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to rain. "Rainbow at night, shepherds' rain and squalls." "When fish bite readily delight," as it indicates fair weather. "if and swim near the surface, rain may be there be sheet lightning with a clear sky expected.” “Fishes in general, both in on spring, summer or autumn evenings, salt and fresh waters, are observed to sport expect heavy rain.” “When it thunders more and bite more eagerly against rain in the morning, it will rain before night.” than at any other time.”
Ants are very “Thunder in the evening indicates rain." busy, gnats bite eagerly, crickets are When the sky is clear, radiation is free lively, spiders come out of their nests, and and objects near the earth may become so flies gather in houses just before rain." cold that dew or frost is deposited upon Frogs croak more noisily and come abroad them. But when it is cloudy, or there is in the evening in larger numbers before much vapor in the air, radiation is hin- rain. dered and the air may not become cool “The louder the frogs, the more's the enough for the deposition of dew or frost. rain." Changes in pressure also affect “A heavy dew indicates fair weather.” human beings. “When old sores, rheu“Clouds and dew foretell rain." matic joints and neuralgic nerves are “Moonlight nights have the hardest more painful than usual, stormy weather frosts.” “A black or killing frost indicates may be expected." "A ringing in the ears dry, cold weather.” While dew and frost at night foretells a change wind." "A seem to foretell clear weather, the hoar or weak stomach is liable to uneasy sensawhite frost indicates rain. "If there is an tions." “When corns ache rain follows.” abundance of hoar frost, expect rain." It feels like rain. There sometimes comes Three white frosts and then a storm. “A a feeling that pervades every fiber of the heavy white frost in winter is followed by being, which we can not describe nor exa thaw.” The hoar frost is deposited from plain, but which we have learned to very moist air, but the conditions are diffi- associate with rain. While change of cult to explain.
pressure may be the main cause in the Changes in atmospheric pressure gener- cases mentioned, the increased moisture ally go before changes in the weather. is in many cases an associate cause. In These changes of pressure affect living the following, moisture seems the main things in various ways, so that the pecu- cause. “Human hair in some cases curls liar behavior of some of the different and kinks at the approach of a storm, and forms of animal life becomes an indica- restraightens after the storm.” “The tion of weather changes.
flower of the chickweed, daisy, dandelion “When the donkey blows his horn, 'tis and of many other plants closes before time to house your hay and corn."
rain.” “The cottonwood, quaking aspen, “When cats purr and sneeze,
silver maple and others often turn up When dogs eat grass,
their leaves before rain.” The storm cenWhen the foxes bark at night,
ter passes, the winds become westerly, the When horses and mules are restless, storm clouds break up, and after a few When cattle low and gaze at the sky, clearing showers blue skies and cumulus Expect a change of weather either rain
clouds appear. snow.”
“When the wind is in the west, the “If swine be restless and grunt loudly,
weather is at its best.” “Wind in the east, if they squeal and jerk up their ears, there
neither good for man nor beast.” “When will be much wind.” “Birds and fowls ye see the south wind blow, ye say there oiling feathers indicate rain.” “Buzzards, will be heat, and it cometh to pass.” Luke geese, kites and other birds flying high in- 12:55. “The north wind doth blow, and dicate fair weather; flying low, foretell
we shall have cold and perhaps snow.” In bad weather.” “Everything is lovely and general the proverbs given and many the goose hangs high,” is another way of others foretell rain or stormy weather. saying that geese flying high indicate fair They give us some faint idea of the imweather. ."Swallows skimming along the mense variety of phenomena that attend ground indicate rain.” “When the pea- ordinary changes of the weather. cock loudly bawls, soon we'll have both
HISTORY IN THE GRADES.
ELLWOOD W. KEMP.
The fifth grade, having shown the Teu- came to strengthen ultimately the muscle ton well in the stream and as both giv- of the common man, the printing press ing to and receiving from it, the sixth weakened the grip of the pulpit, but should follow him on as he builds western strengthened free discussion in the parliaEurope socially, religiously, politically, in- ment—the new man, the full man, the dustrially and educationally, say from true man, was being born. Thus through about one thousand down to the time the study of Crusade, and Renaissance, when Europe, in her bursting thought, and invention of gunpowder, and ray-paneeds new fields in which to sow her seed per, and printing press, and by the rise of and begins to sow in the tobacco fields of the English Parliament must the sixth Virginia and on the rock-ribbed hills of grade pupil see western Europe reach out Massachusetts.
its arms, some stronger and more authoriThe work done on the Monastery in the tative than others, across the Atlantic, fifth, with its reverence for saints, relics and bid the waves be still while they cross and holy places, naturally leads to the over. great opening movement of the sixth- The seventh grade will cross over with the Crusades-in which Europe, stirred these several streams of European thought from circumference to center, and with -the Spanish, the French, the English; one common impulse as never before, get acquainted with the cargo and the travels back over the path already viewed men; see whether any books are brought in the course of the previous grades. The over, any printing presses; hear the Spaninfluence of these two hundred years of ish talk of gold, the French of land, furs Crusade travel with its sense and super- and fish, and take a hand with English in stition, its tolerance and intolerance, its working out the Mayflower compact. suffering and sympathy, its enlargement Wander round the Gulf of Mexico into of geographical knowledge, its growth of Mexico and down into South America commerce, its development of free city through the sixteenth, seventeenth and life, its elbowing against the classical re- eighteenth centuries with the Spaniard, mains of Greece and Rome, naturally convert the Indians, enslave them in the leads to the next great movement by mines, plunder them, send the bags of which Europe went enthusiastically back gold to Spain; do not set up printand brought up the classical life of beauty ing presses or free schools, or towndeveloped in Greece and Rome--the Re
ship, or county, or State government in naissance. Go book-hunting and art- which the people rule themselves. Likehunting throughout all the nooks and wise throughout the seventeenth and first corners, and musty closets and cellars and half of the eighteenth centuries roam garrets of Europe, and rejoice at the find- through the woods with the French and ing of some worm-eaten copy of Virgil or fish and hunt and trap and trade with some broken statue of Greek art, and thus Indians from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to live with this Teuton as he now comes the Gulf of Mexico, and dream the dream into his first consuming passion for of an imperial France in the New World beauty; and desires to leave the narrow after the model of Louis XIV (I am the life of the monastery and look out over state). Then follow the English slowly the full stream of humanity. This was backward and westward from the AtlanEurope passing from youth into inde- tic to the crest of the Appalachian Mounpendent manhood; lifting its eve from the tains through the seventeenth and first cramped ceiling of the monastic cell liter- three-quarters of the eighteenth centuries ally to the mountain peak and the heav- -a growth slow but all the more strong ens. In this movement science was born, therefor. See the township spring up in the university began to arise, gunpowder the North, the county in the South-see
the growth of popular government in ment by the application of steam to boat, township and county and colonial Legis- and car, and press, and plow, and hamlature, plant the religious roots up and mer; and in this great Mississippi valleydown the Atlantic coast plain. Congrega- the core of the continent,what Humboldt tional, Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, called the noblest valley in the worldEpiscopalian, Quaker, Huguenot, Catho- he sees spread the fairest field for the lic, and see these freely spread westward choicest seeds of liberty ripened through till the Constitution's guarantees perfect all the ages. And then the real question freedom of religious faith. Watch the of the eighth grade work comes upon growth of schools, of books, of the print- him in all its power: Shall the great, ing press. These facts and forces prop- noble valley be free? Gradually back from erly interpreted will help the seventh Jamestown into Alabama and Mississippi grade child to see which one-Spain, and Louisiana and Missouri and Arkansas France, or England-was bearing into the and Texas had stealthily stolen a stream New World the great thoughts borne of thought and life that was demanding down from all the past ages which were that the core of the continent be dedicatcalling aloud for the new, true and free ed to slavery. To have done so would man. These facts will interpret the fall have been to turn back the clock of time of France at Quebec, the fall of George for a thousand years. It would have been III at Yorktown, the Constitutional con- to return to the darkness of the dark ages vention at Philadelphia. With this race -to the idea of wealth, and education, between France, Spain and England at an and comfort and hope for the few-toil end, and with the great principles of all and misery for the many. the past-the idea of personal liberty With this before him in all its meaning, given by the Teuton secured in our local the pupil is able to appreciate what the government; the idea of strong central stream of history means and what a great government secured in our own strong worker it is; what a really great man iscenter by the genius of Hamilton, Madi- one who can look down the current of son, Franklin, Washington and Jay; the human life from its beginning to the presidea of culture and art given by Greece ent and by correctly judging the course gradually making way throughout the and method of all its past movement can liberal growth of schools, books and print- set his hand to the rudder and steer the ing press, and the great truths of Chris- ship when it would otherwise dash itself tianity secured through the guarantee of
upon the rocks. perfect religious freedom—with all these Such were Grant and Lincoln—both secured in our life and in our written great in war, great in peace and great in Constitution and felt by the pupil, the the hearts of humanity, because they work of the seventh grade closes.
served not merely country, but humanity. The eighth grade should then study the And thus, as it seems to me, the field for Constitution carefully and constantly and the eighth grade is mainly from Washingfollow this on-going stream as it spreads ton to Lincoln, from the Appalachian out over the vast Mississippi valley, ever Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, from the deepening and gathering force as it swept formation of the Constitution to the comwestward. Here again the Teuton fights plete and unquestionable formation of the the battle with the wilderness, just as he Union--an indestructible Union made up had to do at the opening of the fifth of indestructible States, securing perfect grade. But whereas one took five hundred religious freedom and encouraging in years to conquer the rude forces, the other
every way perfect social, educational, powas done in fifty. He conquered in the litical and industrial equality of opporfifth grade with the monastery and the tunity. feudal castle; he conquers in the eighth Such in general outline is the course I grade with the free school, the free press, suggest for the grades. I have not had the free forum. And thus he follows the time to go into detail either as to matter stream westward as it hastens its move- or method. What I would advocate is that the course should be a systematic effort of schools in Indiana it is already workfrom beginning to end to assist pupils to ing. In the past six years it has been see and feel and live through some of the making steady progress throughout both great things which the best of the race graded and district schools, till now threein the past ages have experienced and ex- fourths of our fourteen thousand school pressed in institutions. I would use story teachers are catching the spirit of the and biography and picture and poem and work and beginning to work out the map and pencil and brush wherever I
course. could do so—very much in the primary- We had had fifty years of the old way somewhat less perhaps as we advanced in of starting on United States History in the grades, but I would never lose sight seventh grade and literally or practically of the fact that these are but a means to memorizing the book, using no reference an end—and that end is a sympathetic books, no maps, no illustrative material or touch with institutional life in its un- methods of any kind, until about six years folding.
ago. We can not expect an absolute revoI have not time to speak in detail of lution to come about in this field in a year what ought to be the results following any more than in others. Rome was not from such a course in history. It will built in a day. But the work throughout lengthen, broaden and deepen the pupil's Indiana is growing and growing well. Inview of human life. It will teach him telligent authorities, from the State Supthat no people nor age nor religion nor erintendent to the city or county superingovernment nor social organization has tendents, and all the way down to the disbased its life wholly on truth nor et trict school teacher, are giving intelligent wholly on error; toleration, sympathy, in- and noble service in the movement. terest in all forms of human endeavor will Our next stens in the movement ought slowly ripen in the pupil's mind. He will to be to furnish the teachers with more better see and appreciate the true position well-chosen material in way of pictures, of his own country in guiding and enlarg- maps, atlases, books. And while I say the ing the stream of human liberty. It will outlook in Indiana is most promising, one make him less a bigot, less a partisan but other thing we still need is more teachers more truly a patriot. In short, it will who will mount above the obstacles which make of the pupil an all round richly de- beset the mastering of this course. veloped man; become more fully the “heir Patience, perseverance, work, have of all the ages.”
made the historic stream of the world; Can this course be made practicable? work, perseverance and patience will put Will it work in the schools? In thousands this course into every school in Indiana.
THE VICTORIAN AGE OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
ARTHUR B. MILFORD.
In the consideration of the Victorian these sixty-two years. Greater changes in era of English literature, there are several nearly every domain of thought and acspecial difficulties. One is that we are not tion have taken place than in any other far enough from many subjects to see period in the eventful history of the silthem properly and to place them in their ver-coasted isle. It was in 1837, the true relations; another is the vastness of of Victoria's coronation, that the first trip the field. The period has often been across the Atlantic was made by steam, called the age of diffusion. The reign of and in the same year the use of electricity Victoria is not only the longest in English for practical telegraphy was brought history, but steam and electricity have about by the inventions of Morse. Who also imparted their speed and strength to can estimate the influences of these two the development of civilization during mighty forces? The printing press, the
mariner's compass, and gunpowder dispelled the darkness of the Middle Ages and ushered in the glorious outburst of the Elizabethan age. Steam and electricity are transforming the earth. They have wrought miracles, and are still working wonders beyond the wit of man to comprehend or to predict.
When we turn to the literature of this period we find the most significant characteristic is the change of public interest from poetry to prose. Shall we account for this by calling it a reaction, the trough of the wave upon whose crest in the first quarter of the century we behold Byron, Shelley, Keats, Coleridge and Wordsworth? It would be hard indeed to sustain the excellence shown by the poets at the opening of the tury, but that
that is not the for this change. Our age is practical and not poetical. We seek literature mainly for amusement, to relieve the mind from its strain. Poetry does not appeal to the masses in England or America. There is no school of poetry, and even the one or two great poets of the last fifty vears who have recently passed away, Robert Browning in 1889, and Lord Tennyson in 1892, did not exert the influence great poets used to exert, even in the so-called critical period of Queen Anne. Earnest effort, sincere search for satisfying views of life, a yearning after spirituality—all these are evident in the literature of the age, yet there has been only one triumphant voice ringing out clear and loud in England that of Robert Browning, and one voicethat of Emerson, in America. Look at Carlyle, and Ruskin, and Matthew Arnold in the realm of criticism. With what Titanic rage and Scotch intensity Carlyle attacks his contemporaries! How ineffectual to Ruskin have seemed his earnest pleadings for the higher life amid the narrowing tendencies of England! How despondent is the spirit of Matthew Arnold! At times it is almost a note of despair. We are hidden “to fly from this strange disease of modern life, its sick hurry, its heads o'ertasked, its palsied hearts—” An able critic remarks: “When I come to ask what
Mr. Arnold's poetry has done for this generation the answer must be that no one has expresssed more powerfully and poetically its spiritual weakness, its craving for a passion that it can not feel, its admiration for a self mastery that it can not achieve, its desire for a creed that it fails to accept, its sympathy with a faith that it will not share, its aspiration for a peace that it does not know." No louder voice
among Victorian writers has been heard than that of Thomas Carlyle. "Wild, pantheistic rant” his writings have been termed. His influènce, however, can not be denied. The results are too great. He had a mighty personality, so great that it colors all he wrote. It is harder to reach an achromatic view of him than of any author of the age. He was a sublime denouncer of the evils of his day; a worshipper of force, and of great men rather than of the people. He resembles at times the Hebrew prophets in his righteous indignation. Yet greater results may certainly be accomplished by showing the beauty of holiness, by being optimistic, like Emerson, than by painting the hideousness of sin. Carlyle's extravagant writings may be forgiven in the light of the good they have accomplished. It was only by cruel blows with his bludgeon that he could beat his views into the men of his day, and could show where “money bags, hubbub, and ugliness" were leading them. He is the Victorian Elijah.
The early years of Victoria's reign show no author of wider influence in the field of literature and theology than Cardinal Newman. He was not led to denounce his age in bitter terms as Carlyle, but was gradually forced back upon the historical foundation of his faith. He sought authority for the power so zealously asserted, and he did not rest until in 1845 he took refuge within the church of Rome. This is not to be wondered at, for it was as natural for him to believe as for others to doubt. The scientist demands that we should understand in order to believe, but in the higher realm of the spirit we are asked to believe that we may understand. Despite his conversion to Catholicism and the consequent loss of influence