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In many instances one part only of the antithesis is expressed, the corresponding idea being understood; as,
A friendly eye would never see such faults. Here the unfriendly eye is understood.
King Henry exclaims, while vainly endeavoring to compose himself to rest;
How many thousands of my subjects are at this hour asleep. . Here the emphatic words thousands, subjects, and asleep are contrasted in idea with their opposites, and if the contrasted ideas were expressed, it would be done something in this way:
While I alone their sovereign am doomed to wakefulness.
3. Emphalic Phrase. SOMETIMES, several words in succession are emphasized. The following are examples.
Shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but of the Alps themselves shall I compare myself with this HALF-YEAR-CAPTAIN?
There was a time, my fellow-citizens, when the Lacedæmonians were sovereign masters, both by sea and land; while this state had not one shipno, NOT-ONE-WALL.
4. Emphatic Pause. An emphatic expression of sentiment osten requires a pause, where the grammatical construction authorizes none. This is sometimes called the rhetorical pause. Such pauses occur, chiefly, before or after an 'emphatic word or phrase, and sometimes both before and after it. Their object is, to attract attention to the emphatic idea, or to give the mind time to dwell upon it, and thus strengthen the impression. Examples. Rise— fellow-men! our country — yet remains !
By that dread name we wave the sword on high,
And if thou said'st I am not peer
Be thou a bruised -- but not a broken - reed. Questions. --When is a word said to be emphasized? Upon what part of the word is the increased stress placed? What is the object of emphasis? In what other way, than the one just mentioned, can this be accomplished? How are emphatic words marked? What is said of the importance of emphasis? What other things yield to emphasis? Give some examples in which accent yields to it? What is absolute emphasis ? Give examples. What is meant by relative emphasis ? Give the examples, and show the words contrasted. Give the examples, in which the emphasis is carried through several sets of contrasted words, and point out which words are opposed to each other. Is the idea corresponding to the emphatic word ever left out? Explain the two last examples under this head, and show what is the idea opposed to friendly, in the one, and what are opposed to thousand, subjects, and asleep, in the other. What is meant by the emphatic phrase? Give the examples. What do you understand by the emphatic pause? Where does it occur ? What is its object? Give examples.
THE RE A DING OF POETRY.
Poetic Pauses. In poetry, we have three sets of pauses, viz., grammatical pauses, rhetorical pauses, and poetic pauses. The first two are common to poetry and prose. The last belongs to poetry alone, and its object is simply to promote the melody.
At the end of each line, a slight pause is generally proper, whatever be the grammatical construction, or the sense. The purpose of this is, to make prominent the melody of the measure, and, in rhyme, to allow the ear to appreciate the harmony of the similar sounds.
There is, also, another important pause, somewhere near the middle of each line, which is called the cesura or cesural pause. It should never be so placed, as to injure the sense. It adds very much to the beauty of poetry, where it naturally coincides with the pause required by the sense. The follow ing lines present an example of this pause. It is marked thus |
There are hours long departed | which memory brings,
Like blossoms of Eden || to twine round the heart,
They may darken awhile | but they never depart.
There is a land | of every land the pride,
That land — thy country | and that spot — thy home.
True ease in writing | comes from art, not chance,
Flies , o'er th' unbending corn, || and skims | along the main. Questions. - How many kinds of pauses are used in poetry? Which of them are common to both poetry and prose? Which is used in poetry alone? What is the object of this latter kind? Where is a slight pause generally proper? What is its object? What other pause in poetry is used? What is it called ? Point it out in the examples. What caution is given with regard to its use? When there are three, what are the first and last called ?
1. Pitch and Compass. If any one will notice closely a sentence as uttered in private conversation, he will observe, that scarcely two successive words are pronounced in exactly the same tone. At the same time, however, there is a certain pitch or key, which seems, on the whole, to prevail. This governing note, or key note, as it may be called, is that, upon which the voice most frequently dwells, to which it usually returns when wearied, and upon which a sentence generally commences, and very
frequently ends, while, at the same time, there is a considerable play of the voice above and below it.
This note may be high or low. It varies in different individuals, and at different times in the same individual, being governed by the nature of the subject, and the emotions of the speaker. The range of the voice above and below this note, is called its compass. When the speaker is animated, this range is great; but upon abstract subjects, and with a dull, lifeless speaker, it is small. If, in reading or speaking, too high a note be chosen, the lungs will soon become wearied; if too low a pitch be selected, there is danger of indistinctness of utterance; and, in either case, there is less room for variety of tone, than if one be taken between the two extremes.
On this point, let the following rule be observed. RULE I.— The reader or speaker should choose that pitch, on which he can feel himself most at ease, and above and below which, he may have most room for variation.
Having chosen the proper key note, he should beware of confining himself to it. This constitutes monotony, one of the greatest faults in elocution. One very important instrument for giving expression and life to thought, is thus lost, and the hearer soon becomes wearied and disgusted.
There is another fault of nearly equal magnitude, and of very frequent occurrence. This consists in varying the tones without any rule or guide. In cases of this kind, there seems to be a desire to cultivate variety of tone, without a knowledge of the principles upon which it should be done. Sometimes, also, there is a kind of regular variation, but still not connected with the sense. A sentence is commenced with vehemence and in a high tone, and the voice gradually sinks, word by word, until, the breath being spent, and the lungs exhausted, it dies away, at the close, in a whisper.
The habit of sing-song, so common in reading poetry, as it is a variation of tone without reference to the sense, is a species of the fault above mentioned.
If the reader or speaker is guided by the sense, and if he gives the emphasis, inflection, and expression, required by the meaning, these faults will speedily disappear,
2. Quality or Expression. The tones of the voice should vary, also, in quality or expression, according to the nature of the subject. We notice, very plainly, a difference between the soft, insinuating tones of persuasion; the full, strong voice of command and decision; the harsh, irregular, and sometimes grating explosion of the sounds of passion; the plaintive notes of sorrow and pity; and the equable and unimpassioned flow of words in argumentative style. In dialogue, common sense teaches, that the manner and tones of the supposed speaker should be imitated. In all varieties of style, this is equally proper, for the reader is but repeating the language of another, and the full meaning of this cannot be conveyed, unless uttered with that expression which we may suppose the author would have given to it, or in other words, which the subject itself demands.
The following direction, upon this point, is worthy of attention.
RULE II. — The tones of the voice should always correspond with the nature of the subject.
If the following extracts are all read in the same tone and manner, and then read again with the expression appropriate to each, the importance of this point cannot fail to be, at once, perceived. “Come back! come back !” he cries with grief,
“ Across the stormy water,
My daughter! oh, my daughter !”
What was thy delighted measure!
And bade the lovely scenes at distance hail;
And from the rocks, the woods, the vale,
And where her sweetest theme she chose,
A soft responsive voice was heard at every close;
Brackenbury. Why looks your grace so heavily to-day?
Clarence.. 0, I have passed a miserable night,