that in view of the relations ex

the relations between Austria and Rus

sia will remain froin Buchlau. isting between Turkey and Bulgaria

Changes are preparing, and the great the peace of all Europe would hang

interests brought into play show to the upon a hair; that a heavy blow would

world that the policy of ententes has arbe struck at the prestige of the reform

rived at its turning point. movement in the Ottoman Empire; that the danger of a Mussulman reaction, al- This may be no more than a verbal most certain in any case to lift its head game of diplomatic bluff rather poorly sooner or later, would be hastened and played by the sort of journalism that is increased. All this Baron Aehrenthal more vivacious than adroit. But it well knew.

would be unwise to underestimate the If this were all, it would argue that usefulness of the indications it affords. external affairs at Vienna are once It may exaggerate Baron Aehrenthal's more in the hands of a personality to ability, and distort his achievements be reckoned with, and capable of action out of all proportion to the facts, but certain to disturb Europe to its depths. it had better be taken as a fairly clear The Neue Freie Presse, once more guide to the mind and temperament of semi-official organ, not obscurely hints the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Ministhat all contingencies have been consid- ter. To acquire a closer view of his ered and provided for with triumphant position and purposes we must go a ability; that more far-reaching plans little back. than the world generally suspects have On October 22nd, 1906, almost exactly been framed; that the epoch of passive two years ago, Count Goluchowski was adhesion to the status quo is at an end threatened by an adverse vote in the for more than one Power. This is not delegations, and resigned after many directly stated, but this or nothing is years in office. It was the fall of a meant by the unmistakable suggestion system as well as of a man. His sucof the Neue Freie Presse that M. Isvol

cessor was Baron Aehrenthal, who had sky and Baron Aebrenthal have arrived been for a long time Ambassador in St. at a tacit but tolerably comprehensive Petersburg, and who knows Russia understanding.

through and through, probably as well

as the Tsardom is known to any person Many ninepins have gone down be

living. The hour was critical, Unifore the balls set rolling by Baron v. Aehrenthal. The tumult that now pre

versal suffrage was about to be adopted vents a clear survey will pass away.

in Austria—the boldest electoral leap Then it will perhaps be seen that new in the dark ever taken by any country. connections between the nations have But the happy results soon afterwards become necessary, and that an Austria

won were not yet certain. The recent Hungary which does not mean to go to

struggle between Hungary and its sovSalonika, will probably be more power

ereign had seemed to prophesy the ful in the Balkans than before. could only live to see what the me

doom of Dualism, and few dared to moirs will have to say as to the con- think out a system that could replace versation between Baron v. Aehren- it. Count Goluchowski had retired in thal and M. Isvolsky at Buchlau! The the face of the total failure of his poldiscussion was perhaps not so impor- icy with regard to Servia. A customs tant as at the memorable interview be

union between that country and Bultween the Emperors at Alexandrovo, where the germ of the Double Insur

garia had been threatened. The comance Treaty between Germany and

mercial war at once declared by AusRussia was already dimly revealed. tria-Hungary against Servia had ut

If we

terly failed to bring the Servians to and according as it may be handled, their knees. To the amazement of the will prove either the most promising or Ballplatz, the little kingdom secured the most dangerous part of the whole through French support fresh markets Austrian question. The region of the for its pork, holding its own with un- South Slavs has often been called, not precedented vigor against that eco- untruly, the Achilles heel of Hapsburg nomic boycott of a whole people which power; though it is equally true that Vienna hitherto had always found an the federal policy supposed to be conequally easy and crushing method of templated by the Archduke Franz Fercoercion. This result was received dinand might once more make the with exultation by that vast majority Serbo-Croats, as against the Magyars, of the Servian race—including the the spear-point of that Power. This, in Croats, of the same stock, though of a the opinion of the present writer, is the different religion—which is already un- real clue to recent developments. der Hapsburg rule. To grasp the fuil Throughout the two years in which significance of this fact and what has Baron Aehrenthal has held office, the followed, it must be thoroughly under- Serbo-Croat question has been with stood that Bosnia and Herzegovina him in various aspects indeed, but in a form the very heart of that Greater more and more acute form. It is just Servia or Greater Serbo-Croatia which to denounce the arbitrary and inopporis the political ideal of nearly nine mil- tune violation of tbe Treaty of Berlin. lions of people.

At the same time, it is useless to forThis huge mass is, in one sense, a get that, since Count Goluchowski's geographical expression, for the Serbo- overthrow, the simultaneous developCroats are divided into sections vari- ments of the Servian question in Ausously ruled from Vienna, Serajevo, and tria proper, in Hungary, in the occuAgram, from Belgrade and Cettigne. pied provinces, in Novi Bazar, in the Less than a third part of the whole relations with Montenegro and Belrace is independent under King Peter grade, have never ceased to engage or Prince Nicholas. More than two- Baron Aehrenthal's serious attention. thirds of it is under German or Mag- At first he was not understood. He yar ascendancy. Yet all these lines began to act at once, but for a long of demarcation are as artificial as the time he was singularly successful in diplomatic frontiers separating the sev- lending an air of unimportance to his eral divisions of the Poles. The proceedings. There were current the Serbo-Croats also form a continuous ra- most conflicting accounts of his intencial block, filling up the territory be- tions, and he kept up the mystery with tween the Danube and the Adriatic- a prudence he has lately flung aside. To capable either of commanding or clos- public opinion in foreign countries he ing the route to Salonika, according as was practically unknown. Hardly any. the region does or does not remain to one had seen his portrait. His first a sufficient extent under Austro-Hunga- speech as Foreign Minister was as colrian control. Bosnia and Herzegovina orless as a calculated reserve could are the heart, then, of the Serbo-Croat make it. He had, of course, three main lands. They are the key to the Serv. problems to deal with:-(1) Relations ian problem, and that problem-as we with Germany; (2) relations with Russhall realize if we remember that the sia; (3) relations with Servia and with Servian kingdom is only a minor frag- the Balkans generally. Apart from ment of it-is without exception the these and other external affairs with most interesting, the most complicated, which it was his business directly to deal, Baron Aehrenthal, by his manip- a federal, not a dual system. Its Imulation of foreign policy, can do much perial unity, paradoxical as the stateas we have seen to determine the lines ment may seem, can only be restored upon which the reorganization of the by such an increased division of its Hapsburg dominions must ultimately parts as would mean the effective subtake place—if the break-up is indeed to ordination of every one of them. And be avoided, and if a splendid renais Imperial Austria is to be not only a sance is to be realized. In all these vital and progressive State within. things rumor was true when it declared Without it is to be an independent, actCount Goluchowski's successor to be ive, and expanding Power. Franz Ferthe heir-apparent's man. The real dinand is now forty-five. No man ever Baron Aehrenthal we now know, nor passed through a more thorough educan there be any reasonable doubt as to cation for the duties of coming rulerhis objects, or as to the methods by ship. He was never so popular as towhich he will endeavor to approach day among the great majority of his still nearer to them.

future subjects. He is believed to have It is known that the Emperor Fran- been the most resolute promoter of the cis Joseph, with admirable sagacity, universal suffrage which has restored has already transferred much of the re- to Austria the sense of life. He is sponsibility, if not the name of sover- thought to be behind the foreign poleignty, to his heir. It would hardly be icy which is looked upon as having at too much to say that the influence of a stroke reasserted Austria's rightful the future Emperor-King is already influence in the world. He is believed paramount with regard to all new de- to entertain plans which will restore velopments of policy. In the sixtieth the Dual Empire to the power and year of his reign, Francis Joseph has glory it possessed before Sadowa--only one desire. He has devoted the which will enable it to hold the balance closing period of his life with quiet in Continental affairs, and, above all, moral heroism to removing difficulty af- to decide the destiny of the Eastern ter difficulty from the path of his suc- question. cessor, that his own withdrawal from From this point of view, then, the the mortal scene may make as little different phases of the policy pursued change as possible, and the new reign by the Ballplatz in the last two years begin with every initial advantage. The appear

successive revelations, aged Kaiser's prestige is a priceless both of Baron Aehrenthal's solvent of problems, and even yet there methods, and of the ideas he may be surprises. While Francis Jo- holds in common with the heir-apseph is on the throne things may be parent. The first question asked done with impunity which his suc

whether he would make any cessor could only attempt at the great change in Count Goluchowski's system. est hazard to the existence of his do- That was a system of absolute subserminion. Now of the ideas of the Arch- vience to Berlin, joined to a renunciaduke Franz Ferdinand, Baron Aehren- tion, by agreement with Russia, of actthal is the exponent; and those ideas ive effort in the Balkans. This policy are characterized through and through was meant to play for safety. It by the democratic Imperalism advo- meant temporary safety but no more. cated by every successful political It made no provision for the future. It leader in our time. Based upon univer- amounted to a partial abdication of insal suffrage and racial equality, the dependence. For this Count GoluchowAustria-Hungary of the future is to be ski was not exclusively to blame. He

as

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was

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