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he drinks is taxed—the paper he peruses is taxed-and even the light of heaven that
PRO BONO PUBLICO. streams through the window on its columns is
BY H. G. ADAMS. taxed.
Pro Bono PUBLICO ! each hour a voice The national debt, was comparatively a Cries in the market-place-“Rejoice! rejoice! recent creation, and almost entirely the re- For I have found a treasure beyond price, sult of wars.
our forefathers were a fighting That which will cure all ailments in a trice, people, but they had always the honesty to Subdue all ills to which the flesh is heir, pay their own slaughter bills, and up to the
And raise you up to health e'en from the bier: time of Charles II. the country was unbur
Come, freely buy, and be it understood, dened with a national debt. Since that time,
My aim is only for the Public Good!” however, it had gone on increasing, till it had now reached so much that the bones and Pro Bono PUBLICO! the cry is rife, sinews of generations were already mortgaged Heard o'er the tumult of our daily life; for its payment.
It would be regarded as very Heard o'er the din of battles, and above outrageous, indeed, were an old man to advo- The ceaseless whirl where myriad shuttles move; cate the propriety of cutting his neighbour's It runs through all the councils of the State, throat, and mortgaging his great-great-grand- Through every tavern, every street debate; children for the payment of the penalty; and Whate'er men do or say, 'tis understood yet something very similar was what the Gov- Their aim is only for the Public Good! ernment had been all along doing. armed peace," as he called it--which swallowed
Pro Bono PUBLICO! 'tis all the rage.
Like the deep chorus of the Grecian stage, up the respectable sum of L.20,000,000 a-year-
It cometh in whene'er the say is said, a sum which, had it been expended on agricul
Whene'er the deed is done-the hero deadture, would have been of immense benefit to the country. In fact, the nations of Christen
And points the moral, and adorns the tale;
And naught we do or say can aught avail, dom, during a time of peace, had paid more for war than would have bought the whole of Great
Unless we have it clearly understood Britain--this great garden of the world.
Our aim is only for the Public Good! But how were these things to be better
PRO BONO PUBLICO! And is it so? managed ? That was an object which could
Is the deep fount from whence our actions flow never be obtained, unless means were taken to
So free from worldly taint--so purified get rid of those dissensions which had been
From aught that's unto selfishness allied, engendered and fomented between the middle
That we may thus such large profession make, and working classes by a third party. Were
And to ourselves such mignty credit take, that accomplished, they would soon make the
Striving to have it clearly understood House of Commons, in very deed, the people's
Our aim is only for the Public Good ? House. In the House of Peers, there were only 47 members who had not relations in the army, PRO BONO PUBLICO! Alas! alas! the navy, and the church. They, therefore, If this be so, how cometh it to pass had always a strong majority for war, and keep- That such a strife and struggle goeth on, ing up the church, with all her numberless Wherein the weak are crushed and overrun? abuses. The aristocracy married and got chil- That plenty here, there wretched want prevails? dren like other people, and it behoved them to That pleading wretchedness in vain assails provide places for their growing sons, who were The ears of some, who'd have it understood in due time amply provided with good berths Their aim is only for the Public Good? and high salaries. But it was not in the House of Peers alone that the army and navy were
Pro Bono PUBLICO! to all and each [preach represented; for out of the 658 members of the Of such as write, and speak, and work, and House of Commons, there are no fewer than
With this great principle for aye in view-356 officers, or their immediate connections ; Give as is meet the praise and honour due ; 5 marquesses, who were the eldest sons of peers;
But unto those who raise the cuckoo cry, 63 lords, the sons of peers and Irish lords; And as a preface to the words——“Come buy!" 103 brothers, sons, or immediate relatives of
Let us declare—“ It is not understood peers; 56 baronets, related to the aristocracy; Your aim is only for the Public Good !” 26 eldest sons and immediate relations of baro
Pro Boxo PUBLICO! no greater aim nets; and 85 landed proprietors, married to
The Christian Patriot's energies may claim; sisters, daughters, etc., of peers. Thus, with
No nobler watch word for the bands who press the standing majority in the House of Lords of
Onwards to teach, to humanize, to bless: 200, and a standing majority in the People's
Raise it aloft! it is the battle-cry House, they had in both Houses 709 persons
Of those who strive 'gainst wrong and misery; banded together for official extravagance. That
Assist, support, and say—“'Tis understood certainly was a stout majority arrayed in favour of their own interest, and against the people's
Your aim, indeed, is for the Public Good!”
Rochester. rights. But a good time was coming. The people suffered severely, and had suffered long; but a better spirit was rising among them-a The total number of brewers in the United determination to obtain honest retrenchment
Kingdom, in 1819, was 2,460. The number of and reform.-CHARLES GILPIN.
victuallers, 88,465. The number of persons
licensed to sell beer, “to be drunk on the Liberty has now need of peace, because it is premises,” 34,606. The number of persons lithe progress of mind, and for the progress of censed to sell beer, “ not to be drunk on the mind there must be peace.--Thiers.
THOUGHTS ON THE NEW YEAR.
The connection which subsists between the ciil.
tivation of cotton in America, and the growth of WHEN I look back upon the time that's gone,
slavery in that country, will at once appear from And feel again what I have borne,-I see
the following tables :The Present is no prophet, dearest one,
EXPORTS OP COTTON PROM SLAVE POPULATION IN THE
180,316 | 1790
657,437 In those dark years for ever roll'd away, 1800 20,911, 201 1800
866,582 And now without thee what were life or breath? 1810 62,186,081 1810 1,299,872 My living idol thou from day to day.
1820 121,893,405 1820 1,733,162
1830 A thousand knees may bow at beauty's shrine,
270,979,784 1830 2,310,882
1840 A thousand lips with song may hail its birth;
510,957,568 1840 2,485,683
1843 The soul alone can render love divine,
1,081,919,136 1843 2,847,810 The one bright angel only seen on earth.
1,250,500,000 | 1846 ....... 3,000,000
After considering these statements, who is Another year! These words have little weight
there that can resist the conviction, that AmeWith earth's mad millions as they struggle on,
rican slavery derives its vitality from the cotton Who vainly try to check or change their fate, trade? And who supports the cotton trade ? Till the dream vanishes, and life is gone.
The following table, based upon the analysis The world is one vast change from great to small, of Playfair and Boussingault, shows the nutriThough in mine eyes as beautiful thou art;
tive properties of articles of diet:-
AND SUPPLY TO THE
Heat That shine on me like stars! they have a voice,
I'ming A silent voice, of unheard melodies,
formWhich ever makes the bounding heart rejoice.
the Thy open brow—the ivory throne of thought
ter. Princi. Innu
Bones Is yet unwrinkled by a single care ; [brought,
Ib. lb. lb. 1b. lb
11 100 Turnips. .
89 1 9 1 Around those lips (and such might angels press)
Beet Root 11 89
83 In witchery still those Hebe-dimples play;
13 87 2 10 And in thy smile the light of loveliness
25 75 Comes like the dawning of a summer day.
28 72 2 25 Say, must I vainly love thee as before, [star,
82 18 11 68 And view thee as some bright and glorious Peas..
84 16 29 51} To which my fate will never let me soar,
Lentils. 84 16 33 48 But stand and gaze a worshipper afar?
14 683 Wheat...
85 145 21 62 Or will the passion of my soul prevail ?
Beans... 86 14 31 What is thy answer? Oh! in kindness speak;
Oatmeal.. 91 9 12 77 2 At every doubt I tremble aud turn pale,
And shun, distractedly, the thing I seek. DUCAL PENSIONS AND PENNY LETTERS.-The This love for what is lovely bringeth grief,
following pensions are annually paid out of the The jealous grief that maddens us to feel;
Post Office revenues :For where the gem is precious, there the thief
Duke of Marlborough..
Duke of Grafton. Is the most likely to break in and steal.
Heirs of the Duke of Schomberg.. 4,000 0
The first has been paid for nearly 140 years, in The bright of spirit, and the strong of hand.
addition to the hundreds of thousands received h, Love! Oh, Beauty! fair, yet fatal things! in other ways by the great Duke and his succes
Fairer to Evé than Eden's blissful bowers; sors. The first Duke of Grafton was one of But the dread serpent that deceiv'd her, flings Charles II.'s illegitimate children, and this penHis baneful shadow o'er your happiest hours. sion, besides one of L.7,191 12s., payable out of
the Excise revenues, has been paid above 170 Smiles are the treacherous heralds of a tear,
years. The original Duke of Schomberg was a And joy is sorrow's cradle—we awake
Dutchman, who fought at the battle of Boyne, From hope's delirious trance from year to year,
and now, 160 years after, we are paying thé And noble hearts may only beat to break.
same sum to another Dutchman, one of his Now fare thee well, dear lady of my love! descendants! The payment of the above three
Live bless'd, and brightly: be the darkness pensions absorbs the postage of no less than Still let me feel there is a Power above, [mine; 2,473,800 penny letters, without deducting any
Oh, Adeline! to guide my steps and thine. of the expense!
SCRAPS-GEMS OF GENIUS.
Gems of Genius.
John Wesley used to say,
No man can ride
A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. to heaven in a coach and four."
All that we see of the universe is a spot imIt is the mind that maketh good or ill,
perceptibly small in the ample bosom of nature. That maketh rich or happy, rich or poore; The philosophy of a thousand years has not For some, that hath abundance at his will, explored the chambers and magazines of the
Hath not enough, but wants in greater store; soul.
And other that hath little, asks no more, Some thoughts always find us young, and But in that little is both rich and wise;
keep us so. Such a thought is the love of the For wisdome is most riches: fooles therefore universal and eternal beauty. They are which fortunes do by vowes devize, Our globe, seen by God, is a transparent Since each unto himself his life may fortunize. law, not a mass of facts.
--Spenser. As long as I hear truth, I am bathed by a. The belly is the Charybdis of the soul.
beautiful element, and ain not conscious of any Diogenes.
limits to my nature. Bad books, like intoxicating drinks, are
Love is the odour of heavenly flowers. poisons.
Hope springs eternal in the human breast; God's word and man's nature say,
Man never is, but always to be blest. shalt not kill."
The Gothic cathedral is a blossoming in stone, Crime is madness; madness is disease.
subdued by the insatiable demand of harmony Shelley. Whenever you doubt whether an intended
Love is our highest word, and the synoaction be good or bad, abstain from it.—20
nyme of God. Toaster.
Beauty is the flowering of virtue.
The only money of God is God. The only They are slaves who fear to speak
reward of virtue is virtue. The only way to For the fallen and the weak;
have a friend is to be one. They are slaves who will not choose
Picture and sculpture are the celebrations Hatred, scoffing, and abuse,
and festivities of form. Rather than in silence shrink
Life is a morsel of frankincense, burning in From the truth they needs must think; the hall of eternity. They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three.
Prayer is the soul's sincere desire,
Uttered or unexpressed"What, Jack, are you not going to see the
The motion of a hidden fire hanging today?" "No; I never go to such Which trembles in the breast. places,” was the reply. “Oh! what a fellow you are-you never enjoy a holiday," was the
The faculty of genius is the power of lightrejoinder.
ing its own fire.
We never can be deathless till we die. It is A distinguished authoress says she always
the dead win battles. makes it a point not to eat anything that can look at her.
Know then this truth-enough for man to Man-like it is to fall into sin;
knowFiend-like it is to dwell therein;
“Virtue alone is happiness below." Christ-like it is for sin to grieve;
Gratitude is the music of the heart, when God-like it is sin to leave.
its chords are swept by the breeze of kindness. It matters not how long we live, but how.
Though we travel the world over to find the The distraints upon the Society of Friends
beautiful, we must carry it with us, or we find in this country, for church-rates and other
it not. ecclesiastical demands, last year amounted to The real value of the Iliad, or the TransfiguraL.10,000.
tion, is as signs of power-billows or ripples What is called taking care of the church is
are they on the great stream of tendencytaking care of the bishops.-Rev. Sidney Smith.
tokens of the everlasting efforts to produce Temperance puts wood on the fire, flour in
which, even in its worst estate, the soul exthe barrel, vigour in the body, intelligence in hibits. the brain, and spirit in the whole composition
Glory is like a circle in the water, of man.
Which never ceaseth to enlarge itself, Joy, and Temperance, and Repose,
Till, by broad spreading, it disperse to nought. Slam the door on the doctor's nose. "What,” said a lads,
think of Pla
What stronger breastplate than a heart untainttonic love?” “Madam," replied the gentleman,
Thrice is he armed who hath his quarrel just; (ed? “it is like all other tonics-very exciting."
And he but naked, though lock'd up in steel, Conceive of slaughter and flesh-eating in
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. Eden !- Dr. Alcott.
Cowards die many times before their deaths; Money—the largest shareholder in the world. The valiant never taste death but once. Bachelor-a target for fair hands to shoot at. Boy—the first volume of an interesting work. Some time since, a person who paid a visit
Jealousy-one of the sours arising from hav- to a lunatic asylum in Cornwall, said to one of ing a sweetheart, or a spark thrown by Suspi- the inmates, whom he knew, “Why, Richard, cion into the magazine of Love.
your head is getting grey. “It is only blos Wild ducks fly 90 miles an hour, swallows fly soming for the next world,” was the beautiful faster, and the swift 200 miles an hour, reply.
“ do yo
solemn and dreadful-and for the cultivation THE IMMORTALITY OF GENIUS.
of kindly dispositions, actions, and words.
III. To determine never ourselves, if possible,
to behold the public strangling of any human Let the body perish! Not with its decay being; to express our belief in the dreadful outThe life and office of true greatness ends;
rage committed by all such punishments on Its inspiration dwells enshrin'd in act.
natural religion, Christianity, humanity, and A statue's silence is the sculptor's voice;
social order. A painter's immortality resides
IV. To use, as far as is within the range of In his own forms and objects. Attitude, our power, sugars, coffees, and spices from Expression, light, and shade, the tint so fine, free hands and soils; and to determine that our It half eludes the eye-for earth retain,
backs shall not, if we know it, be degraded by In death's despite, his soul ! And he, around wearing cottons produced beneath the curse of Whose pathway lingered haunting harmonies,
heaven by the lash of the overseer on the fields Spirits of beauty tenanting a sound,
of slavery. Lives in his record of their ministry!
V. Incessantly to hold before the people the
true origin and source of their power, as derived
VI. While deprecating the Political and
Trades' Unions of the old or present time, show To freedom's energies; their language gives how combinations may exist amongst virtuous Voice to love's mysteries; the evening hearth
labourers for the purpose of wise accumulation Grows shrine-like, when is hymned their holy
of property, and wise expenditure of the acchaunt
cumulation. Of social concord; and their pathos speaks With a friend's accent to the desolate!
VII. Three good and great auxiliaries to The thought that they were men, makes other
social and moral improvement might be aimed men
at. 1st, The establishment of a People's ColExult in manhood; and Eternity,
lege in every town, or every large town, for the Preaching Hereafter to the world, attests purpose of communicating systematic knowHer Gospel by their deeds! And thus the sons
ledge and graduated intelligence to the people. Of Genius have prerogative to stand
2nd, A Young Man's Home in every town, for Exempt from time's decree; immutable the purpose of providing good and respectable In change! Though since they were inurned lodgings—a place of assembly and rational but States have sprung up, and died; barbaric lands
real amusement-at a lower rate, for apprenAcquired refinement, or realms civilised
tices and young men without an independent Relapsed to old barbarity; albeit,
home. 3rd, Two Sabbaths, one for God and Since they trod earth, the far posterity
one for man, in the course of the week.
of LAW, but the ascertainment of the highest The fresh simplicities of primal lif
v-God's law---and the privilege of becoming
all matters—the right of personal actions in
X. Disseminate the great idea of consistency
-a body acting in unison with a soul-a life
not divided against itself, and let this be regardREFORM.
ed as indispensible for every reformer. We venture to suggest that the following are
XI. And finally, hold and disseminate the very desirable objects which men denominated
great idea of life, and the world as a training Moral Reformers may aim to accomplish:
in a school beneath the eye of that Great Teach
er, God; and let this doctrine be at once a faith, I. To abandon the usage of intoxicating a consolation, and a destiny.-From the pral liquors entirely, and to persuade others to Reformer's Almanac. abandon them-defending such practices on the simple principles that they are not neces- Education is a mental railway, beginning at sary, since the greater proportion of the human birth, and running into eternity. It is the race do not use them ; that they are the chief true key to the wishes of the soul. fountain from which issue the evils of modern Elihu Burritt is now prosecuting his Peace society; and that they are dangerous, if not Mission amid the scenes, friends, and associadeleterious.
tions of his native country. He evoked a hearty II. To abandon all appeal to arms ourselves, and soul-moving reception in Worcester, where and to aim at the creation of a public thought he not long since made the anvil ring with the and opinion for the disarmament of nations- strokes of his hammer. He now makes Europe for the holding up the soldier's trade as most ring with the music of his fame.
ALMANAC OF NATURE-JANUARY, 1850.
left, but which are now black and hard, and unChattering his teeth for cold that did him chill;
palatable. Now and then the poor sheep pause Whilst on his hoary beard his breath did freeze.
from their cold labour of burrowing, knee-deep, SILENT, monotonous, and solemn is the great amid the snow for food, and utter a plaintive hall of winter. Its walls are of grey snow,
bleat. The death - like silence which prevails propped up by the giant, bulky, naked forest- sometimes for hours together in the fields make trees, the knotted and iron elbows of which even the low, muffled rumbling of the waggon, stand out, black and strangely contorted, upon
when it comes along through the deep snow, a
Of the few birds which haunt the leaden roof of the sky.
All around hang startling sound. strange pictures. Landscapes of ice and snow
the fields during this month, the little Kitty stretching far away in wide sheets, and which,
wren and the robin are the most interesting. when the sun peeps out, so dazzle and confuse These go hopping about almost as gaily as in the sight by their strange white glare, that we
the brightest days of summer. A very barbastand gazing in strange bewilderment; and rous custom formerly prevailed of hunting the when we think how all life seems to have fled Ireland it still continues. The children exhibit
wren on St. Stephen's Day, and in many parts of from the earth, and how much work Spring the slaughtered bird on an ivy bush, decked will have to do to prepare for the Summer, with ribbons and various colours, and carry hope almost dies within us, and we shrink from the chilling aspect in a mute despair.
them about singing
The wren! the wren! the king of birds! Yet even the scenery of winter is beautiful.
The best of all that live in the furze ; If the season is mild as at present, it has not and collect money to bury the wren. Mr. Yarrell the magic charms which the silent fingers of mentions that it was the boast of an old man that cunning worker, the frost, traces over who died at the age of a hundred, that he every shrub and tree, wrapping every leaf and hunted the wren for the last eighty years on flower in a net-work of delicate embroidery, Christmas Day. There are very few plants in and putting together in one silent night all flower at this season. The daisy, that “never manner of wild landscapes, mountains, gorges, dies,” bespangles the mossy knolls when the precipices, steep acclivities, with mighty over- snow melts away. There are still some berries hanging pines ready to drop down into the left upon the holly and mistletoe, and several of gulf below, making frothy oceans upon the the mosses and lichens are in great beauty. On window-panes, and glittering stalactites upon old walls and palings may usually be found the the leafless branches of the trees. But even in yellow tremella, a shining, yellow, jelly-like the most intense frosts nature still continues at substance, quivering in the sun like a feeble work. Under the vast winding sheet in which lamp. Insects are usually torpid in this month. the earth is wrapped, the seeds silently swell Caterpillars, grubs, and maggots are sometimes and burst, and when the first glimpse of Spring found in the pupa state, buried in the ground, sunshine appears, thousands of little green or hidden in secluded places. Snails shut thembuds appear, struggling to get out into the air selves up for the season by means of what is and sunlight, and looking askance from beneath called an operculum, a shell-like substance just their scaly coverings to see if Spring is at hand. large enough to fill the opening of the shell. Upon the frosted branches the few winter birds We subjoin an Almanac of Nature for this sit huddled together; little troops of fieldfares month, in which the occurrences of the season shivering, and shrinking close into their feathers are enumerated in the order in which they will for warmth, and looking with hungry eyes upon occur, and as near the exact day as possible; also the few withered berries which the storms have the Birth-days of Distinguished Men.
The planet Venus is a morning star during the month. The planet Mars is in the constellation Taurus during the month, and is visible throughout the night. The planet Jupiter is in the constellation Virgo, and visible throughout the night. The planet Saturn is in the constellation Cetus, and is an evening star during the month. T 1 The dis.of Sun fr.Earth this day is 93,408,000 mls. < 1 Lorenzo de Medici. Art and Literature. .... W
1448 2 The Moon in Leo. Lauristinas in flower. Th 3 Chimonanthus fragans il. Moon near Jupiter.
Joseph Milner. History.
1744 P 4 Hamamelis fi. Moon in Virgo,
3 M. T. Cicero. Oratory, ge..
B. C. 106
4 Sir Jos. Banks. Natural History, S
1743 5 Garrya elliptica fi. Kitty Wren sings. Sn6 Leaves of Tunbridge fern appear.
5 Robt. Morrison. Chinese Mission,
6 B. Franklin. Social Philosophy. M 7 Cricket (Acheta Domestica) chirps.
1706 7 P. Wesseling. Philology.
1692 т 8 Yellow tremella on palings. Moon in Libra. 8 J. Ribera (Spagnoletto). Art.
1588 Screw moss ( Tortula muralis) prod. seed. Moon Th 10 Alpha Arietis souths 6h. 39m. p.m. [in Scorpio. 10 G. Birkbeck. Mechanics Institutes..
9 T. Brown, M.D. Metaphysics..
1778 F 11 Groundsel & dead-nettle fl. Flights of starlings. 11
1776 S 12 Moon in Sagittarius. Gold-crested wren appears, 12 L. Spallanzani. Physiology..
1729 Su 13 Helix virgato on blades of grass.
13 J. H. Eckhel. Numismatics. M 14 Scotch crocus fl.
14 15 Alpha Ceti souths 7h, 52m. p.m.
15 J. B. P. Moliere. Drama.
1622 W 16 Moon in Aquarius. Leaves of Umbellifera ap. 16 C. E. Thion de la Chaume. Medicine.
1750 Th 17 Pleiades south at 7h. 52m. p.m.
17 J. C. W. G. Mozart. Music, 18
1756 Winter aconite fi. 18 Baron Montesquieu. Jurisprudence.
1699 19 Aldebaran souths 8h. 32m. p.m.
19 James Watt. Steam Engine. Su 20 Sun enters the sign Aquarius Sh. 20m. a.m.
20 J.J. Barthelemy. Clas. Antiq. 21
1716 Christmas rose ft. Poa trivialis fl.
21 L. P. Anquetil du Perron. History. T 22 Winter furze (Ulex nanus) fl.
1723 22 Lord Bacon. Philosophy.
1561 W 23 Autumn lichens disappear.
23 Jos. Ames. Antiquities.
1689 Th| 24 Capella s. 8h.51m. p.m. Moon occults Aldeba- 24 C. J. Fox. Politics.
1749 F25 Moon in Taurus near Mars. ran lh. 32m, a.m. 25 Robert Burns. Poetry.
1759 S 26 Rigel s. 8h. 44m. p.m. Moon in Gemini. 26 L. A. Arnim. Poetry. ...
1781 Sul 27 First snow-drop appears.
27 Duke of Sussex. Patron of Art.
1733 M28 Length of Day 8h. 52m.
28 C. A. Helvetius. Metaphysics,
1715 T 29 Beta Tauri s. 8h. 42m. p.m. Moon in Leo. 29 E. Swedenborg. Theology and Science.
1698 W 30 Moon near Jupiter.
30 W. S. Landor. Imaginary Conversations, &c.. 1775 тъ) 31 Mars sets 5h. 5m. a.m. N.W.