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cataract, and all other things in nature, are endowed by him with their pecu
ENGLAND'S WEAKNESS AND liar genii, and become, as it were, the
ENGLAND'S STRENGTH. talismanic keys which awaken their BECAUSE social and political changes appropriate tones, and melodies, and are taking place, some are of opinion strains, within his breast. And thus he that England's glory is gradually grows in knowledge and wisdom, and declining. It is supposed that Engin moral character, and erects an im- land's strength and greatness are solemortality of thought; and makes all ly attributable to the success of her material substances and forms and arms, her state church, her gorgeous qualities inservient to mind.
aristocracy, her promogeniture and enHe lifts his eye to the heavens, and tail laws, and her mighty standing beholds the sun and moon and myriads armies and floating navies. And beof stars, whose light descends upon him cause Corn Laws are being repealed, like an informing spirit; and he dili- and a more comprehensive policy in gently contemplates them till he learns relation to commerce and taxation are to weigh them in his balance, and being entertained and established, measure their dimensions and their far- fears are conjured up by many that our sweeping orbits; and ascertains their country has seen its brightest days; and, laws and their relations; and finds the that unless we resort to the good old universe to be a vast fraternity of ma- ways of our forefathers, fresh difficulterial forms, and feels himself to be the ties will accumulate upon us, and press percipient and intelligent centre of ma- us to the dust. Just the present terial things, gathering their influences moment, when crime appears to multiand converting them to mind, which he ply, when agricultural distress presses, exerts upon them, and by which he in- and when the tide of emigration ebbs vestigates their nature, qualities, laws, from our shores, such gloomy apprerelations, purposes and ultimate de hensions gather thickly around the signs.
visions of those who imagine that EngThus man becomes a part of the vast land's brightness is fading with the world in which he lives, and every past. But there are others who think thing becomes a part of him; and hence that England is not great and powerful it may with propriety be said that man on account of the things above menis the soul of the world. Nor is he tioned: but in spite of them, and that only thus intellectually and morally as
without them, she would be still greater. sociated with material things : his won- They think that it is possible for a naderfully constructed body, the organic tion to he powerful, prosperous, and tenement and engine of his mind, par- progressive, without an army or takes in its elements of their common navy, a state church, or an unenfrannature, and is subject to those common chised majority. They think that the laws of matter which bind all forms true grandeur of a nation exists in its together in inseparable relations. material resources, in its facilities for
Whatever, therefore, may be the in- the production and distribution of terest connected with material things, wealth, in the sobriety, integrity, and man is the centre of that interest; and dignity of her sons, in their enterprizing consequently man, in his nature and spirit, in their capability and will to faculties, and capabilities, and condi- conquer the difficulties which impede tion, and in his relations to the world the march of civilization. They think in which he exists, is one of the most that the true riches of a nation consist interesting and important subjects in the many products which industry which the human mind has power and and intellect have scattered over its compass to investigate.
surface; in its manufactories, docks, PROFESSOR GRAHAM. railways, cities, libraries, schools, and
churches; that its greatest men are its Genius studies the casual thought, and, far workers, poets, thinkers, philanthroing from one orb, that diverge ere they fall by pists, and all those who live out their infinite diameters,
being to the best of their ability—they
ENGLAND'S WEAKNESS AND ENGLAND'S STRENGTH.
think that knowledge and righteousness untold numbers of England's fairest exalt a nation.
women brought to shame and infamy, Doubtless, any one who views the and who pass through life plucking character and condition of England, flowers, which only grow on the paths may see many things which wring his of iniquity and around the margin of the heart, and make it bleed with pity. He grave-he may see gibbets to which womay see thousands in rags and wretch- men, in all the glow and freshness of edness—he may see men and women, youth, are forcibly carried to be publicwho would work and gain an honestly executed, when their shrieks pierce livelihood if they could, but they can- the skies, and rend the hearts of connot, as they have no work to do-he gregated thousands--he may see Smithmay see young men behind the coun- fields and their gory appurtenances, ter, or the desk, working from early where cruelties are perpetrated on dumb, morn till late at night, tired, exhausted, unoffending animals, which would and prostrated, physically and men- stain the annals of the barbarous ages tally-he may see women-yes, tender, --he may see towns undrained, houses beautiful women, who deserve a better unventilated, and their inhabitants cordestiny, plying the needle for sixteen, respondingly dirty; localities where diseighteen, and twenty hours a day, and eases breed, and death rots-he may that for the most paltry pittance--and, see the spirit of selfishness pervading he may see, on the other hand, a proud the commercial transactions of the peoand pampered aristocracy, rolling in ple, and competition in its pitiless riches, and faring sumptuously every sway, trampling on the weak and unday, and who expend enough in extra fortunate, reckless of benevolence and vagance to feed starving myriads--he many other considerations which should may see a huge national debt, which too nourish and gladden life-he may see significantly forebodes national bank- ignorance enthroned in the minds, and ruptcy-he may see taxes indirectly wrapping its gloomy mantle around the wrung from the working and commer- prospects of millions: and deeper than cial classes, and recklessly appropriated any of these evils which are observable to unwarrantable purposes-he may on the surface, may be seen vice and see game-laws which exist for the privi- moral degradation in countless shapes, leged few, and to which the comfort holding captive the bodies and minds and happiness of innumerable families of multitudes. have been sacrificed-he may see If any thing will eat into the vitals of church, many of whose bishops and England's national life, and hinder the dignitaries live in wealth and splen- development of its capabilities, it is dour, and many of whose hard-working error, ignorance, and unrighteousness. curates almost starve for the bread What we have to fearis not enemies from that perisheth—he may see immense without, but enemies from withintracts of unpurchaseable waste lands, not the French or the Russians, but and thousands of famishing men remain- wrongs and habits which we have creating idle-he may see rich and extensive ed and which we may destroy. But landowners dying, and leaving their there is a bright as well as dark side to entailed estates to their eldest sons, the picture. We have not only nationwhile the other members of their fami- | al vices, but national virtues. Doubtless, lies are left almost wholly unprovided there has always been a great deal of for, and who cannot dig, and to beg are active benevolence, and sterling worth ashamed, but, who by political in- among our population; but never, I fuences and corruption, are lifted into trow, as much as at the present time. places to be maintained in affluence There is not only just now a great deal from the public purse-he may see in- of individual excellence and individual temperance with its million palaces, exertion for the public good; but men, where no other God but Bacchus is actuated by the noblest motives, assoworshipped, and whose worshippers ciate together, so that they may put have desolation written on their coun- down wrongs and vices by instrumentenances and their homes-he may see talities which could not be so easily de
stroyed by individual efforts.-If we misdeeds—that her colonial possessions have organized wrongs, we have also are sadly mismanaged, and that she is, men organised into societies to put even at the present moment, depositing down such wrongs.—We have societies the germs of evil habits and bad infor reclaiming the waste lands-redemp- stitutions in the hearts of young emtion societies—societies for the relief pires; but, while admitting this, let us and benefit of oppressed needlewomen not forget that our ships ride on every and benevolent societies in abundance. sea, and are driven by every breezeWe have missionary societies for home that our commerce is linking all the and abroad — we have penitentiaries, nations of the earth together in the infirmaries, and hospitals supported by bonds of interest and peace. Though voluntary contributions. We have we permit political and social abuses to peace societies trying to remove war continue in our midst, we may boast of systems and the war spirit from the institutions which wisdom erected, and world—temperance societies battling which time has honoured. England with intemperance-educational insti- with her omnipotent public opinion, tutions subjugating ignorance-parlia- her liberties and hospitalities, stands mentary and financial reform associa- like a beacon amongst the nations of the tions, labouring for the political eleva- earth. She is the home of the retion of the people-sanitary commis- fugee and exile, and the centre to which: sions and boards of health sweeping men of letters and commercial princes our streets and closing reeking grave- resort. Yes, “England, with all thy yards—benefit societies, building socie- faults, I love thee still." Glorious ties, insurance companies—associations has been thy past with all its crimes, to build washing houses, model lodging and more glorious will be thy future. houses; and a thousand other associa- Thou has shaken the world and desolat. tions, for a thousand other purposes. ed nations with war; and thou wilt, in I do not mean to say that all these as years to come, devote thy matchless sociations fulfil all they promise, and strength and inexhaustible resources to that associations and the principle of co- consolidating the peace and promotoperation may not be abused. I have ing the prosperity of all peoples. Though merely to deal with the fact, that the errors fester in thy bosom—though inpeople are beginning to see the potency justice and suffering impair thy mightiand practicability of co-operating to- ness—thou shalt weather thestorm, and gether, for the multiplication of means gradually grow stronger, holier, and for comfort and elevation. I see in happier.
EDITOR, this fact one of the grand characteristics of the age, and it tells where England is going, and what she will be, as sig
HISTORICAL CHARACTER OF nificantly as any feature or circum
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.* stance of the nineteenth century. There He is dead !—We may now pause beis not a single great national wrong fore that splendid prodigy, which tow. but what is met by a right, wielded ered amongst us like some ancient ruin, by truehearted, energetic men. It whose frown terrified the glance its would be difficult to find a bad institu- magnificence attracted. Grand, gloomy, tion, or an extensively spread vice that and peculiar, he sat upon the throne, is not resisted by an organized effort a sceptered hermit, wrapt in the soliaiming at its overthrow. And there tude of his awful originality. A mind are many recorded instances of the bold, independent, and decisive; a will complete success of righteous associa- despotic in its dictates ; an energy tions. Slaves have been emancipated, that distances expedition, and a con. religious liberty obtained, corn laws science pliable to every touch of inrepealed, and other evils subjugated terest, marked the outlines of this exby similar means. Admitted, that traordinary character, the most extraEngland perpetuates injustices and songs—that Ireland stands before her, written soon after the death of the gren
* This eloquent historical dissertation wa ghost warning her of her past warrior.
HISTORICAL CHARACTER OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
ordinary, perhaps, that, in the annals of the other never bent in the field. Nature this world, ever rose, or reigned, or fell. had no obstacles that he did not sur Flung into life in the midst of a re- mount-space no opposition that he volution that quickened every energy did not spurn; and, whether amid of a people who acknowledged no su- Alpine rocks, Arabian sands, or Polar perior, he commenced his course, a snows, he seemed proof against peril, stranger by birth, and a scholar by and endowed with ubiquity! The whole charity. With no friend but his sword, continent of Europe trembled at beand no fortune but his talents, he rushed holding the audacity of his designs and into the lists where rank, and wealth, the miracle of their execution. Scepand genius had arrayed themselves : ticism bowed to the prodigies of his competition fled from him as from the performances- -- romance assumed the glance of destiny. He knew no motive air of history; nor was there ought too but interest - he acknowledged no incredible for belief, when the world criterion but success—he worshipped saw a subaltern of Corsica waving his no God but ambition; and with an flag over her most ancient capitals. All eastern devotion, he knelt at the shrine the visions of antiquity became comof his idolatry. Subsidiary to this, there mon places in his contemplation ; kings was no creed that he did not profess—were his people ; nations were his outthere was no opinion that he did not posts; and he disposed of courts, and promulgate. In the hope of a dynasty, crowns, and camps, and churches, and he upheld the Crescent; for the sake of cabinets, as if they were the titular diga divorce, he bowed before the Cross. nitaries of the chess-board ! The orphan of St. Louis, he became the Amid all these changes, he stood child of the Republic; and, with a as immutable as adamant. It mattered parricidal ingratitude, on the ruins, little whether in the field or in the both of the throne and the tribune, he drawing room; with the mob or at the reared the tower of his despotism. A levee; wearing the Jacobine bonnet or professed Catholic, he imprisoned the the iron crown; banishing a Braganza, Pope; a pretended patriot, he impove- or espousing a Lorraine ; dictating peace rished the country, and in the name on a raft to the Czar of Russia, or conof Brutus he grasped without remorse, templating a defeat and the gallows at and wore without shame, the diadem of Leipsic;—he was still the same military the Cæsars !
despot. Through this pantomime of his Cradled in the camp, he was, to policy, fortune played the clown to his the last hour, the darling of the army.. caprices. At his touch crowns crumbled, Of all his soldiers, not one forsook him,. beggars reigned, systems vanished; till affection was useless, and their first the wildest theories took the colour of stipulation was for the safety of their his whim, and all that was venerable, favourite. They knew well if he was and all that was novel, changed places lavish of them, he was prodigal of himwith the rapidity of a drama. Even self; and that if he exposed them to apparent defeat assumed the operations peril, he paid them with plunder. For the of victory. His flight from Egypt con- soldiers hesubdued every people—to the firmed his destiny ; ruin itself only people he even made pride pay tribute. elevated him to empire. But if his The victorious veteran glittered with fortune was great, his genius was trans- his gains, and the capital, gorgeous witla cendent; decision flashed upon his the spoils of art, became the miniature councils, and it was the same to decide metropolis of the universe. In this and to perform. To inferior intellects, wonderful combination, his affectation of his combinations appeared utterly im- / literature must not be omitted. The possible-his plans perfectly impracti- gaoler of the press, he affected the cable; but in his hands, simplicity mark- patronage of letters; the proscriber of ed their development, and success books, he encouraged philosophy; the vindicated their adoption. His person persecutor of authors, and the murpartook of the character of his mind- derer of printers, he yet pretended if the one never yielded in the cabinet, to the protection of learz ing The Bo
sassin of Palen, the silencer of De Stael, of Greece and Rome were his favourite and the denouncer of Kotzebue—he companions. Often have we walked was the friend of David, the benefactor under the shadows of ancient edifices of De Lille, and sent his academic prize and tall umbrageous trees, contrasting to the philosopher of England.* the breadth and depths of our acquire
Such a medley of contradictions, and ments and speculations on the future. at the same time such an individual Often have I stood breathless to listen consistency, were never united in the to him picturing in glowing colourings same character.-A Royalist, a Republi- the successes and triumphs which would can, and an Emperor; a Mahometan, crown his after-life. He could scarcely Catholic, and a patron of the Synagogue; have been said to have lived in the a subaltern and a Sovereign; a traitor present. He was either brooding over and a tyrant; a Christian and an Infidel | the treasures of the past, or soaring on -he was through all his vicissitudes the wings of imagination into the unthe same stern, potent, inflexible origi- trodden future. Time passed on, and nal—the same mysterious, incomprehen- I had not seen my friend for several sible selt--the man without a model, and years. I had occasionally heard of him, without a shadow.
but the intelligence was far from an His fall, like his life, baffled all spe- encouraging character. culation. In short, his whole history One beautiful star-lit evening, while was like a dream to the world, and no crossing London-bridge, a man with man can tell how or why he was awa- stooping mien, his hat over his eyes, kened from the reverie. Such is a faint and his dirty, torn coat, buttoned and feeble picture of Napoleon Bona- | around him, asked me for some coppers. parte, the first, and, it is to be hoped, I thought I remembered the voice; I the last Emperor of the French. That looked at the man, and started back, he has done much evil there is little and stood for a moment speechless, as doubt; and that he has been the origin if I had encountered a ghost. I was of much good, there is just as little. almost certain that the wretched being Through his means, intentional or not, who stood before me was the one whom Spain, Portugal, and France have risen I once rejoiced to call my friend, and of to the blessing of a free constitution ; whose success in life I had once such Superstition has found her grave in high expectations. I dared not for a the ruins of the Inquisition ; and the short time speak to him and call him feudal system, with its whole train of by his name, fearing that he would tyrannic satellites, has fled for ever. answer and confirm my suspicions. But Kings may learn from him, that their I did so, and his answer sent a cold safest study, as well as their noblest, is thrill through my frame. It was he, or the interest of the people; the people what was left of him. He was no other are taught by him, that there is no than a mean-looking, soul-broken, drunk. despotism so stupendous against which ard. I no sooner told him my name, they have not resource; and to all those than he looked still more ghastly, and who would rise upon the ruins of both, appeared for a moment as if annihe is a living lesson, that if ambition hilation would be a comfort to him. can raise them from the lowest station, As we both partially collected ourselves, it can also prostrate them from the he tried to shun me, by saying “I beg highest.
pardon, Sir, I took you for someone else !" That did not satisfy me. I fol.
lowed him, and compelled him to share THE BLIGHTED ONE. a part of my purse.
He took it trembABOUT fifteen years since, James Bay lingly, and said, “I am a miserable, nard and I graduated at the same uni. guilty, lost man.” My heart was so full, versity. He was my superior in every- tell him that I would call on him. I
that I could only take his address, and thing but Latin. The poets and orators
went on my way in deep, deep sorrow. I Sir Humphrey Davy had the first prize of had seen the friend of my earlier years, the Academy of Science transmitted to him. one in whom I had reposed much con