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REFORMATION.

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three thousand pounds have been gained cure, is of little value, either to the book-
by some bulky compilations; it will hard- venders, or the writers; neither having :
lý be contended that literary property real property in a new work. Whether
can be insecure, or that a successful au- these natters are better regulated of late,
thor is not repaid for his labours. I in that country, remains to be known.
do not mean to inter that authors can

Lexo.
be wo well paid: for either they pro-
duce little, and therefore cannot enrich For the Monthly Magazine.
themselves; or they produce rapidly, and DEFENCE of Bucer und the ENGLISH
therefore must often fail of success.

If we enquire into the state of literary AY I be permitted to express my property in Europe, we find that the

MAS

astonislıment and concem, that the French complain of the rapid piracies of pages of your very respectable Miscellany, Hoiland and Switzerland, and that be- should have beconie the vehicle of a fore a second edition can be prepared gross, clumsy, and infamous calumny. It at Paris, it is anticipated at the respec- matters little whether the subject abused tive presses of those countries. In Spain be living or dead. Justice is as much the and Portugal the literary character is not due of a person in one case, as in the yet sufficiently respected, from the gene- other; and in

my

humble opinion, there ral poverty of their literature, which is is no difference whatever, morally speak. still too much restricted to religious and ing, between bringing an unfounded scholastic works. Their new publica- charge against a man who is no more, tions are little read at home, and of than against one who is capable of decourse no country even borrows them by fending himself. Nor is it, I think, at translation,

all less culpable to attack the fair fame I believe literary property is not much of a person who died two or three centumore valuable in Germany than in ries ago, than that of one whose name is France. The Leipsic and Frankfort still fresh among us, and who has left fairs, however, form a kind of monopoly those behind him who are both able and of books, which ought to enable book- willing to vindicate his reputation. sellers to give a better price to their au- Without any further preface, Mr. thors; but are the traders liberal? Have Editor, I demand upon what authority a the best German authors ever received writer in your last number, without either sums proportionable to those by which a real or assumed signature, has perempour English writers are daily gratified? torily asserted that “ Martin Bucer, the My knowledge does not induce me to reformer, was born a Jew, and died a believe they do; perhaps some of your Jew?" correspondents may intorm us.

Wlien a person presumes to bring a An ingenious Italian writer observes, heavy accusation agaivst a man, who in that the French, the English, and the Ger- his own day was an object of high respect mans, frequently inquire it Italy bas still for his learning and his piety, and whose any of those great geviuses and great name stands recorded with reverence for writers, who in former ages were the the services which he rendered to the lights and ornaments of Europe? These community, of which he was a shining nations, he adds, would perhaps be asto- ornament, it is expected that the charge nished thatwe have so many even as we can should not only be very accurately stated, boast, if they knew that the greater pum- but be accompanied with the exactest ber of our authors are obliged to con- references, and supported by unescep sume a great part of their fortune to tionable evidences." "When the assertion print their works; and that the more vo- is anonyinous, a scrupulous attention to smininous are the labours of a writer, the these particulars is still more requisite, worse is the chance for him to get repaid. What must be thought then of the moral The cause of this miserable prospect feelings of a writer, who, disdaining all which literary men have ever before their regard to historical and biographical eyes in Italy, it seems, is owing to the curacy, vents a foul aspersion, withou? privilege which every city in the nume- condescending to give us his own nane, rous states of Italy grants to its own or a single voucher for what he asserts, subjeots; so that an author who publishes on the meinory of a divine, wbose lear a work at Milan, at Pavia, or at Cre. ing and moderation alone, entitle humn to mona, has no property in that work, when respect? printed in any other principality: hence It is not incumbent on me to enter into Literary property being rendered inse- the delineation of Bucer's life and chao

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racter;

racter; but that he died a Jew is a length; in consequence of which, some manifest falsehood, for the particulars of regard was had to his animadversions in his pious exit at Cambridge are upon the revision of the Liturgy. It ought, record. Dr. Parker, afterwards Arch- however, to be observed here, that this bishop of Canterbury, preached his fu- learned and moderate divine, in his letter neral sermon; and Dr. Haddon, the l'ni- to Craniner on this subject, says, “that versity orator, in a speech at the funeral, upon his perusal of the service book, he drew his character in terms which lie thanked God Almighty for giving the would hardly have ventured to use, if English grace to reform their ceremonies such a circumstance had even been whise to that degree of purity; and that he pered or suspected. But how is it that found nothing in them, but what was this precious anecdote, which would have either taken out of the word of God, or been a rich treat to the inquisitive and at least, not contrary to it, provided it zealous Kumansts, was never brought was fairly interpreted.” (Collier, E. H. forward in the season of their triumphi

, vol. ii. p. 296.) 'Who after this will have after the accession of Queen Mary? the effrontery to charge the English reHow happened it that when the body of formation with Bucerism? What is said Bucer was taken up and burnt, together of Bucer's being employed about our with thet of his colleague, Fagius, a statutes, I might be excused from anmean act of revenge worthy of its au- swering. It is for the author of this age thors,--- how happened it, I say, that the sertion to mention the statutes, and the Judaism of Bucer was not then blazoned particulars of the several accommodations forth?

made in them to the spirit of persecuIf the story of his apostacy had been tion; for that, I suppose, is what is intrue, bis enemies would not have failed tended, under the cant words of “No to make the most of it; and that too for Popery." When your correspondent the purpose of covering the surviving re- shall lave produced his testimonies in formers with confusion and disgrace. support of this, and his other paradoxical

Your correspondent endeavours to assumptions, I will examine them with represent Bucer as a furious persecutor; impartiality, though with strictness; and and attributes to hiin principally the if the truth be on his side, it shall be burning of two Arians in London, and honestly confessed. Let me in return of Servetus at Geneva. With regard to expect the same openness and candour the former, I challenge your correspon- in him. dent to produce the least evidence, that I pass from Bucer to other positions, Bucer bad any concern in their death; equally curious and new, in this letter. and as to Servetus, every body knows llenry VIII. it is said, put Sir Thomas that he was tried and burnt treache. More and Bishop Fisher to death, that rously and tyrannically, two years after we might have No Popery. To this I beg the death of Bucer. So much for the ex- leave to add, that though these two vir tent of this calumniator's reading, and tuous men were beheaded for denying the modesty of his assertions.

the king's supremacy, yet at the same Throughout this whole rhapsody, the time the protestants were burnt in Smithreformation of the church of Ergland is field and elsewhere, for denying transuhtermed Bucerisin; and it is even said, stantiation, Your correspondent says, that " our lawgivers employed Bucer, tó that “Cardinal Beatoa was assassinated accommodate their statutes to No Po- in Scotland, under Edward, VI." Pray, pery."

Sir, was Edward VI. ever king of ScotThe English Liturgy, in fact, after being land? But to pass over this, the Cardinal reformed by the bishops and other di- was murdered in his palace by Lesley. vines, was approved of by the privy and others, May 29, 1546 : now Edward council, and published with the King's did not come to the Euglish throne till proclaination, March 8, 154g: now Bueer the death of his father, which happened and Fagius did not arrive in England till January 28, 1544. So much for this the latter end of that year, or the begin- writer's bistorical knowledge. ning of 1549; consequently, neither of An affecting picture is drawn, but thein could have had any hand in that briefly, of the sufferings inflicted upon Liturgy.

Tonsta!, and other English bishope, in It is true that Archbishop Cranmer the reign of Edward. What persccudesired to have Bucer's opinion upon the tions they endured, I am yet to learn. English Common-Prayer Book, which That they were deprived is certain; and the other freely gave him at considerable that some of them: w e imprisoned :s

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arm.

equally so; but that they were perse- ready mentioned, though they are not to cuted, plundered, and reduced to miscry, be palliated, will hardly be adıluced; is false. The cases of Gardiner, and because had tbose unhappy persons Bonner, will hardly be adduced; and as vented their potions under Mary, bishops to that of Toustal, it might better have Gardiner and Bonner, and even the genbeen omitted. Ile was charged in the tie Cardinal Pole himseli, would readily House of Lords with misprision of trea- have delivered them over to the secular son, at the instance of the great and ambitious Duke of Northuinberland, who Io language as ridiculous as the whole wanted the county palatine of Durham paragraph is talse and malicious, Queen for his own family. 'A bill was accord- Elizabeth is said, " 10! to have been ingly brought in for attainting the bishop, bloody, because she preferred stilling and and it passed the House of Lords, where strangliny, to bebica fing and burning." not one of the popish lords or bishops It is then added, to shew off ter merciful spoke or voted in his favour. Cranmer, disposition in the most striking mander, however, the mild and virtu zus Crammer, that “she stopped the breath of one whose name is so odiously calumniated, hundred and seventy-fire catholic priests, took up the cause, and spoke against and tire catholic women, whose crime this violent measure, with that warmth was no other than teaching their hereand freedom, which became an honest ditory religion in England." Really, this man and a good bishop, in support of gentleman writes as if he had never read innocence, but which lostium the friend- the history of England, or

as it be ship of the Duke of Northumberland thought people in general were but suever after. And when the Archbishop's perficially acquainted with it. During arguments could not prevail against the the first eleven years of Queen Elizainterest of this Duke, and the bill against beth's reigl, not a single Roman catholic Tonstal passed the house, Craumer, se- was prosecuted capitally on account of conded only by the Lord Stourton, pro- lis religion: and it was not till atter the tested against it; but was not even open rebellion of the Earls of Northumjoined in this by the popishi lords and birland and Westmoreland, for restoring, bishops, who had protested against as they termed it, the religion of their every other act that had passed the House ancestors, that any rigorous measures of Lords in this parliament. (Warner's were adopted towards the members of Eccles. Hist. vol. ii. p. 301.)—In the that contunion. It was, however, the reign of Elizabeth, Tonstal, it is true, bull of Pope Pius l',-hy which the was deprived of his bishopric, for refusing Queen was formally excommunicaten, the oaths; but in all other respects bis and pronounced to be deprived of her treatment was gentle. He resided at pretended right to the kinydom; and all Lanıbeth, with Archbishop Parker; and her subjects, of every description, were when he died, his obsequies were cele- absolver from their oath of allegiance to brated with the respect due to his rank her;-it was, I say, this atrocious and and virtues.

aboininable act of usurpation, joined I observe, Mr. Editor, that your cor- with the most active and powerful efforts respondent is willing to excuse, if not to to carry it into effect, 'that provoked applaud the conduct of Mary, in having Elizabeth and the parliament to prosethe "spirit and the power to retaliate cule the Romish inissionaries, with a upon the reformers." Yes, she retaliated, severity which otherwise would not have

if we may allow bim that word, with a been exercised, nor could possibly be - vengeance. If the popish bishops were justified. But when the Pope, who pos deprived, the prorestant oves were burnt. sessed at that time a much more formIf More and Fisher were beheaded, un- dable power and influence than we at bers of the laity, men, women, and chil. prezent are apt to conceive, took upon dren, vere first tortured, and then cone bisa to cut off heretical princes from signed to the stake. But will this inge- the unity of the body of Christ, and tu nious declaimer condescend to point out declare their thrones vacant," it was » any acts in the reign of Edward, done by matter of necessity, arising from the the reformers, that could at all justify the principle of self-defence, to guard the sanguinary proceedings of Mary, and her life of the sovereign, and the independecclesiastical advisers, upon the ground dence of the kingdom, from the necarous of retaliation? Were any romanısts put atteuipes which such a bull was intended to death in that reign, on account of to produce. And that it did actually their religion? The two ariau cases, al- produce various plots and Culispuracies,

COMPANY.

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all historians confirm on the clearest and lead ; that I do not think it worth my most abundant evidence; nor indeed while to trouble you, Mr. Editor, or your bave I ever yet met with any Roman readers, any further on the subject. catholic writer of credit, who pretended

Joux WATKINS. to deny the fact. Even that lying rebel, Sanders, (an author, it should seem, not JOURNAL of a vorace performed in the unknown to your correspondent) does INDIAN SFAS, to MADRAS, BENGAL, not veniure to deny these rebellious and CHINA, 80., 80., in NS MAJESTY'S conspiracies: on the contrary, he glories SHIP CAROLINE, in the years 1803-4-5, in them; canonizes those who suffer- interjperfect with short DESCRIPTIVE ed the just punishinent of their crimes; SKETCHES of the PRESENT STATE of the and holds them up as objects of re- principal skiTLEMENTS of the INDIA verence and initation, as inartyrs.

Colleges were instituted at Rome, Communicated to the MONTHLY MAGAZINE Duway, and St. Omer's, for the express by an ou Icer of that suur. and avowed purpose of training up young THE number of junks, and boats of who were to act as missionaries in their ing and repassing between Macao and own country, under the direction of their Canton, exceeds all calculation or belief. superiors! Philip, king of Spain, tjunded Some of these junks will carry nearly a two others; 01:e at Valladolid, and the thousand tons; and those that trade to other at Seville; and they all incul- the Straits of Malacca, the Eastern Iscated upon the students educated there- hands, &c. are very great curiosities, conin, the duty of sacriticing even their lives, taining perhaps two or three hundred in the good work of destroying the enemy merchants, each having his separate caof the Holy see, and estirpating heresy in bin, or rather shop or warehouse. In their native land. These formidable one of these junks, therefore, may be engines, for such they unquestionably seen almost an epitome of the suburbs of were in that unsettled period, naturally Canton: ivory-cutters and manufacturexcited considerable alarm in the Eng- ers, painters, carpenters, blacksmiths, lish government; by whoin, with the goldsiniths, &c, all with their various arconsent of parliament, it was made ticles arranged for sale in their separate capital offence for these seminary-priests, apartments. as they were called, to enter the king- The Chinese work their junks and dom." Yet numbers of them did venture other boats with astonishing adroitness over, and a few, comparatively speaking, on this river, where they actually seem · were executed. Let it be observed, howe to fly through the water. The sails are all ever, that those who did suffer, were not matie of mats, and are narrow, but very put to death for their religion; unless it lofty. Slit pieces of bamboo cross the be granted, that with them, religion and sails horizontally, at short distances; treason were one and the same thing. At and to one end of these is attached a the time when these missionaries of the bow-line, leading forward; to the other, Pope were thus treated, the secular a sheet leading aft; by which means their priests reinained in quietness, and were sails stand better, and lie nearer the urunolested; for which, they became wind, than any European sails possibly very obnoxious to the court of Rome, cau. and to the heads of the English colleges When it blows fresh, and they have abroad. From the controversial pamph- occasion to reef, they lower away the lets which passed between the seculars halliards, and roll up any length of the and the jesuits, in this and the succeed- sail they please round the lower piece of ing reign, any unbiassed person may be bamboo; thus reefing their sails at the able to judge, whether “it is hypocrisy bottom with much less difficulty than we to say that the papal missionaries, who can at the top; and this they can conwere executed heiween the years 1570 tinue to do, till the whole of the sail is and 1602, supereri for treason." All rolled up, adapting it from the lightest that follows in your correspondent's lete breeze to the heaviest squall with the ter is so wild and intemperate ; "and at greatest facility. the same time evinces either such gross They frequently have two or three ignorance, or such a wilful design to mis- malts, but we never saw any with top

masts; the mat-sails extending up along De Schismaie Anglicano, lib. iii. p. 417, the masts (which are generally very tant) et panna.

to any height.

On

On each bow of their junks there is al- slender bamboos, armed at one end with ways painted a large eye, and they are pieces of iron like our boarding-pikes, astonished (or at least pretend to be so) and some like battle-axes; their other that our vessels can find their way weapons, offensive and defensive, consist though immense oceans without eyes! in general of baskets of stones, of diffe

Those who are brought up to boats rent sizes, adapted to the distances at are in general prohibited from residing which the engagements happen to comon shore till atier a certain term of years, mence! unless they have accumulated a sufficient I had an opportunity of seeing one of sum to purchase a littie house and a piece those battles once between two fishing of land.

boats, and I must contess they made use Their fishing fleets are extremely well of those inissile weapons with uncommon regulated, acting in perfect concert ; and dexterity: very seldom missing their adno boat presuming to anchor or weigh versary's vessel at least, and not unfreuntil the commodore has made the sigual quently giving and receiving most woeful by Gong, or beat of Tom Toin.

knocks themselves. We were told that The mouth of the Tigris

, vay, the whole the men-of-war-junks sometimes carried củait from thence to the island of lain- matchlocks, but we could wever see any an, is very much infested with pirates, of them. called Ladrones. These are outlawed On the twenty-eighth of November I Tartars and Chinese, who as soou as they embarked in company with

several other lay hold of any boat or vessel, not only officers on an excursion to Canton. The plunder it, but condemn the crew to per- weather was now so cold, that we were petual slavery in the Ladrone feet. They obliged to muttle ourselves up in all the sometimes, bowever, relax so far in this European clothes we could possibly musrespect, as to let oid me! go ashore on ter; and here many of us became sensipromising to send them a certain ransom, ble of our improvidence in neglectiug to which the liberated persons seldom til preserve, while in lodia, those articles of to perform with the most religious ex- dress wbich we had brought from a nor actuess: fearing, it is presuined, that if theru climate, but which, while frymg they did not, and were afterwards cap- under the Line, we thought we should tured, they might stand a fair chance never need again. As the distance of losing their heads; the Ladrones not was nearly fifty miles, we did not nego being very ceremonious in this respect. lect to lay in a sufficient quantity of

The small craft on the river, therefore, grub (as it is termed); in order that the inare so terrified at the idea of falling into terior might be as well fortified against the bands of the Ladrones, that when the severity of the season, as the exteany of our boats were proceeding to, or rior: and this we found a very wise prereturning from Macao, a whole convoy of caution. Chinese vessels of various descriptions After passing through the Bogue, Ti. were seen attending thein, and taking ad- ger island (so called from some faint reyantage of the protection they afforded':' semblance which it is supposed to bear such is the confidence placed in British to a couched tiger,) presents itself on the tars, even in this remote part of the left hand. It was abreast of this place world!

that commodore Ansou first came to an To this I was once an eye-witness; anchor alter entering the Tigris, to the the Ladrones having become so boid, do small surprize of the Chinese at Asthat they actually landed at Lintin shortly naghoy, fort, wliere they mustered a after we left it, anid plundered some of the motley band in hopes of intimidating lum villages. The men of war junks eren, froin passing the Bocea Tigris. On the and mandarius' boats, at this time were right hand the land is flat and swampy, so frightened, that when a pleasure party consisting chiefly of paddy fields, intere of us went in the Caroline's launch, truui sected by innumerable branches of the Anson's bay to Vacao, we had a convoy river. We here saw amazing flocks of will of some hundreds of vessels, that came duck, teal, aud paddy birds, tiying alcen to an auchor when we did, and got un- so close to us that we might almost have der : cigh whenever they saw us do so, kuoclad them dowo withi var sticks, und

The Chinese maritine fights are ra- so as to induce one to suppose they were ther curious, being somewhat different nerer muslested by the tatal tabe or ins.. from those of Europeans; for their men dious sliare. of war have no guns, or at least verv By the former, indeed, they are never few. Instead of these they have long annoyed, unless when Europeklis

, se periy; ;

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