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Adjutant-General Kolsakoff gave orders that the prisoners and the wounded should be buried in the same grave with the dead, and the Russian soldiers readily obeyed the instructions they had received.'

“ November 11.-Young ladies are being continually arrested. Fifty, for the most part girls of from seventeen to nineteen

age, some of them even younger, were taken one night last week, and are now in prison. Old and young, men and women are all treated alike in the matter of arrests, and are invariably seized in the middle of the night. From ten at night till four the next morning are the Russian official hours for deeds that will not bear the light of day.'

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The above quotations will, it is hoped, suffice to prove that the policy of Russia as a State is the very reverse of a humane one. Even if this were not the case, however, the system of government which she pursues in her own country is such that no true friend of the Turkish Christians can wish that they should be subjected to a similar rule. However disinterested Russia may be assumed to be in her efforts to emancipate the Southern Slavs from the Ottoman dominion, it cannot be supposed that she would tolerate the grant of more liberal institutions to them than she herself possesses ; a free State is a dangerous neighbour to a despotic one, which must always dread the incitement to revolution among its own people produced by the proximity of a nation enjoying greater political liberties than themselves.

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If, therefore, the Turkish Christians are to be Probable conemancipated with the help of Russia, that power the Turkish may fairly claim, if not to exercise a direct of Russian influence over their system of government, at in their beleast to prevent it from becoming more liberal than her own. And what is the Russian system of government ? That it is a despotism we all know; and this—though it would be intolerable to Englishmen—would, perhaps, not be regarded as a grievance by the half-civilised populations of the East. But even they would probably protest against the incessant and vexatious interference of Russian officialism in all the affairs of life; the rigid suppression of all manifestations of public opinion which are at variance with the views of the government; the prohibition of the use of their

own language in public documents and courts of justice ; and the almost unlimited arbitrary power of the higher functionaries, who have the lives and properties of the people at their mercy.

It will be interesting to quote on this subject the Pall Mall Gazette of the 21st of February, 1876:

any modern

“Another complaint made against the Turkish Government is that there is no security for the property of its Christian subjects. But in Russia the Government has not only failed to afford securities for the property of its Polish subjects, but has carried out a system of wholesale confiscation which is without a precedent in Christian State. Moreover, in Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia no Pole or Roman Catholic is permitted to acquire land except by direct inheritance. If he becomes insolvent his landed property is sold by auction; and, as none but Russians can be buyers, and those residing in the provinces in question are usually few in number and poor, the sum realized by the sale is usually so small that both the debtor and his creditors are ruined. Nor is this the only cause of the depreciation of property in the Polish districts. During the last twelve years a special tax has been imposed on the Poles and Catholics, from which their fellow subjects of the Russian nationality and creed are entirely exempt. In addition to these material grievances, there are moral, or, SO to say, national ones in Russia which do not exist among the Turkish Slavs. There are from 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 persons under the Russian rule whose native tongue is Polish. Of these, four-fifths at least do not speak any other language; yet in the Polish provinces the only language used in all the public offices, courts of justice, etc., is the Russian. In Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia it is forbidden, under legal penalties, to place Polish inscriptions on the shops, to make out tradesmen's bills in Polish, to address letters in Polish, and even to speak that language in public places. It is, of course, found impossible strictly to enforce the latter prohibition; but the decree on this subject (General Potapoff's circular of the 22nd of March and


9th of July, 1868) still has the force of law, and even now placards may be seen in various parts of Vilna with the inscription, 'It is forbidden to speak Polish here.' As to the absence of personal security for the Christians in Turkey, the recent banishment of M. Brodzki, banker and municipal councillor at Odessa, shows that in Russia people are not better off. This incident has made some noise, owing to the fact that M. Brodzki is a Jew, and that his cause has consequently been taken up by the numerous journalists of his persuasion who occupy influential positions in the press of Berlin and Vienna ; but there are hundreds of Poles who have been similarly treated, and any Russian subject is liable to be banished without trial by an order from the chief of the police at St. Petersburg."

Is Russia The greatest grievance, however, of those of more tolerant than Tur- the Turkish Christians who do not belong to the key?

orthodox Russian church, would, if they were placed under a system of government similar to that existing in Russia, be that of religious persecution. It is a favourite argument with

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