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Eager to express your love,

according to the nature of the drains and openYou ne'er consider whom you shove,

ings in which it is to be employed; being, in But rude press before a duke.

Swift. working, drawn, or pushed along the bottoms of The seamen towed, and I shoved, till we arrived the cuts or drains. The handle has also occawithin forty yards of the shore. Gulliver's Travels. I was forced to swim behind, and pushed the workman in using it.

sionally a crooked form, in order to ease the boat forward with one of my hands; and, the tide favouring me, I could feel the ground: I rested off the sward or turf from the surface of ground,

Shovel, Paring, a tool employed in paring two minutes, and then gave the boat another shove.


in order to burn it. The shovel which is used Cards were superfluous here, with all the tricks in Devonshire for this purpose has a hollow That idleness has ever yet contrived

heart-shaped form in the shovel part, with a long To fill the void of an unfurnished brain,

handle, which makes it a very powerful impleTo palliate dulness, and give time a shove. Cowper. ment. "The plate of the mouth part is from nine

SHOV'EL, n. . & v.a. Sax. scofl; Teut. to ten inches in width, where the handle is inSHov'ELBOARD, n. S. schoeffcl. An instru- serted, which is made with a considerable curve Shov'ELLER.

ment to throw or beap upwards; the blade is about twelve inches in up with : to throw or heap up; to gather in great length, terminating with a broad angular point, quantities : shovelboard is a board on which which, with its sides, are constantly kept very metal pieces are shoved along at a mark: a

sharp and keen for cutting; on the left. hand, or shoreller is one who uses a shovel, also a bird.

land side of the tool, a sharp wing, comb, or

coulter, rises up in an oblique manner, to cut A handbartow, wheelbarrow, shovel, and spade. and divide the slice part from the whole ground.

Tusser. This, however, in consequence of the toughness I thought

of the surface, and the impediments presented by To die upon the bed my father died,

the roots of furze, flags, heather, and other To lie close by his honest bones; but now

similar matters, is not unfrequently dispensed Some hangman must put on my shroud, and lay me

with ; the slice being rent or torn off by the workWhere no priest shovels in dust. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale.

man from the side of the whole ground, while it Pewets, gulls, and shovellers, feed upon flesh, and is cut up and separated from the earth below. yet are good meat.


When a foot or fifteen inches of the slice rises Ducks shovel them up as they swim along the upon the handle of the shovel, it is separated waters; but divers insects also devour them. from the uncut part of the surface by a sudden

Denham. effort or exertion with the tool, and by a turn of The brag of the Ottoman, that he would throw it is whelmed or laid over the mould side upMalta into the sea, might be performed at an easier wards. Where the state and circumstances of rate than by the shovels of his janizaries.

the surface will permit, as by not being too much

Glanville's Scepsis. loaded and encumbered with the above sorts of So have I seen in hall of lord, A weak arm throw on a long shovelboard;

plants, the effort of separating the cut from the He barely lays his piece.


uncut sward may in all cases be much lessened This formation of the wizzon is not peculiar to by having the slice, which is next to be pared, the swan, but common unto the platoa, or shovelard, cut or nicked in such lengths as may be most a bird of no musical throat.

convenient to the workmen. And, in some partiBrowne's Vulgar Errours. cular places and situations of land, the regular Shoveller, or spoon-bill: the former name the more picking of the slice to be pared from the ground proper, the end of the bill being broad like a shovel, is indeed found indispensably necessary, as where but not concave like a spoon, but perfectly flat. the ground is of such a moory quality as to render

Grew's Museum.

the operation impracticable without it. In all SHOVEL, DRAINING, a tool employed for the such instances it is, however, probably much purpose of clearing out the loose crumbly earthy better, as being more convenient and expeditious, materials from the bottom parts of drains. It is to have the shovel formed with a cutting wing, formed with a crooked handle, the edges of the by which the whole may be done at once, withshovel part being turned up on the sides, in or- out any sort of delay in the business. der to prevent the materials which are scraped Shovel (Sir Cloudesly), a brave English up from falling off. In consequence of the admiral, born about 1650, of parents rather in crookedness of the handle, the workinan is the lower rank of life. He was put apprentice prevented from stooping so much as would other- to a shoemaker; but, disliking this profession, he wise be the case, in performing the work. There abandoned it and went to sea. He was at first are different constructions of this implement a cabin boy with Sir Christopher Mynns, but, made use of, in managing business of this sort. applying to the study of navigation with indeA scoop is sometimes made use of, both with fatigable industry, his skill as a seaman soon and without this implement, for the purpose of raised him. The corsairs of Tripoli having scooping up and clearing out all the crumbs, committed great outrages on the English in the loose mould, and other similar materials, from Mediterranean, Sir John Narborough was sent in the bottom parts of drains, before they are laid 1674 to reduce them to reason. As he had received or filled with spray, brush-wood, or any other orders to try the effects of negociation before he substance, in order that they may be quite clear proceeded to hostilities, he sent Mr. Shovel, then and free of any sort of obstruction. The tool is a lieutenant in his feet, to demand satisfaction. formed in a crooked scoop-like manner at the The dey treated him with a great deal of disreliead, and of different shapes, sizes, and breadths, spect, and sent him back without an answer. Sir

John despatched him a second time, with orders SHOULD, o.n. See SHALL. to remark particularly the situation of things on SHOUL'DER, n. s. & v. a. Sax. sculder; shore. The behaviour of the dey was worse SHOUL'DERBLADE,

Belg. scholder; than ever. Upon Mr. Shovel's return he in SHOUL'DERBELT,

Dan. skulder. formed Sir John that it would be possible, not SHOUL'DERCLAPPER, The upper joint withstanding their fortifications, to burn all the SHOUL'DERSLOTTEN, adj.

of the arın; upper ships in the harbour. The boats were accord SHOUL'DERSLIP.

joint of the fore ingly manned, and the command of them given leg of certain animals; any prominent or rising to lieutenant Shovel, who seized the guardship part: the strength of any thing: the shoulderblade and burnt four others, without losing a man. is the scapula : shoulderclapper, one who coaxes This action so terrified the Tripolins that they or one who betrays: shouldershotten is strained : sued for peace. Sir John Narborough gave so shoulderslip, dislocation in the shoulder. favorable an account of this exploit that Mr. If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, Shovel was soon after made captain of the Sap- when I saw my help in the gate, then let mine arm phire, a fifth rate ship. In the battle of Bantry fall from my shoulder-blade, and mine arm be broken Bay, after the revolution, he commanded the from the bone.

Job xxxi. 22. Edgar, and, for his gallant behaviour in that I have seen better faces in my time action, was knighted by king William. Next Than stand on any shoulder that I see

Before me.

Shakspeare. year he was employed in transporting an army

We must have shoulder of mutton for a property. into Ireland ; a service which he performed with

Id. so much diligence and dexterity that the king

His horse waid in the back, and shoulder-shotten. raised him to the rank of rear admiral of

Id. the blue, and delivered his commission with his

A fend, a fury, pitiless and rough, own hands. Soon after he was made rear ad- A back friend, a shoulder-clapper, one that commands miral of the red, and shared the glory of the The passages of alleys. Id. Comedy of Errours. victory at La Hogue. In 1694 he bombarded Dudman, a well-known foreland to most sailors, Dunkirk. In 1703 he commanded the grand here shoulders out the ocean, to shape the same a fleet in the Mediterranean, and did every thing large bosom between itself. in his power to assist the Protestants who were

Carew's Survey of Cornwall. in arms in the Cevennes. Soon after the battle It is a fine thing to be carried on men's shoulders ; off Malaga he was presented by prince George but give God thanks that thou art not forced to carry to queen Anne, who received him graciously,

a rich fool upon thy shoulders, as those poor men do.

Taylor. and next year employed him as commander-inchief. In 1705 he commanded the fleet, toge- more credit than that of the giant's shouldering moun

Archimedes's, lifting up Marcellus's ships, finds little ther with the earls of Peterborough and Mon- tains.

Glanville. mouth, which was sent into the Mediterranean; Emily dressed herself in rich array; and it was owing to him chiefly that Barcelona Fresh as the month, and, as the morning fair, was taken. After an unsuccessful attempt upon Adown her shoulders fell her length of hair. Dryden. Toulon, he sailed for Gibraltar, and thence home So vast the navy now at anchor rides, ward with a part of the fleet. On the 22nd of That underneath it the pressed waters fail, October, at night, his ship, with three others, was And, with its weight, it shoulders off the tides. Id. cast away on the rocks of Scilly. See Scilly. When you riyet a pin into a hole, your pin must All on board perished. His body was found by that the shoulder slip not through the hole as well as

have a shoulder to it thicker than the hole is wide, some fishermen on the island of Scilly, who

the shank.

Moson. stripped it of a valuable ring and afterwards

Around her numberless the rabble flowed, buried it. Mr. Paxton, the purser of the Arun- Shouldering each other, crowding for a view. del, hearing of this, found out the fellows, and

Roue's Jane Shore. obliged them to discover where they had buried He took occasion from a shoulder of mutton to cry the body. He carried it on board his own ship up the plenty of England. Addison's Freeholder. to Portsmouth, whence it was conveyed to Lon The head of the shoulder bone, being round, is indon, and interred with great solemnity in West- serted into so shallow a cavity in the scapula, that, minster Abbey. A monument was afterwards were there no other guards for it, it would be thrust erected to his memory by the direction of the out upon every occasion.

Wiseman, queen.

He had married the widow of his When Hopkins dies, a thousand lights attend patron, Sir John Narborough, by whom he left The wretch who living saved a candle's end; two daughters, co-heiresses.

Shouldering God's altar a vile image stands,

Belies his features, nay, extends his hands. Pope. Shoveller, in ornithology. See Anas. The

The horse will take so much care of himself as to shoveller and spoonbill, mentioned above as sy- come off with only a strain or a shoulder-slip. Swift. nonymous by Dr. Grew, are quite different spe But rude at first, and not with easy slope cies or rather genera of birds: the shoveller is a Receding wide, they pressed against the ribs, species of anas : the spoonbill is the English And bruised the side ; and, elevated high, name of the genus platalea. Brown is also in Taught the raised shoulders to invade the ears. the same mistake.

Long time elapsed or e'er our rugged sires SHOUGH, n. s. For shock. A species of Complained, though incommodiously pent in, shaggy or shock dog.

And ill at ease behind.

Cowper. In the catalogue ye be for men,

SHOUT, v. n. & n. s. / A word of which do As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs,

Shout'ER, 12. s.

Setymology is known, Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are 'cleped says Dr. Johnson. Arab. sout, zaut ; Goth. All by the name of dogs. Shakspeare. Macbeth. tauta.—Thomson. To in triumph or exhor

tation : a vehement or loud cry of this kind ; the I raised thee up to shew in thee my power. other noun substantive corresponding.

Ex. ix. 16. Shout unto God with the voice of triumph.

Set upon the table shew-bread before me.
Psalm xlvii. 1.

Id. xxv. 30.
The shouting for thy summer fruits and harvest is Thou shalt utterly destroy them ; make no cove.
Isaiah, nant with them, nor shew mercy unto them.

Deut. vii. 2. It is not the voice of them that shout for mastery. Er. xxxii. To him that is afflicted pity should be shewed from

Job vi. 14. The Rhodians, seeing the enemy turn their backs, his friend.

Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? Shall the gave a great shout in derision. Knolles's History of the Turks.

dead arise and praise thce ? Psalm lxxxviii. 10. Thanks, gentle citizens :

Forasmuch as knowledge and shewing of hard senThis general applause and chearful shout

tences, and dissolving of doubts, were found in the Argues your wisdom and your love to Richard. same Daniel, let him be called. Dan. v. 12.


Felix willing to shew the Jews a pleasure, left They shouted thrice: what was the last cry for ? Paul bound.

Acts xxiv. 27. Id.

Ye are a chosen generation, that ye should shew He storms and shouts ; but flying bullets now

forth the praises of him who hath called you out of To execute his rage appear too slow:


1 Peter ii. They miss, or sweep but common souls away ;

Shall I say 0 Zelmane? Alas, your words be For such a loss Opdam his life must pay. Waller. against it. Shall I say prince Pyrocles ? Wretch All clad in skins of beasts, the javelin bear;

that I am, your show is manifest against it. Sidney. And shrieks and shoutings rend the suffering air.


The places of Ezechiel have some show in them,

for there the Lord commanded the Levites which What hinders you to take the man you love ?

had committed idolatry to be put from their dignity, The people will be glad, the soldiers shout ;

and serve in inferior ministries. And Bertran, though repining, will be awed. Id.


My lord of York, it better showed with you,
A peal of loud applause rang out,

When that your flock, assembled by the bell,
And thinned the air, till even the birds fell down

Encircled you, to hear with reverence
Upon the shouter's head.

Id. Cleomenes.
There had been nothing but howlings and shoutings Than now to see you here, an iron man,

Your exposition on the holy text,
of poor naked men, belabouring one another with Cheering a rout of rebels with your drum.
snagged sticks.


Shakspeare. Henry IV. SHOUT, clamor, in antiquity, was frequently She shews a body rather than a life, used on ecclesiastical, civil, and military occa A statue than a brother. sions, as a sign of approbation, and sometimes of

Id. Antony and Cleopatra. indignation. Thus as Cicero, in an assembly of

When devils will their blackest sins put on the people, was exposing the arrogance of L. They do suggest at first with heavenly shou's.

Id. Othello. Antony, who had the impudence to cause himself to be inscribed the patron of the Romans,

As for triumphs, masks, feasts, and such shews, the people, on hearing this, raised a shout to

men need not be put in mind of them. Bucon.

Mild heaven show their indignation. In the ancient military. Disapproves that care, though wise in show, discipline shouts were used, 1. Upon occasion of That with superfluous burden loads the day. the general's making a speech or harangue to the

Milton. army from his tribunal. This they did in token Nor doth his grandeur and majestic show of their approving what had been proposed. 2. Of luxury, though called magnificence, Before an engagement, in order to encourage and Allure mine eye.

id. Paradise Regained. spirit their own men, and fill the enemy with He through passed the midst unmarked, dread. This is a practice of great antiquity; In show plebeian angel militant.

Milton. for, as mankind are endowed with two senses,

Nothing wants, but that thy shape, hearing and seeing, by which fear is raised in Like his, and color serpentine may show the mind, it is proper to make use of the ear as

Thy inward fraud, to warn all creatures from thee.

Id. well as the eye for that purpose. Shouts were

A shooting star also raised in the ancient theatre, when what was

In autumn thwarts the night, when vapours fired acted pleased the spectators. It was usual for Impress the air, and shows the mariner those present at the burning of the dead to raise From what point of his compass to beware a great shout, and call the dead person by his Impetuous winds. name, before they set fire to the pile.

Nor want we skill or art, from whence to raise SHOW, v. Q., V. T.,

& Pret. showed and Magnificence, and what can heaven shew more! SHOWBREAD, (n. s. shown; part. pass.

Id, Show'ish, ad. shown. Sax. sceapan;

This I urge to show
Belg. schowen. This Invalid that which thee to doubt it moved.

Id. word, frequently written shew, is always pro- Shall lead hell captive, maugre hell, and show

I through the ample air in triumph high, nounced show; which is favored by the Belg. The powers of darkness bound.

Id. schowen and Teut. schauen. To exhibit; give to

Achates' diligence his duty shows. Dryden. sight; make to see ; prove; explain ; inform;

Stand before her in a golden dream; publish ; discover : to appear; look; have ap- Set all the pleasures of the world to show pearance: a show is a spectacle; mere appear- And in vain joys let her loose spirits flow. Id. ance; semblance; likeness; exhibition; pomp; The kindred of the slain forgive the deed , phantom: for the bread see SHEWBREAD: showish But a short exile must for show precede. Id. and showy mean, glaring; ostentatious; pompous. Just such she shows before a rising storm. Ia, Vol. XX.



What you saw was all a fairy show;

Cæsar's favour, And all those airy shapes you now behold

That showers down greatness on his friends, will Were human bodies once.

raise me

Id. Cate. Men should not take a charge upon them that they To Rome's first honours. are not fit for, as if singing, dancing, and showing of With showers of stones he drives them far away; tricks, were qualifications for a governor.

The scattering dogs around at distance bay. Pope.

L'Estrunge. His frisking was at evening hours,
I do not know what she may produce me; but, For then he lost his fear,
provided it be a show, I shall be very well satified. But most before approaching showers,
Addison. Or when a storm drew near.

Couper. The city itself makes the noblest show of any in When no soft shower descends, no dew distils, the world: the houses are most of them painted on Her wave worn channels dry, and mute her rills; the outside, so that they look extremely gay and When droops the sickening herb, the blossom fades, lively.

Id. And parched earth gapes beneath the withered glades. Florio was so overwhelmed with happiness that he

Darwin. could not make a reply ; but expressed in dumb show

SHOWER, in meteorology, a cloud condensed those sentiments of gratitude that were too big for

to rain. See CLOUDS, METEOROLOGY, and Rais. utterance.

Id. Men of warm imaginations neglect solid and sub- vine, born in London in 1660, and educated

SHOWER (John), an eminent nonconformist distantial happiness for what is shouy and superficial.


under Mr. Doolittle at Islington. In 1687 he Never was a charge maintained with such a show became pastor of a congregation in Jewin Street. of gravity which had a slighter foundation. He was eminent for his piety, and published

Atterbury Sacramental Sermons, and Reflections on Time The dwarf kept the gates of the show rooni. and Eternity; two works much esteemed. He

Arbuthnot. died at Hoxton in 1718, aged fifty-eight.
The radiant sun

ShowERS OF STONES, &c. In the ancient hisSends from above ten thousand blessings down, tories of most nations marvellous anecdotes are Nor is he set so high for show alone. Granville.

told, and wonderful facts seriously recorded, of She taking him for some cautious city patient, that preternatural rains; such as the raining of stones, came for privacy, shews him into the dining-room.

of sand, of dust, of blood, nay even of living ani.

Swift. The escutcheons of the company are showish, and mals, such as fish, young frogs, &c., from the will look magnificent.


clouds. That in the early periods of society, Still on we press; and here renew the carnage,

when historical records were not regularly kept, So great that in the stream the moon showed purple. and when consequently historical facts were few

Philips. and of little importance, historians should have I envy none their pageantry and show,

been anxious to collect every thing wonderful I envy none the gilding of their woe.

Young. that tradition or credulity invented or reported, SHOW'ER, n. s. & v.a. Sax. scur; Belg. to render their histories entertaining and agreeable Show'ERY, adj.

scheure; Goth. to the taste of those times, is by no means surskura. Rain either moderate or violent : hence prising. Herodotus, one of the most ancient and any liberal distribution : to pour down; wet with respectable of the Grecian historians, has filled rain; scatter or distribute profusely: showery is his history with miracles of every kind that he rainy; abundant in showering.

could collect in all the countries through which He and myself

he travelled. Livy, one of the best of the Roman Have travelled in the great shower of your gifts,

historians, followed his example, and has interAnd sweetly felt it.


larded his history, otherwise respectable, with I'll set thee in a shower of gold, and hail

numerous fables and pretended miracles. In Rich pearls upon thee. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. the dark ages of modern times, when history If the boy have not a woman's gift,

was chiefly entrusted to the priests and monks, To rain a shower of commanded tears,

it is not surprising that the same plan should An onion will do well for such a shift. Shakspeare. have been continued of collecting and recording A hilly field where the stubble is standing, set on

every report, and the more wonderful, i.e. the fire in the showery season, will put forth mushrooms.

more incredible, the better. But that in the

Bacon. The ancient cinnamon was, while it grew, the present age, when scepticism is so prevalent that driest; and in showers it prospered worst. Id.

not only the most important truths of revealed After this fair discharge, all civil honours having religion are called in question, but mathematical showered on him before, there now fell out occasion to demonstration is required for almost every thing action.

Wotton. in history and science; that at such a period, Give me a storm ; if it be love,

and in such a nation as France, where infidelity Like Danaë in the golden shower,

still prevails, in spite of Buonaparte's hypocrisy, I swim in pleasure.

Carew. more than in any other nation in Europe, a phiServe they as a flowery verge, to bind

losopher should be found pleading seriously for The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud,

the truth and possibility of such preternatural Lest it again dissolve and shower the earth ? Milton.

showers, is one of those phenomena in the history These, lulled by nightingales, embracing slept ; And on their naked limbs the flowery roof

of the human mind which seems totally unacShowered roses, which the morn repaired.

countable. Yet the learned Joseph Izarn, M.D.,

Id. Paradise Lost. professor of natural philosophy, member of the Murranus came from Anxur's showery height,

Society of Sciences, Belles Lettres, and Arts, of With ragged rocks and stony quarries white,

Paris, &c. &c., has, within these two years, pubSeated on hilis.

Addison on Italy. lished a work at Paris, consisting of 430 pages,

entitled Des Pierres tombees du Ciel, &c., i.e. and in more scientific language by M. Biot, A Treatise on Stones fallen from the Clouds; or, member of the National Institute, who was comAtmospheric Lithology; exhibiting the Progress missioned by government to investigate the fact. and actual State of the Science; a View of the This gentleman observes, in his truly wonderful Phenomena of Thunder Stones, Showers of report, that the district in which the stones were Stones, Stones fallen from the Heavens, &c., precipitated forms an elliptical extent of nearly several unpublished Observations, with an Essay two leagues and a half, and of about one in on the Theory of the Formation of the Stone. breadth; the greater dimension being in a direcFrom this extraordinary work we suppose a very tion from south-east to north-west, with a declifew extracts will sufficiently gratify the curiosity nation of about 22°, thus curiously coinciding of our readers :-1. 'According to Paul Lucas,' with the magnetic meridian. The largest stone says the Dr., “an eye witness, a stone fell froin which fell weighed about 17} lbs., and the the air at Larissa, in Macedonia, in January smallest about 1000th part of that weight. The 1706. It weighed 72 lbs., resembled the dross whole number of stones exceeded 2000 or 3000! of iron, and was seen to proceed from the north, See Journal de Physique; Prairial, Annee xi, with a loud hissing, apparently enveloped in a and Journal des Debates, 14 Thermidor, Annee small cloud, from which it burst, and fell with a xi. Such are the principal facts related by Dr. very loud explosion.' II. “The celebrated Gas- Izarn in support of his system of atmospheric sendi, whose accuracy is allowed to have equalled lithology. His anecdotes of showers of fire we his knowledge, relates that, on the 27th Novem- need not quote, as no person who knows how ber 1627, when the sky was very clear, he saw a universally the electric fluid is diffused through burning stone, apparently four feet in diameter, the atmosphere, and who has considered its fall on mount Vaiser, between the towns of powerful effects in producing storms of thunder Guillaumes and Perne in Provence. It was and lightning, fire-balls, luminous meteors, &c., surrounded by a luminous circle of different will doubt that it may on some occasions have colors, like a rainbow; and its fall was ac assumed the form of a shower of fire. But companied by a noise like that of many cannons Dr. Izarn, in his zeal for his system of atmofired at once. This stone weighed 59 lbs. Its · spherical lithology, endeavours to establish and weight was to that of marble as 14 to 11.' account for it, by connecting it with something III. "A shower of common and very fine sand like atmospherical electricity (though he elsefell in the Atlantic, at eight or nine leagues from where rejects all connexion with that powerful land, on the 6th of April 1719, and continued fluid), in the following conclusions :-1. That from ten o'clock P. M. till one P. M. of the follow- very considerable masses have sometimes fallen ing day.' IV. “In September 1753, about one to the earth. 2. That these masses, penetrated P. M., the weather being very warm and serene, by fire, roll in the atmosphere, like burning without any clouds, a great noise was heard like globes, which diffuse light and heat to great disthe firing of two or three cannons. Though of tances. 3. That they seem to have received a very short duration, it was audible at the distance motion parallel to the horizon, though they really of six leagues in every direction. It was loudest describe a curve. 4. That they become soft, or in the neighbourhood of Pont de Vesle. A hiss- are fused into a paste-like consistency, as is ing sound, like that of a squib, was likewise proved by their varnished substance, and the imheard at Liponas, a village three leagues from pressions formed on their surface by the bodies Pont de Vesle, and four from Bourg. On the which they encounter. 5. That they have fallen same evening there were found at Liponas, and in England, Germany, Italy, France, and the at Pin, a village near Pont de Vesle, three leagues East Indies. 6. That all these stones resemble from Liponas, two blackish masses, of a figure one another in their physical characters and nearly circular, but very unequal, which had chemical composition.' "After having laid down fallen on ploughed ground, into which they had some general maxims relative to natural apsunken half a foot by their own weight. One of pearances, illustrated the principal, that subthem weighed about 20 lbs. They were broken, stances may exist in a solid, liquid, or gaseous and the fragments were shown to all the curious. modification, without undergoing any change of A similar noise was heard on St. Peter's day, in identity, and estimated the application of this 1750, in Lower Normandy; and a mass very recognized fact, Dr. Izarn endeavours to estabnearly of the same nature, but much larger, fell lish his philosophical transubstantiation by these at Niort. One of the stones, weighing 11} lbs., four conclusions : 1. “That there must exist, in may be seen at Dijon, in the museum of M. the gaseous mass which envelopes our globe, Varenne de Beost, principal secretary to the different aeriform substances, which are unknown states of Burgundy, and correspondent of the to us, which are mostly insulated by one another, Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris.'--M. De and disposed in spherical masses (massées spheLalande's Narrative, in the Historical Almanack riquement), by the pressure which is exercised of Bresse, 1756. V. Messrs. Chladen, Pallas, on them in all directions. 2. That detonations A. G. Duluc, Patrin, and others, mention a mass take place in the atmosphere, which are not the of native iron that fell from the clouds in Siberia. consequence of electrical phenomena; and which But, as the truth of this story rests on a doubtful perhaps have nothing in common with electricity. tradition among the Tartars, it merits no credit. 3. That we ought not to ascribe every luminous VI. A more remarkable instance of the fall of matter to the combustion of hydrogen, since the stones than any which Dr. Izarn has recorded, phenomena present us only with a disengagement has been related with artless simplicity by M. of light, which may be effected by any gaseous Marais, in inhabitant of Aigle in Normandy, substance passing into another state. 4. Lastly,

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