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were brought. With her sister, however, ever book or page they are found. That she held a conversation even in the deaf-dumb children can be taught to dark; baviog learned in bed together to speak, and to understand the speaking feel the different motions of the words countenance of others, is incontestable; by laying her hand upout her sister's a professor of genius will then, to found mouth, aud thus came at a knowledge of just claims to a superior reputation, teach what she said.
his pupil to pronounce each word in the The nice sense of feeling here described language he himself speaks; to distinguisha is very remarkable, but still interior to them at once, and with precision, upon what is enjoyed by many blind people, the lips of others; and thoroughly to unwho are said to distinguish the difference derstand the meaning of what he himself of colours by the touch. It is not less may utter, or what others say. paturai to suppose, that the sight ot' deaf The time required for the complete personas may acquire a corresponding de instruction of deaf-dumb children in gree of acuteness, so as to be able to see speaking, and every subsequent useful what is absolutely evident to the touch acquirement or accomplishment, may be of any body.
computed from the usual course of nature Instances of the accidental articula- with those who retain their hearing. The tion of a few words, in a manner more or superior aptness to learn, and the eager less perfect, have frequently occurred; attention, of some children, have, in more but too often, unfortunately, from the than one instance, even anticipated the principle of instruction not having been ingenuity of the professor to whom their understood by those about the deaf per- progress has done honour. Miss Sto son, nor his own attention guided toward Servan, now a pupil of the Abbé Sicard; the proper means oi mastering the necesa, in Paris, learned, in a short period, to sary combinations of sound, until gradu- speak : although speaking is not a part of ally he should have become able to pro- the ordinary instruction in that school; nounce every word in the language at where the art of thinking, silent reading. will, and of distinguishing upon the faces writing, and the language of gesticulaof persons speaking the words they deli- tion, form the principal features in the vered, the greater part of these promis- course of education. And Mr. Habering beginnings have failed of the result mass, of Berlin, who was instructed by that might have been expected from them Mr. Eschke, to whom he is now an asin judicious hands. Still so encourag- 'sistant, not only expresses himself with ing is the prospect held out to persever- great correctness, hut, in the motions of ance, that a few words of any kind, as a the countenance, reads with instant facirhime, or a prayer, may be taught many lity the words expressed by any person deaf children, without any previous as who speaks in bis presence. sistance from elementary instruction. It is surprising that it has been possia By merely repeating a set of words in a ble to derive so little benefit to the art uniform manner to a pupil who is very of instructing the deaf and dumb, from watchful, and possessed of strong mimic the essays and declamations of the most powers, it is not unusual to find that he profuse orthoepists and professors of ora at length succeeds in rendering the imita- tory; seeing that the same species of tion perfect.
knowledge upon which depends the inUndoubtedly it would require more struction of the absolutely deaf, is indisthan the labour of a whole life to get pensably necessary to correct all.defects through a language in this tedious way. or impediments in utterance which are A pupil may be able to repeat his prayer susceptible of remedy, and do not arise or his rhime by rote, and not understand from the loss of one or more of the rethe ineaning of a single word of it sepa- quisites organs. The removal of every rated from the rest, nor be perhaps able removeable cause of defective pronun to read the same words in any different ciation, whether called obstruction, hesiorder of construction. It only proves tation, or impediment, stainmering, stutthat it is possible to imitate articulate tering, drawling, lisping, speaking through, sounds by imitating the motions that pro- the nose, &c. depends upon one and the duce thein. Instances of the repetition of same theory; and whoever possesses the single words and phrases do not entitle a art of teaching the totally dumb to speak, professor to lay claiın to any remarkable is from that reason competent, in a supe, degree of merit
, unless he can shew that. rior degree, to correct any minor disa his pupil understand the meaning of bility; and should be to give the most every word, and can read then in what- effcctual instructions how to get the
þetter of the most minute defect in speak- here relate an anecdote of him, which ing, as provincial and foreign accents, caused at the time much amusement &c.
throughout Paris :There are about twenty different Massieu, in one of his excursions schools in Europe for the education of through the gay part of the city, was the deaf and dumb. Of this number stripped of his watch and purse by sonuc there are five established in the United good-natured dames, who never in the Kingdom; the remainder are all situated least suspected that a deaf and dumb upon the Continent.
man would tell tales. On the young The school of Paris is the stock from inan's return to the institution, he was which the greater part of the Continental brought to account for the accident which institutions for the same object have had happened to him. Massieu, it seems, sprung. It was founded by the cele- never tells lies—this was a little trial brated Abbé de l’Epée, already men- for hiin; but here too he was cada tioned, under a grant from the king: and did enough to acknowledge the truth. has been continued without intermission, The ladies were, in consequence, brought since his death, by the Abbé Sicard; who, before the proper tribunal in the Palace through his merits in this department, of Justice, and Massieu was obliged to has obtained a cross of the Imperial Or- attend. Although this young man is der of Knighthood, the Legion of Hon such a celebrated inetaphysician, and nour, and a seat in the National Insti- writes with wonderful swiftness, he was tute.
obliged to have an interpreter present in The Abbé vses emblematical gesticu- court, and the good Abbć was required lations to develope the understandings of to fulil that oftice for his favourite pahis scholars, and convey his instructions, pil. The trial was a very ludicrous one, during the whole course of their educa- notwithstanding French delicacy spared tion. By gestures they converse with the modesty of the Abbé as far as was their masters, and aniong each other. reconcilcable with the ends of justice. They argue in gestures, and by gestures The ladies were censured for their misthey assist each other to understand their take, and the watch and purse recovered. other lessons, and explain every difficulty. No legal steps are ever taken in France In proper time they are taught to under- in which the lite, liberty, or interest of a stand ihe language of their
native coun- deaf and dumb person is concerned, try in print and writing, and to write without assigning and allowing them to themselves. They are afterwards in- chuse an interpreter; a regulation which structed in arithmetic, algebra, drawing, it would be well to enforce in a counand every exercise or branch of the ma- try where personal liberty and property thematics that their friends desire, or their are much better secured, generally, by abilities fit thein for. When their school the constitution. I have heard, how. education is finished, they are sent home ever, of a very fine young man, the natitto their families, or apprenticed to useful ral son of a late great statesman by a lady trades. Some of those who have dis- of quality, having been shut up in a madplayed superior abilities for the scholas- house without the benefit of any such zio profession, are retained as' tutors to privilege; although his preceptor, the late the rest of these, one, named Mas, Mr. T. Braidwood, was, as I aio well sieu, is highly famed for his ingenuity, and informed by persons intimately connectreadiness to reply to any metaphysical ed with the family of that gentleman, of question. Indeed, the worthy Abbé opinion that he was far from laboarius seems to be remarkably desirous of push- under any mental derangement or inabiing on the education of his pupils to a lity whatever. I have not heard whether familiarity with the most abstruse points his imprisonment was the act of his faof metaphysical speculation; and he is ther, with wbom he was known not to perhaps so far right; as exercise of this agree perfectly in political opinions, nor kind, which necessarily requires a vast. if he be at present in existence; but cer. supply of words, and the nicest discrimi- tain it is, that no mention was made of nation between all their various mean- him in that great man's will, nor in the ings, may promote a facility of substi- subsequent arrangement inade for the be tuting words for thought. I do not, how- Defit of the widow and a daughter, · Ile ever, pretend to boast of a perfect coin- must, then, be no more. Pence to the cidence with the system of Mr. Sicard, in ashes of the dead! It will be enough iny own private opinion.
for the object of my mentioning here the I have mentioned Massicu; I shall fate of this unhappy young inn, if it
serve to call the attention of those with stand it very seriously; and that each of whom the power lies, to protect the un- them seems perfectly content with his fortunate dumb from a deprivation of own nick-name, which, in their ordinary that justice which is allowed by the laws language, supplies the place of the French of our country to the worst of foreigners. namne, or surnaine. This they always
The French goverumei detrays the write when there is occasion, without expence of the school under the direc- any allusion to the feature, custom, or tion of M. Sicard, and the children of habitual attitude troin whence they derive poor persons are inaintained and edu- the individual's name in the language cated gratuitously. Parents who can af- of signs, unless you desire to know the ford ii, are required to pay a stipulated reasons upon which such a manner of sum yearly. The gesticulations made use naming a person is founded. of among the pupils of this school are, in I have been present at several of the the outline they describe, not unlike the exbibitions of the progress made by the hieroglyphic figures designed by the an- scholars of this institution. Their exercient Egyptians to convey the images of cises are very curious, and it is pleasing thoughts and things directly to the mind. to observe the rapidity with which they Thus, a circle turned in the air, denotes, translate the gesticulated ineaning into for instance, not only that figure itself, written words. They are, almost invabut eternity also; a long line traced off- riably, exact to a synonymy. One of wards in the air with the hand, denotes them, I remember, on a particular day, distance; a line with the finger repre- when I wis present, wrote down glory, sents length; an extended motion of the for renown, in transcribing a question hand and arın designates space, extent, which was dictated to him through the immensity. The signs for persons and interpretation of M. Sicard's gestures; things are all taken from some quality or but on the sign which he had inistaken peculiarity. A woman is expressed by being repeated, he corrected the word putting the hands, as a woman might do, immediately; and, without hesitation, ander the bosom; or drawjug the hand wrote the answer underneath in the face across the knees, to represent petticoats; of the whole company. The tablet being or putting one hand to the outside of the a large square surtace of boards painted thigh, in the attitude of a woman holding black, and in front of the elevated-range ber gown in walking. A married woman of benches, the chalk writing was distinctis denoted by pointing to the part of the ly legible in every part of the examinafingers where women usually wear, their tion hall. rings, in addition to the general sign for The whole then stood thus : a woman. All the names, in fact, are “ Qu'est-ce que la renommée?" highly descriptive, and many of them en- " C'est la celebrité, la publicité des tertaining; I am sure they would prove grandes actions." •very much so to an arch boy who is fond Then, pausing to reflect a moment, he of what is called taking folks off. The added, as if to show that he well underAbbé Sicard's name is made by putting stood the distinction,-“ Elle differe de the hand up to the chin, with the thumb la gloire en ce que la gloire tient plus à extended on one side, and the fore-finger l'admiration; et he se donne qu'aux actions on the other; the lower fingers closed. qui sont en elles-unemes bonnes et geneThis is a gesture which the children have reuses, aussi bien que capables de faire remarked to be habitunl to the Abbé éclat.” when he walks, or stavds, meditating, “ What is renown (or fame)?” Each of themelves, and of the masters, is “ It is the celebrity, or publicity, of designated by his peculiar sign or nicke great actions. It difers from glory in naune; one is by describing the atţitude this: that glory partakes more of admiraof drawing, another is mentioned by flate tion; and belongs only to actions which teming the nose with the finger; another are good and generous in themselves, as by laying the finger along the nose, as it well as capable of making a noise in the i intimate a very high one; a fourth is world.” expressed by making the sign of a wide In iny next I shall continue the submouth, a fatih is known by a fierce look, ject, and present to your readers a view &c.
of what has bech done in other parts of Most of this mimicry is very diserting to Europe.
I ain, &c. sommou observers; but I can assure the Purflect,
A. Maxx. reader that the mimics themselves under. Muy 12, 2007.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. an account of the performance." The SIR,
second right (he says) was a Comedy of A
mical draina in the time of James good actors from other houses, wherein the First, few, I believe, are better David Drummond, in a hobby-horse, kuowa than the Comedy of IGNORAMUS. and Braking the recorder of the town,
In a translation of this play, published under the name of Ignoramus, a couat London in 1662, the author is styled mon lawyer, bore great parts. The R. Ruggles, and by. Granger, in his Bio- thing was full of mirth and variety, with graphical History (Supplein. 145, 146), many excellent actors (among wbom the Ralph Ruggle; but his real christian- Lord Compton's son, thougti least, was name was George. He appears to have not the worst); but more than half marbeen originally matriculated as a member red with extreme length.” In Sir Fulke of St. John's College, Cambridge, June 26, Grevil's “ Five Years of King James," 1589, and to have afterwards removed to also, is another account of its reception. a fellowship at Clare-hall. In 1600, we “ This year (1614) the king, by the enfind hiin mentioned as one of the taxors treaty of Somerset, determined to go to of the University (Carter, p. 426); and af- Cambridge, and there was entertained terwards as a benefactor to his hall, in with great solemnity; but amongst the money and plate, to the amount of 4001. rest there was a play called by the name The last we read of his honours is in of Ignoramus, that stirred up a great 1605, when, during King James's enter- contention betweene the common lawtaininent at Oxford, he was incorporated yers and the schallers, in so much as their among the menubers of tlie sister uni- fouts grew insufferable; but at last it was versity.
stayed by My Lord Chancellor, and thie The editions of Ignoramus I have met explaining of the meaning." with are, one in duodecimo, printed at But the principal object of my letter is London in 1630; another in 1658; a to state an anecdote which occurs among third, “ Editio prioribus omnibus emen- the Harleian manuscripts in the British datior," 8vo. Westmonast, 1737; and Museum, (Harl. MS. 980, p. 161), ac* Ignoramus abbreviatus," 8vo. Lond. cording to which, neither the plot or exe1769.
cution of the play appear to have origiOf the translations, one by R. C. has nated with Ruggle. I quote the words been already mentioned, whóm Coxeter of the manuscript, in hope that some of explains to have been Robert Codring- your Cambridge correspondents may erton (Biogr. Dram. vol. II. p. 165). amine (if it still remains) the copy in Another version appeared in quarto, Clare-ball library. 1678, under the title of " The English “ The comedie of Ignoramus, so abuLawyer," a Comedy, by Edward Ravens- sive against lawyers, and supposed to be croft Gent. And thirr, forming a thin made by Mr. Ruggell, of Clare-hall, folio, appeared in 1736, with the follow- Cambridge, is but a translation of a coing title: " Ignorumi Lamentatio súper medy in Baptista Porta, out of Italian, Legis Communis Translctionem ex Latino intituled, Trapulario, as may be seen by in Anglicum."
the comedy itself, extant in Clare-ball The University of Oxford, as we learn library, witlı notes of Mr. Ruggell's there from the “ Rex Platonicus” of Wake, on, of his contriving and altering there had entertained James with several com- of." plimentary dramas some years before. Perhaps some other of your BiblioOne of these exhibitions is supposed to graphical Correspondents may add to the have given rise to Shakspeare's Macbeth, anecdotes I have collected. But in this instance, Clarc-hall produced
I am, &c. D. M.P. a drama of a more extended kind. It was originally acted March 3, 1614, and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine again, by the king's particular desire,
, the boys creations of moeten cast of the characters, copied by Gran- that if my recollection does not materiger in his Biographical History; and ally fail me, for I have not any copy of among the state papers published by my own letter to refer to, I did not inake Lord Hardwicke, is a Letter from Mr. “an anqualified assertion" that the HisJohn Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carlton, tory of Bedfordshire published by that e Twin, dated March 16, 1614, giving gentleman and his brothor, contained
considerable number of errors and inad- professional notes, drawings, sketches, vertencies; but I think I qualified the &c. that are so valuable to the biograassertion by mentioning that such imper- pher, I now inquire so earnestly for. fections were almost unavoidable in works Nothing that I ain yet acquainted with, of this nature. I certainly regard the in the reach of inspection, wil be outted publication in question as a highly re- to be searched into bytue; neither pains spectable one, and I consider the public nor labour shall be spared to make my at large as much indebted to those who work as perfect as possible. Of my drawtake so much pains is Mr. Lisons and inýs for it I strall say nothing, becalise his brother bave done, to contribute to they shall be submitted in the public intheir amusement and information. The spection when the prospectus is ready errors and inadvertencies which I disa for publication; of which, Sir, I shall take cerned, or thought I discerned, in it, I the liberty of gring you uimely notice. took the liberty to point out without any Any intoriuation adressed to me (as invidious intention. “ Most of thein iindei), whether concerning manuscripts, (Mr. Lysons says) had been noted for cor- drawings, letters, &c. or of where they rection even before he had read my let- are deposited; also of where I can see ter,” which assuredly never would have an authentic original of Sir C's. porn been written, had I been aware that the trait; or, in short, of any account of inn same intorination had been conteved to or his works, shall receive iny hearty those gentlemen in any other mode. thanks and due acknowledymenis. The
I must just add, that I never had the principa! portraits were by Kneller and vanity to consider my corrections as of Klosterman, of which I have seen en“ much importance;" but I believe they gravings. I should be happy to know in are all well founded, except in the in- whose possession the paintings are. stance of the title of the eldest son of the I have only to add, that if the public last Duke of hent, which I aluays un- encouragement shall keep pace with the derstood was merely Baron of Harold; private promise of support that I have albut, upon the authority cited by Mr. Ly- really received trom many gentlemen of sons, there can be no doubt that the consequence in the architectural profestitle lie bure was that of Earl of Ilaruld. sion, and others in private life, no exThe property possessed by Lady Lucas, pence shall be spared in having the enthe present representative of the bent gravings executed in the highest possible family in the county of Bedford, is in style of excellence. I ain, &c. doubtedly very large; and perhaps might 19, College-Hill, JAMES ELMES. have been mentioned with the other London, Dec. 11, 1806. greatezlates specuti d in my former letter, as coustitutinga distinct class. It may pos- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. sibly serve w obviate any mistake, to say, SIR, that in the estimate of 40,000l. per ann. M of ,
R. ('urnberland, in his interesting anil upwards, I meant to include the estates of the Duke of Bedford, Lord St. lease which authors enjoy of their own John, and Mr. Whitbread. I am, &c. works: yet tsventy-eight years of copyBedford,
W. BELSHAM. right can be the lot of few writers; sinMuy 3, 1807.
gular, indeed, must be the good fortune of
that author who lives tu lainent ortr the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. extinction of lis profits
, but not of his So,
fume, on seeing his work become the unidelineating the parts at large of St. In truth, there is no countıy in Europe Paui's cathedral, London, I wishi to illus- where literary property has becn so well trate my work with such authentic ac- secured as in England; or where alle counts of it, and of its illustrious archi- thors have been wore richly recompenstect, Sır Cliristopher Wren, as I can ob. ed. The commercial value of literature tain ; but I fear that of the learned ar- has been very much on the increase of Cotect will not be so explicit aud diume late years; and when we know itsat more as I wish, unless I obtain further u ('l- than a thousand pounds has gainmeots of hira and of his works iban I el hy a facetious work, but not eaican yet discover. Much relative matter1 nently 50), which has hit the public buam aware is to be found at Oxford, and mour; that the same sun is given for in some of the public libraries in Lon a single poem fiom a writer whose ieriis Jon, &c.; but it is of his private life. His Sone wwl dispute; and the two, and even Mox INLY Mac, Wo. 157.