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FORMATION OF SOIL.
called Fort Supply. These two places visit to Utah, and, trusting that my concontain buildings sufficient to cover near duct will meet the approval of the comly half the troops now en route for Utah; manding general, I am, very respectfully, but I was informed that they would all be your obedient servant, laid in ashes as the army advances. I
Stewart Van Vliet, have thus stated fully the result of my
Captain, A. Q. M.
FORMATION OF SOIL. The different kinds of soil are formed, The depth of the soil depends to a with but few exceptions, by the gradual great extent on the slope of the parent wearing away and decay of rocks. This rock. Where there is little slope, the may not seem so evident that we can pass soil is likely to remain there and acover it without proof. In most cases, as cumulate in almost any quantity, but soon as the rock is transformed into soil, where the slope is great, it is sure to be it is washed away by water and soon wasted away by rain or melting snows, carried far away from the place of its and hence will not accumulate at all origin, so that we have some difficulty where it is formed, but will be carried in finding out how it was formed, but in away by the water, and deposited in the some places, the soil remains where it mouth of some stream, in the ocean or is formed, and here we can trace every in the bottom of some lake, where it change from perfect soil to hard rock may collect to an immense thickness. below. Very often in such soil veins of The process of decay would be very flint or hard rock will be found running slow, if rocks could not be penetrated by through the soil, and down into the bed air and water, and the disintegration, of the rock below, showing that they could take place only on the surface, but, were once imbedded in solid rock al. all rocks are broken up more or less into together, but being harder than the sur blocks, by cracks running in different rounding material,they resisted the action directions, and besides this they are of the soil forming agents, while the usually composed of porous material, material around them decayed. Again the so that there is abundant opportunity for soil in our valleys and plains, continues the different agents to find there way to to increase from one year to another by the inside, and there carry on their work deposits brought down by the rivers and of destruction. Now rocks are commountain streams, that come from parts posed of different compounds united tothat are made up' wholly of rock, which gether in different ways. Some of these must therefore gradually wear out, and compounds can be dissolved in water, be carried down by the water.
and the others being left without anything The agents that bring about these to hold them together, become loose changes exist mostly in the atmosphere. soil. They are oxygen, a gas that produces Granite contains, principally, mica, nearly all the decay that we notice going quartz and feldspar. The quartz is peron around us, as the rusting of iron and fectly insoluble, the mica may be acted rotting of wood, and vegetable matter; on by the disintegrating agents, but, the carbonic acid gas, a substance which, change can take place only at a very together with water, makes many hard slow rate, but the feldspar is much more rocks soluble; watery vapor in the at easily acted upon by these agents, at mosphere, existing in greater or less least a part of it is and this part being quantity according to the temperature dissolved loosens the whole mass and and other causes; and sometimes am changes it into a bed of clay; the part of monia and other substances in small the feldspar, that was not dissolved, quantities.
grains of sand, or the small particles of
FORMATION OF SOIL.
quartz, and bright scales of mica, tioned above, the decay of vegetable we always see in sand and clay. In all matter forms a large part of fertile soils, countries, when the rocks are composed and also gives them their black color. of granite, the soil is just what we have The leaves and stems of plants falling to described it to be above. In volcanic the ground, in the process of decay, are regions the soil is also very much the partly turned to charcoal, which being same, as the lava thrown out generally nearly indestructible remains behind, and contains a great deal of clay.
thus colors the soil. It is of great imLimestone is generally composed of portance preserving for the plants that small grains united together by means of may grow in the immediate vicinity, large a cement of the same kind of material. quantities of ammonia, a compound that This cement can not be dissolved in is of the first importance in the developwater alone, but when carbonic acid is ment of all forms of vegetation. Charmixed with it, then the cement can be coal contains a great many pores, and easily dissolved, and the rock falls to these have a wonderful power of absorbpieces in the shape of soil. The car ing gasses, so that when plants decay, bonic acid that is always found in the air, the charcoal that is left behind immediateis carried down into the rock along ly takes up the ammonia as soon as it is with the water that may pass through formed, and there holds it in readiness the air as rain, or that may exist as a to be absorbed by water, and thus carpart of the air, in the form of watery ried into the circulation of the plant, vapor; sometimes the limestone contains where it can be used. This vegetable sand and clay and as these are not mould, from the explanation just giren, changed by the action of the water or you will know, is found only near the carbonic acid, hence the soil is not surface, where the vegetable matter dewholly limestone but contains also these
When those substances that are neces. Sandstones consist of grains of sand sary for the growth of certain plants cemented together by means of lime- have been exhausted, many ways are stone or oxide of iron. In the employed to restore what was taken former case the limestone is easily dis- away. In some few places on the earth's solved out, and a mass of sand remains; surface, crops may be raised from one but in the second case the oxide of iron season to another, and there seems to be is almost unchangeable, and hence a no exhaustion, this is no doubt caused by sandstone whose parts are cemented to the fact, that just as fast as the plant gether by this substance, becomes one of takes out what it needs, the rocks by the most useful of our building stones, their decay restore what was lost. Thus as for instance the red sandstone, which, near Rome excellent crops of wheat are though it is very easily cut, is yet acted raised now, on soil cultivated by the upon with great difficulty by these agents Romans over two thousand years ago, mentioned above, and in this respect it is and from that time down to the present. quite different from granite, which is In other cases rivers bring down new very hard to cut, but soon loses a smooth layers at different times, and thus repolish by the action of the atmosphere. plenish the soil, as in the valley of the When slates decay they generally form Nile, where crops have been raised from a pure clay, as the cementing material is
one year to another, as long as history usually nothing more than limestone. has preserved any record. Most soils are composed generally of a Another method of preserving the fermixture of most of the simple forms that tility of the soil, is by rotation of crops; have been mentioned above, as they are that is planting one season a crop that carried about from one place to another will take from the soil a certain ingredby water, and thus become thoroughly ient, and the next season a crop that will mixed with each other.
take out a different ingredient, so as to Besides these simple ingredients men give time for the first to be formed in
sufficient quantity by the wearing away which was worth a large sum of money, of the rocks. In order to carry out this being seized, he sought the aid of Mr. method successfully, one must be well Geiger, an influential Ohio lawyer, then acquainted with the chemical constituents visiting the city. of the soil and plants, and thus we see The lawyer in one day satisfied the that to secure the greatest advantages authorities that there was no fraud, and from the soil, the study of chemistry is secured the release of the cotton. The a valuable assistant. Large tracts of speculator was gratified, and informed land are sometimes allowed to lie idle Mr. Geiger that he would see him the for a number of years, in order to re next morning after he had finished loadcover, in the manner explained above, ing bis cotton on a steamboat. what they have lost by exhaustion.
The lawyer retired, but not to sleep. Soils are sometimes produced with the He was debating with himself what he assistance of other agencies, as, for in should charge his client. The amount stance, frost in cold countries. Rocks involved was large, the speculator would are penetrated by water through their make a handsome fortune, and Geiger pores and fissures, and then the cold thought five hundred dollars would not freezes the water, expands it, and causes be an unreasonable fee for his services. the rock to crumble in pieces. The ex But in the morning, the sum seemed pansion and contraction produced by so great for one day's work, that he heat and cold produce the same result feared to ask it. only in a less marked degree. In St. In this frame of mind, while walking Petersburg where they have great ex out towards the steamer, which was to tremes between summer and winter, and carry off the cotton, he met the speculator. where there is always plenty of moisture “Well, Mr. Geiger, that was a good in the atmosphere, a building will decay day's work you did for me yesterday,” more in fifty years, than one in Egypt said the client, taking from his pocket a will in three thousand years. In the lat- large roll of bank-notes. ter country they have no rain, and the Holding up one knee, he thereon temperature remains nearly the same all counted off four five-hundred-dollar bills, the year round.
7. B. Toronto. and without looking up at the lawyer,
asked, “Is that enough?"
Geiger looked on speechless for a THE LAWYER'S FEE.
moment, but recovering himself, said, There is a good story of a cotton with the habitual coolness of a lawyer,speculator who once paid a fee several “I guess you had better lay on antimes greater than his lawyer expected. other!" Soon after the fall of Vicksburg, he be It was laid on, and Geiger, putting the came involved with the authorities, who two thousand five hundred dollars in his charged him with fraud. His cotton, pocket bid the speculator good-bye.
APOSTACY. The subject of the apostacy occupies | Bible alone is a sufficient guide, without the minds of people of modern times immediate and continued revelation. In but very
little. This however is not sur this respect the position of the Latterprising when we consider their views re day Saints is widely different from all lating to the Church of Christ; for they other religious denominations now extant, claim a continuation of Divine Author- | bearing no relationship to any religious ity and the plan of salvation, from the sect, but on the other hand declaring in apostolic age to the present time, the words of soberness, that our Heavenly idea prevailing among them that the Father has restored the Gospel by mod
ern revelation, to the Prophet Joseph were likely to be deceived with regard to Smith. This being true there must have the time of His second coming. Paul been a departure from the true order of to prevent their being misled by false the Gospel.
teachers who were likely predicting the To prove that such is the case, we will Saviors advent, testified that there should refer to the predictions of holy writ, come a “falling away first." The lan“Knowing this first, that no prophecy of guage is so express that one can readthe scripture is of any private interpre- ily see, that nothing but a departure from tation, for the prophecy came not in old the unchangeable plan of salvation time by the will of man; but holy men of would fulfil this prediction. We read God spake as they were moved by the in the Scriptures that “God hath set some Holy Ghost.” The Savior said when in the Church, first apostles, secondarily addressing his disciples: “And then shall Prophets,” and other officers, all of many be offended and shall betray one whom were divinely inspired "for the another, and shall hate one another and work of the ministry," with spiritual gifts many false prophets shall rise and shall following the baptized believers. Only deceive many, and because iniquity shall a short time elapsed, however, before abound, the love of many shall wax these officers, principles, gifts and blesscold.”—Matthew xxiv, 10-12.
ings mentioned in the New Testament, To this testimony of Matthew con
not to be found in the midst cerning the words of the Savior in rela- of the earth, and when we examine tion to the subject under consideration the religious institutions of the present there will be found the corresponding time, no where are they now to be found testimonies of Mark and Luke. It will save with the Latter-day Saints. The be remembered that this testimony of present generation then is as those of the Lord was in answer to a very impor- | many centuries past have been, living tant question. When he had foretold witnesses to the verification of the words the overthrow of the Temple, His apos we have quoted. tles asked Him: “When shall these When Paul was about to depart things be, and what shall be the sign of from Miletus, he called unto him the Thy coming, and of the end of the Elders of the Church from the city of world?” The appearance of false pro- Ephesus, and in his farewell address he prophets; the deception of many; the warned them as appears in the following martyrdom of the Apostles; the betrayal words, “For I know this, that after my of the saints, one of another; the love departing shall grievous wolves enter of many waxing cold; the overwhelming | in among you, not sparing the flock, prevalence of iniquity; the universal also of your own selves shall men arise discord and contentions of the nations, speaking perverse things, to draw away all were to be prominent events to trans- disciples after them,” Acts xx, 29, 30. pire before the advent of the Savior to As an evidence that this prophecy was reign in power and glory upon the earth. being verified, and that as early as the
To this we will add the words of Paul: time of the Apostle John's banishment “Now we beseech you brethren, by the upon the Isle of Patmos, we will quote coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and from the second chapter of Revelations by our gathering together unto him, that first and fifth verses: “Unto the angel ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be of the Church of Ephesus write; * * * troubled, neither by spirit nor by word, Remember therefore from whence thou nor by letter as from us, as that the day art fallen, and repent and do the first of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive works.” By reading the second verse you by any means, for that day shall not we discover that false teachers had come except there come a falling away arisen among the people, professing to first, and that man of sin be revealed, be apostles, thus verifying the words of the son of perdition.”—2 Thes. ii, 1-8. Paul. By reading the context we dis
It is evident from the above that some cover that similar reproofs were meted
out to most of the branches of the when they will not endure sound docChurch in Asia, because they were de- trine, but after their own lusts shall they parting from the truth.
heap to themselves teachers, having itchPeter, also, the presiding Apostle, has ing ears, and they shall turn away their spoken very plainly relating to the ears from the truth and shall be turned Apostacy. Beginning with the first unto fables," 2 Timothy, iv, 3, 4. Thus it verse of the second chapter of his is clearly stated not only that men should second epistle, we read. “But there were arise “speaking perverse things,” and false prophets also among the people, succeed in their evil designs in making even as there shall be false teachers innovations upon the teachings of the among you, who privily shall bring in Apostles, but that the people themselves damnable heresies, even denying the would be so allured from the way of life Lord that bought them, and bring upon as to heap unto themselves these false themselves swift destruction, and many teachers, so that many would adhere to shall follow their pernicious ways, by rea their spurious doctrines. The terms son of whom the way of truth shall be heap and many do not signify a few but evil spoken of, and through covetous a great number, ness shall they with feigned words make The above quotations from the holy merchandize of you, whose judgment Scriptures bear especially upon the internow of a long time lingereth not and naleruptions, that occurred in the Church, their damnation slumbereth not.” From causing many to depart from the straight this we learn not only that false teachers and narrow path, which leadeth unto should arise among the people, but that life eternal. Those causes, which create they should succeed in deceiving the internal division and discord in the midst people and causing many to follow of the Saints are the worst of all causes, their pernicious ways. In connection for “A house divided against itself with this part of the subject, Paul says cannot stand." to Timothy; "For the time will come
Matthias F. Cowley.
The pale, dull sun of February
Tinging with mellow light,
Grand in their sheen of white,
And fadeth into night.
The shadows lay along the walls,
Gloomy and dark they seem, And fitfully the sunset rays,
Adown the casement stream, And the tired mind to rest inclin'd;
Would fain at twilight dream.
And seemingly we trace
Crowned with a mystic grace.
And we hasten as of yore,
That will return no more;
Our hearts are gushing o'er.
With memories so replete;
A requiem low and sweet;
The spell is so complete.
O faith thy glorious ray,
And lights the darkest day
Emmeline B. Wells.
Call up some vision of the past
Glowing with life and light,
In dazzling splendor bright;
And friends now lost to sight.
Ah! pause--for from the years gone by
A dear familiar face,