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that in a flat country like that on our seashore, where the rivers run sluggishly, good mill-sites were hard to find.

Another thing was lacking, of a great deal more importance than mills, and yet there does not appear to have been much complaint made of it: there were no schools, and no attempts made by the people to educate their children.

The ministers of the Episcopal Church were the only teachers in the country for a long time, and their schools must have been very little attended, for where people live many miles apart from each other, how can the children be got together in a school? There must have been hardly any reading and writing going on, except among the law-officers and the ministers,

There were no books to speak of, and what few there were, were read by very few persons.

It was so everywhere except in New England. There they were wise enough to provide for the education of their children. School-houses rose side by side with their churches, and a church was the first thing they thought of after they had built their houses. Our


climate had the effect to make men sluggish, and unambitious, and indifferent

indifferent to higher things.

The settlements gradually spread along the coast southward from Albemarle, along the Pamlico Sound and the pleasant rivers that empty into it, and toward Clarendon county on the Cape Fear, where already two



attempts had been made and failed, as we have seen, to establish a colony.

1690. In 1690 some of the French Protestants who had fled from persecution in France to Virginia came down to the Pamlico country, and located at Bath in Bath county, on the Pamlico River. This was the first town in our state, and the legislature met there for years, but it never grew to be of any importance.

It is very plain, however, that while the “Lords” and their governors ruled, our part of Carolina increased in population and prosperity very slowly. This has been accounted for in many ways, but the chief reason the bad government and the unwise laws.

And, besides, after it was found that there were no good harbors here and no likelihood of building up a great seaport city, the “Lords” gave more attention to the southern province and favored it more. The city of Charleston, in South Carolina, was founded not very long before our town of Bath, and soon became of importance, because it had a fine harbor.

Many French Protestants who had been driven from France by religious persecution went there. They were excellent colonists, for they were not only religious, but they were industrious and thrifty. They were a polite, refined, and social people. Trade and wealth flowed into that province, and commerce helps to improve a people rapidly.

So the “Lords” looked after their own interests, and neglected Northern Carolina more and more. In the

sixty-six years of their rule more than twenty of their governors came and went. In the larger histories they and their misdeeds are all set down, and may be studied there.

Of them all, Governor Sothel (1683–88) left perhaps the worst character. There were always, however, a few men of honor and education prominent among the citizens who guarded the public interests, and to whom the people were in the habit of looking for protection. Such were Edward Moseley, George Durant, Christopher Gale, Thomas Pollock, Walker Henderson, Alexander Lillington, and others like them, whose names should be held in honor by us.

1705. The “Carey Rebellion "-so called from the name of the chief actor—was a more serious affair than the “Culpepper.” It arose from an attempt by Governor Daniel to compel the people of North Carolina to support the English Church, whether they belonged to it or not.

All who were not Episcopalians resented this of course, and after much contention and confusion the Presbyterians sent John Baptist Ashe, and the Quakers sent John Porter, over to England to remonstrate with the government. Queen Anne now reigned, and she had the good sense to order at once that no such laws should be enforced here.

It is likely the queen and her council were glad to take this opportunity to snub the government of the “Lords,” for the royal government was beginning to get jealous of the immense “Grant” and the power which had been given them. Kings and queens are never pleased to see a rival authority in their own dominions.

The Quakers were very busy in this Carey rebellion, and were numerous and influential enough to turn one governor out and put another in his place, and keep everything in confusion for several years. At one time there were two men (Carey and Glover) each claiming to be the governor and fighting with each other.

This miserable quarrel was not settled till a third man, Edward Hyde, was sent from England in the year 1710. He succeeded in making peace.

1712. In this year a large company of Swiss and Germans came from Europe, led by Baron de Graffenreid, and bought lands and settled where the Neuse and Trent rivers join. They named their town New Bern, after the city of Bern in Switzerland. There were some good French settlers already on the Trent. These new-comers were a valuable addition. They were religious, industrious, and frugal, and possessed some education and valued it. Such people make a country prosperous.

1714. Their new town was destined to take root and grow and become important. The only other town we had then worth mentioning was that of Bath, on the Pamlico River. But Bath was a very small place, and in spite of every effort to make something of it, giving it a charter and getting the Assembly to meet there, it never did fourish. The name of the county of Bath was afterward changed, and the province divided into several small


counties. Albemarle divided

in the same way,

and so was Clarendon on the Cape Fear.

The names of all our eastern counties were given in compliment to men who were governors in our early days or the great men in England, or they recall only the Indian tribes who once dwelt there.



TELL me, ye winds, if e'er ye rest

Your wings on fairer land,
Save when, near Araby the Blest,
· Ye scent its fragrant strand ?
Tell me, ye spirits of the air,
Know ye a region anywhere,
By day or night, that can compare
With Carolina, bright and fair?

Her feet she plants on ocean's plane;

Her arms the hills embrace ;
In mountain's snow or mist or rain

She laves her smiling face ;
Turns then to greet Aurora's dawn
Ere yet on sea the day is born,
And stars that die at birth of morn
Kiss her "good-bye," and then are gone.


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