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5. Neuter in the fing. in the plur. masc. or neuter :
Raflrum, a rake, pl. rafiri and rajira ; frenum, a bridle, pl. freni and fræna.
6. Neuter in the fingular, and feminine in the plural :
Delicium, a delight, pl. deliciæ ; Epülum, a banquet, pl. epůlæ ; Balneum, a bath, pl. balnea and balnea.
II. Nouns which vary in declension are called hetero. clites; as, vas, vāfis, a veffel, pl. vafa, vaforum ; jugěrum, jugări, an acre, pl jugěra, jugěrum, jugeribus, which has like. wife fometimes jugěris and jugěre in the fingular, from the obfolete jugus or juger.
II. DEFECTITE Nouns.
Nouns are defective, either in cases or in number.
1. Some are altogether indeclinable ; as, pondo, a pound or pounds ; fas, right; nefas, wrong i fināpi, mustard ; mane,
morning; as, clarum mane, Perf. A mane ad vefperam, Plaut. Multo mane, &c.; cepe, an onion ; gausăpe, a rough coat, &c.; all of them neuter. We may rank among indeclinable nouns, any word put for a noun; as, velle suum, for fua voluntas, his own inclination. Perf. Iftud cras, for ifte craftinus dies, that to-morrow. Mart. O magnum Græcorum, the Omega, or the large of the Greeks ; Infidus eft compofitum ex in et fīdus ; infidus is compounded of in and fidus. To these add foreign or barbarous names; that is, names which are neither Greek nor Latin; as, Job, Elisabet, Jerufalem, &c.
2. Some are used only in one case, and therefore called monoprota; as, inquies, want of relt, in the nominative fingular ; dicis and nauci, in the genit. fing. ; thus, dicis gratia, for form's fake ; res nauci, a thing of no value ; inficias and incita or incitas, in the accusative plural : thus, ire inficias, to deny ; ad incitas redaflus, reduced to a strait, or non-plus; ingratiis, in the abl. plur. in spite of one ; and these ablatives fingular, nodu, in the night time; diu, interdiu, in the day-time; promptu, in readiness; natu, by birth ; injusu, without command or leave; ergo, for the fake, as, ergo illius, Virg. Ambāge, f. with a winding or 2 tedious story; Compěde, m. with a fetter ; Caffe, m.
with a net ; vepres, m. a briar : Plur. Ambagos, -ibus ; sompedes, -íbus ; calles, •ium ; vepres, •jum, &c.
3. Some are uted in two cales only, and therefore called diptāta ; as, necesse or -um, necessity; volúpe or volup, pleasure; inftar, likenels, bigners; aftu, a town; bir, the palm of the hand; in the nom, and acc. sing. ; vesper, m. abl. vespère or vefperi, the evening ; firemps, the rame, all alike, abl. firempfe ; fpontis, f. in the genitive, and sponte in the ablative, of its own accord ; lo impětis, m. and impēte, force ; verbăris, n. genit. and verběre, abl. a stripe ; in the plural entire ; verběra, verberum, verberibus, &c. repetundarum, abl. repetundis, fc. pecuniis, money unjustly taken in the time of one's office, extortion ; fuppetia, nom. pl. suppetias in the acc. help; inferia, inferias, facrifices to the dead.
4. Several nouns are only used in three cases, and therefore called triptēta ; as, prěci, precem, prece, f. a prayer, from prex, which is not used; in the plural it is en. tire, preces, precum, precibus, &c. Feminis, gen. from the obfolete femen, the thigh; in the dat. and abl. sing. ; in the nom. acc. and voc. plur. femina. Dica, a process, acc. sing. dicam, plur. dicas ; tantundem, nom. and acc. tantidem, genit. even as much.
Several nouns in the plural want the genitive, dative, and ablative; as, biems, rus, thus, metus, mel, far, and most nouns of the fifth de clension.
To this class of defective nouns may be added these neuters, melos, a song ; mele, songs; epos, a heroic poem ; cacoethes, an evil custom ; cete, whales ; Tempe, plural, a beautiful vale in Thessaly, &c. used only in the nom. acc. and voc. ; also grates, f. thanks.
5. The following nouns want the nominative, and of consequence the vocative, and therefore are called tetraptõta : vicis, f. of the place or stead of another ; pecudis, f. of a beast ; fordis, f. of filth'; ditionis, f. of dominion, power ; opis, f, of help. Of these, pecŭdis and fordis have the plural entire: ditionis wants it altogether : vicis is not used in the genitive plural ; opes in the plural, generally fignifies wealth, or power, seldom help. To these add nex, flaughter; daps, a difh of meat, and frux, corn;
hardly used in the nominative singular, but in the plural mostly entire.
6. Some nouns only want one case, and are called pentaptēta : thus, os, the mouth ; lux, light ; fax, a torch, together with some others, want the genit. plur. Chaos, n. a confused mass, wants the genit. fing. and the plural entirely; dat. fing. chao. So, fatias, i. e. fatietas, a glut or fill of any thing. Situs, a situation, nastinefs, of the fourth decl. wants the genit. and perhaps the dative sing. also the gen. dat. and abl. plur.
Of nouns defective in number there are various forts.
1. Several nouns want the plur. from the nature of the things which they express. Such are the names of virtues and vices, of arts, herbs, metals, liquors, different kinds of corn, most abstract nouns, &c. as, juftitia, justice ; ambilus, ambition; aftus, cunning; musica, music; apium, parsley i argentum, filver ; aurum, gold; lac, milk; tritícum, wheat; hordeum, barley; avēna, oats ; juventus, youth, &c. But of these we find several sometimes used in the plural.
2. The following masculines are hardly ever found in the plural.
Aër, aěris, the air.
Nemo, -inis, no body.
3 The following feminines are scarcely used in the
Sitis, -is, thirft.
Supellex, -ctilis, bousehold fur-
Tabes, -is, a confumption.
Tellus, -ūris, the earth.
Vefpěra, -2, the evening.
4. These neuters are seldom used in the plural :
Pelágus, -i, the fea.
Penum, -i, and penus, -oris, all Hilum, -i, the black speck of a bean, kinds of provisions. a trifle.
Sal, Sălis. salt. Justitium, -i, a vacation, the time Sepium, -ii, old age. when courts do not fit.
Ver, vēris, the spring. Letlium, death.
Virus, -i, poison.
5. Many nouns want the singular. Such are the names of feasts, books, games, and several cities; as, Apollināres, -ium, games in honour Olympia, -orum, the Olympic games. of Apollo.
Syracūsæ, •arum, Syracuse. Bacchanalia, -ium, the feasts of Hierosolyma, -orum, Jerufalem ; Bacchus.
or Hierofolyma, æ, of the firf Bucolica, -orum, a bolik of pastorals. declension.
6. The following masculines are hardly used in the fingular: Cancelli, lattices.
Postări, pofterity. Cani, gray bairs.
Supéri, the gods above. Celeres, -um, the light-borse. Caffes, -ium, a bunter's net. Codicilli, writings.
Fasces, -ium, a bundle of rods, carDryades, -um, the nympls of the ried before the chief magiftrates of woods.
Rome. Druides, -um, the Druids, priests of Fines, -ium, the borders of a country's
the ancient Britons and Gauls. or a country. Decimæ, tithes.
Furfures, -um, scales in the head. Falti, -orum, or fastus, -uum, cal- Lemúres, -um, bobgoblins, or spirits
lendars, in which were marked in the dark.
Minores, -um, fucceffors.
the Circus, or the cells of a bee-hive. Procères, -um, the nobles. Hyădes, -um, the seven sturs.
Pugillares, -ium, writing-tables. Ineptiæ, filly Jories.
Sentes, -ium, thorns. Infēri, the gods below.
Vepres, -ium, briars. Liberi, children.
Vergiliæ, the seven fars.
7. The following feminines want the fingular number : Alpes, -ium, the Alps. Gades, -ium, Cadiz. Parietinæ, ruingus Angustia, difficultiesa Gerræ, trifles.
walls. Apinz, gewguws.
Induciæ, a truce, Partes, -ium, e party.
Argutiæ, quirks, wit. Induviæ, clothes to put Phalěræ, trappings. ticisms.
Plagæ, nets. Bigæ, a chariot drawn Insidiæ, fnares Pleiades, -um, the foo
-by two borfes. Kalendæ, Nonæ, l. ven stars. Trigæ,
-by three. dus, -uum, names Præstigiæ, encbant. Quadrigæ,--by four. which the Romans Braccæ, breecbes. gave to certain days Primitiæ, firf fruits. Branchiæ, the gills of in each month, Quisquiliæ, sweepings, a fise.
Lapicidinæ, stone-quar- Reliquiæ, & remainder. Charites, -um, the ries.
Salebræ, rugged places, Litěræ, an epiftle. Salīnæ, falt pilso Cunæ, a cradle. Lactes,-ium, tbe fmall Scalæ, a ladder, Diræ, imprecations, guts.
Scatebræ, a ffring the furies.
Manubiæ, spoils taken Scopæ, a besom. Divitiæ, riches.
Tenebræ, darkness. Excubiæ, watches. Minæ, tbreats. Thermæ, bot baths. Exsequiæ, funerals. Minutæ, little niceties. Thermopýlæ, ftraits of Exuviæ, Spoils. Nugæ, trifles.
mount Oeta, Facetiæ, pleasant say- Nundina, a market.
Tricæ, toys. ings.
Nuptiæ, a marriage. Valvæ, folding doors. Feriæ, holidays. Offuciæ, cheats. Vindiciæ, a claim of libFacultates, -iuni, one's Operæ, workmen. erty, a defence.
goods and chattels.
8. The following neuter nouns want the fingular : Acta, public acts or records. Mænia, -ium, the walls of a city. Æstiva, summer-quarters.
Munia, offices. Arma, arms.
Orgia, the facred rites of Bacchus. Bellaria, -orum, sweet meats. Ovilia, -ium, an inclosure, where tbe Bona, goods.
people went to give ibeir votes. Brevia, -ium, foelves.
Palearia, -ium, the dew lap of a beaf. Caftra, a camp.
Parapherna, all things the wife Charistia, -orum, a peace-feaft. brings her busband exceps ber dowCibaria, victuals.
ry. Comitia, an assembly of the people. Parentalia, -ium, solemnities at the Crepundia, children's bawbles. funeral of parents, Cunabula, a cradle.
Philtra, love potions. Dicteria, fcoffs, witticisms. Præcordia, the bowels. Exta, the entrails.
Principia, the place in the camp wbere Februa, -orum, purifying facrifices. the general's tent food. Flabra, blafts of wind.
Pythia, games in bonour of Apollo. Fraga, Arawberries.
Roftra, a place in Rome made of the Hyberna, sc. castra, winter-quar beaks of sips, from which orators
used to make orations to the people. Ilia, -ium, the entrails.
Scruta, old clotbes. Incunabŭla, a cradle.
Sponsalia, -ium, efpoufals, Insecta, infects.
Statīva, a standing camp.