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administration, in which he persevered that and Tierces, by giving to every scale a I can praite, 1 moli willingly praile; his more decided character. By thus evadoption of the plan which Lord North, creasing the effect of modulation, former on the suggestion of Dr. Price, * and defects become ulcful ornaments, and other able men in the other part of the prove that nature did not constitute these Inland, loit the folid glory of adopting, the defects in vain. establishment of a Smking Fund. But it 5. That inodulation would fail, if the is fit to jultify whether the living or the new scales had not a decidled ditlerence dead, fo far as it can be done on fatis- of character, &c. &c. factory grounds, and especially when that My friend Dr. Clement Smith, of justification turns on principles of the Richinond, iu Surry, thinks that the last utmoti importance to the community in sentence in my former letter on this subgeneral.
ject, is rather anbiguous. I had not None, I think, can fufpect the late then time to explain to fully iny incaning Duke of Richmond of being led by pre- as I can now, and at the fainc time am judice, or any unbecoming motive, to ' happy to answer the queries of Mr. A. stand forth in support of the principle of Every thinking inutician adınits, that univerfal futfrage. That be yielded to different scales produce different effects, clamour or abule, or apprehension of the or, in other words bavc, what Lord Stanunfitncis of the times, and cealed to sup- hope calls Tariety of churutter. This is port that, or fome comprehentive plan of a general term, applicable not only to parliamentary reform, feems more ditii- poetry, painting, and mulic; but even to cult to justity and much to be regretted. inorals, politics, religion, &c. &c. &c. Trofon,
Your's, &c. Ina mutical fenfe, it may be subdivided February 3, 1807. CAPEL LOFFt. into three diftinct clables, natural, orchef
tral, and partitional, and perhaps a furTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ther Avalytis may throw fill further light SIR,
on the subject. CAVING received an
1. By natural character, I mean that H etter signe de murer of Nunc nos dated Strand, January 31, 1807,'I take the pitch, and consequently on the comthis public opportunity of acknowledging pass of the leading melody. This was by the favour, and imparting my further the ancient church writers termed Amopinions on the fubject to the author. bitus. The design of this gentleman, who de- 2. By orchestral character, I mean that serves great praise for the clearnefy and brilliancy which arıtes to the scales with facility with which he writes, and whom larp tignatures, from the open ftrings I thall venture to distinguish by the naine of the violins, &c. iu G, D, A, and of Mr. A. (as being the bell, and there- E; while the stopped tonics and dumifore the tirit writer on the Stanhope Tein- nants of F, B flat, E Aat, and A dlat, are perament,) is to confute the flimis objec- Toft, &c. tions of Mr. C.
3. By partitional character, I mean 1. Mr. A. thews, that the third of the that more fully described by Lord StanScale of A with three tharps ditiers from hope, at page 19, of his pamphlet; and that of the equal temperament, and that upon which Mr. C. has so curioully comMr. C.'s objections are unfounded. mented, as Mr. A. so justly obferves. 2. That the dominants of the same
I have the fatisfaction of announcing, fcale are better, according to Lord Stau- that Lord Stanhope hiinfelf, conliders hope, than those of Kirnberger. This is this Analytis as true, and plilofophical; fu evident, that it needs no comment. at the same time we fall be happy to
3. That Mr. C. probably never heard receive any more complete ideas on the the Stanbopc system of tuning, and there- subject. fore, I am happy to announce, both from For myself, individually, I can promise Lord S. himself, and Mr. A. that Mr. that no labour of research will be wontLoefcliman, No. 82, Newman-street, is ing on my part; and that I will take the employed in the practical method above- utinot care, that no prejudice, nor parinentioned.
tial vicw of the subject, thall, on any ac4. That Lord Stanhope divides and count, induce me to fhut my eyes against disposes the natural differences of Quints the light of truth. Your's, c.
Feb. 14, 1907, J. WALL CALICUTT. In his Tract on Civil Liberty, during the American war. 7, Upper Grosvenor-street,
For the Monthly Magazine. portion of the profits. A Polish farm, of PARTICULARS of the PRESENT STATE any confiderable extent, cominonly con
of POLAND, by an ENGLISH GENTLE- lists of several thoulands of acres, include MAX, recently returned from thuting open land and foreit; and the annual COUNTRY, after a RESIDENCE in it of rent of inch a famo am unts to four or
five hundred ducats (about 200 or 2301. Me fuil of Poland, with the excep- ferling). Its value, however, is not elii&c. is almoft entirely of fand; or, it it number of villages within its circumfervaries, it is to a light loam, in which the ence: for, as the population of Poland laurd greatly predurinates. Hence its bears no sort of proportion to its valt excultivation, in the manner it is there pantion, the first enquiry of a farmer about euidated, is attended with little trouble to contract for a farm is, how is it peopled? and expence. We no where see nore The population of the country is univerthan a ploughinan with his plough and a sally allowed to be very inadequate to hugle pair of imall bullocks, not bigger the proper cultivation of the toil. I thall than English fieers, to produce a fallow. give the reader a more accurate estimate There is scarcely tuch a thing as manure of the average revenue of lands, by the to be seen, and the produce is propor- following statement. The territory of a tionally finall
. The average crop is uix nobleman, the extent of which I had an to one of the quantity fown : of these opportunity of ascertaining with fome dix parts, two only are calculated to go exactness
, is about five thousand square to market, the rest being appropriated miles ; which produces an income of to defraying the expences of cultivation, about 100,000 ducats, or 50,000). fterliving, &c. The filfal farmer will in- ling: this gives only 50l. a year for every facuy discover, that the agriculture of twenty square miles. Poland is fufceptible of great improve- Poland produces almost every species of ment. It is but just to acknowledge, grain, though wheat is the principal. however, that the Prussian division ex- Rye is also very abundant; for the bread Inbits various marks of increased atten- of the peasantry consists almost entirely tion to this important object. I oblery- of this grain. The general market is ed that the lands, in a few instances, Dantzic, where farmers from the interior begin to be enclosed : for, generally of the country reside, during the sumfpeaking, the whole country is without mer, for fix weeks or two months togeany enclofure; the stones, which are of- ther, or till they have fold the quantity ten abondant, are collected into large of corn they have had conveyed thither. keaps, in order to be conveyed away; Heavy impofts, however, have been laid and here and there is to be seen a small by the Pruflian government on all artiquantity of manure. The villages, too, cles transported on the Vistula. Speaking are in lome places partially rebuilt, and of the navigation of this river, 1 ought not the houses more firmly constructed. In to forget the immenfe floats of timber particular, the farm-house of a village which are seen every now and then novtowers more confpicuoully above the ing blowly down the stream : for the reft, is Cometimes built of brick, and current is not rapid, except in the spring, winte-walbed. There are inttances of On these floats are constructed fmall this in Austrian Poland, but they are far cabins, which serve for the habitation of lels frequent. The improvements in this the pilot, or fivatman, during bis long roya dihan, though some have unquestion- age. The ditch of the fortifications at ably taken place, are less obvious ; Dantzic is fo stuffed with pieces of timand conlft rather in the general benefits ber, though not wattled together like of greater fecurity arifing from the pro- the floats, that in fome places you may tection of t regular government. almost cross, stepping from one to the
The lands are commonly let out into other. The Dantzickers, expecting at barns; and in fome instances farined by this time a visit from the Freuch, must the proprietor, who is almost always a have cleared their ditch. moble. The latter mode is rarely refort- The cattle are in general very small, ed to, except perhaps in refpect of a and commonly very poor when killed for Imall quantity of land lying contiguous the table. Even at the belt houses, the to the coentry-leat of the puffeffor: for, beef is frequently larded with bacon. @every thing muit he done by ageuts, The veal is somewhat better. Mutton these confume and even pilfer lov large a scems to be the mult rare : I have fels Momtal. Mag. No. 151.
dom seen a flock of sheep. Not only and the carcase was dragged within the the cattle in general, but the cows, are verge of a forest, probably not more driven about in large herds in fuinmer, than a quarter of a mile from the stable. to collect a scanty sustenance among the Sone persons with guns lay in ambuli, stubble. Hence, a Polish cow, froin its in the certainty that wolves would apdiminutive fize and its feed, probably pear. Several came in a thort time; gives not more than a third of the milk but the men unluckily milled their mark yielded by an Enslith cow. I have on this occafion, and the animals were counted, forty, fifty, and even fixty cows, afterwards more cautious, though the in these pafioral dairies. The clicese is carcase foon disappeared, in all probausually poor and hard. The pigs fare in bility without much aid from dogs. Ou like manner, of which large droves are another occasion, a wolf had the audaevery where to be seen in the stubblc. city to enter a public house in the day. The best pafturage, exclusive of the tine; but as the house was fortunately plains, is found on the occafional green crowded with peasants, they succeeded patches in the forests. In winter, the in killing him. ' In very fevere winters, cattle are stalled, the ground being corer. I was informed, that a whole pack of ed with snow. Poultry abounds every wolves will fometimes attack a carriage where; obviously froin the general abune as it passes through a forest. The borles dance of corn.
are cominonly the first and moti defired The Polith horses are also a small, but vi&ims; though an anecdote, which a hardy race. The horses of the Huffars commemorates the generous refolution can be rarely, if ever, above fourteen of a servant, proves that they occationhauds high; but they are spoken of in ally give this uncoveted preference to terms of high admiration as war-horses, men. A gentleman was travelling, with and, from their activity in performing his valet-de-chambre, in a fledge through the various military maneuvres and evo- a forest, when they were suddenly atlutions, as more serviceable than our tacked by a number of wolves, who heavy English horses. The common leaped furiously at the carriage. The post-hortes too, though low, and ill-thaped servant, who instantly fuw that one of to a high degree, will yet travel at a rate them at least must be lacrificed, exclaimlittle inferior to that of our mail-coaches. ed, Protect my wife and children ; and Englith horses are in great requeft ; inftantly leaped into the midit of them. but though the nobles have fome good His maiter drove wildly ou, and escaped. ones, it seems very clear that our jockeys The kitchen-garden in Poland is not contrive to impofe upon then many very abundantly furnithed. Their dinwhich were probably the refuse of the ners have commonly an inconsiderable English markets. Scarcely a horse of proportion of vegetables. Potatoes are any description arrives in Poland, with- rare; and when produced, are fervout a cost of at least 2001. including the ed in flices, having been browned and purchase-iponey and the expences of baited under a roafting piece of meat. transportation. They have fome, in- They eat cabbage only with boiled beef. deed, of which the original purchase. It is always ill-boiled, and never looks money was double that fum, or even nice. Carrots are also fometimes seen,
and four-crout is not uncommon; but Of wild animals, the roe-buck fur- fallad-herbs conttitute the molt frequent, nilies the most frequent article of food. and the most agreeable, vegetables both When dressed, its fleth is of a dark co- in winter and funmer. Upon the lour, like that of the hare, but more whole, there is a great deficiency of vetender atid lavoury. It makes an ad- getable food at their meals; a dehciency mirable dilh. There are hares, too, in which is fupplied by copious draughts of fufficient abundance. Wild fowl is also a light beer, which in a moderate quan plentiful.
tity is wholesome enough, though perThe principal favage animals are haps not a very good fuccedaneum to wolves and wild boars, the hunting of Englisa porter. There is also a weak which constitutes a favourite diversion Rhevith wine, a finall decanter of which with the Poles, during the winter. Both is placed near each person, and which of these may be confidered as common, is always drunk mixed with water, which particularly the former; as a proof of it slightly acidulates. The stronger wines which I may mention the following cir- are chiefly from Hungary, a red species cumstances : -A horse happened to die, of which distantly resembles ous port;
but the best fort is of a light colour. beams. This is the fort of seafon which The highest price is not more than a the Poles adınire; this is the time for thrilling bottle. This latt is frequently the diversion of the fledge. In this kept a great number of years. I have weather, they will travel hundreds of myidi drunk wine of this fpecies, which miles, undaunted either by the cold or had been kept a hundred years. It is the wretched accommodations fometimes then very ftrong; and no liquor can be to be met with; and even with less cemore fine, mellow, and delicious. When remony than Englidhmen occationally new, it is fomewhat harb. The French make to travel a hundred miles, at the wides, too, are not uncommon, though farne season of the year, in our mild Rot in ordinary use. English bottled- climate.
a journey, the porter, likewise, is to be had in all the fledges go at the rate of seventy or large towns, and even at the best public- ciglity miles a day; and often proceed houses on the mott frequented roads; by night, as well as by day. All sorts of at the hugh price, however, of about one carriages are so contrived as to be placed and twenty pence a bottle, in English on fledges, as occalion requires. A money; and, from having passed the lea, series of coaches, chariots, and other it is commonly even of a superior flavour carriages thus situated (as when a fato bottled-porter in England.
mily travels), furnishes a very odd fpecThe molt abundant fruits are perhaps tacle to a person unvaccustomed to luch raspberries and strawberries. There are things; and what seems still more strange, few apples or pears, and no cyder nor is the very circumftance of ineeting perry." The genuine liquors of the coun- a number of handsome carriages, and try are beer, and a fort of spirit resem- genteel travellers in such a dreary wilbling whilky more than any other fpirit, derness of frost and snow as a Polisi winand is usually converted into a cordial ter cxhibits! The view of any traces by the infation of hot spices. The beer of the elegant arts, or of any appearbet with at the public-houses, is always ances of polished fociety, is so little in fo weak and flat as to be scarcely drink- unison with surrounding objećts, that able. The spirit is also wretched ftuff; it is like the effect of enchantinent! but the liqueurs, which are common and The winters molt dreaded by the of various forts, are very fine. On the Poles are rainy winters, or those in which roads we fometimes get a little mead, rain alternates with frost. The roads, sluch is always very bad; as well as an whether from the inelting of the abune ordinary French wine.
dant fuow, or from their being glazed with The elimate of Poland, in the differ- subsequent froit, become almolt impaffaeat seasons, pafles through a wide range ble. I myself witneiled the general'thaw uf leruperature. In the depth of wine at the commencement of spring; and can ter, the thennometer of Fahrenheit fluc- aver, without hazard of contradiction, that tuntes between 16 and 24 degrees below even Poland is at no time fo little delirthe freczing point. I speak of a situation able as a place of retidence. We are about 70 Englith miles to the south-east of told, that during the present winter the Wartaw, but the statement is also ap- rains have been continual. To me, who phicable, or nearly, to that city. The know what must be the physical condiwinter of the latter end of 1804, and tion of things in such a season, the the beginning of 1805, which I spent in grievous mortality which is said to have Puland, was wusually long and severe. afflicted the French army, can be matIt lafted for feven months ; during fix of ter neither of astonishment nor doubt. wluch, the whole face of the country-- Nor can I well conceive, how two such land, water, trees, and houses-was vast arnies as the Russian and French cumpletely covered with fow. It is can be at all sublifted in winter, for any curious and wonderful to behold all length of time, in this wild region: at nature thus literally a blanc-thus robed, lealt, within such a distance of each so many months, in a sheet of universal other as to be capable of any extensive whiteness! If there be uny wind, it blows and effective operations. They must keenly, not forcibly, froin the north or speedily produce a fainine throughout a forhealt; more cominogly, it is per- circumference of space, a hundred miles fectly fill, and so clear, that one can diameter. The wretchedness, and relialto see the cold: the fan, the while, tive distances of the towns and villages; pars tus glistening glory on the subject the habitually coarse and meagre fare of know, impenetrable as a rock to his their inbabitants, such as would half
tively in a mild climate, and have beene GWh which I am erroneously char
starve a poor man in England; the scan- he proceeds not far, before the appeartiness and leanness of their cattle, all ance of fome miferable hovels detorins conspire to render the continual and the fair scene; or the fight of human healthful sublistence of a large army, to beings, in the persons of the wretched me, almost miraculous. Accordingly, we boors, the faint resemblances of men, find that the French do actually fuffer instantly breaks the charm of his illugve great distress, not merely from the rigors reveries. of the climate, but from a want of the neceffary supply of provisions. The Ruffans have manifestly the advantage in To the Editor of the Monthly Dlugazine. both theic respects: they are compara- SIR,
IVE me leave to correct a mistake habituated from childhood to the coarse with food they must use in Poland: they are ged by your correspondent, Mr. Robincufe-hardened, therefore, against all con- fon, in your last Magazine. He fays, tingencies of the country, but famine. p. 31,- To the pastage which was quoted The French, on the contrary, bred in a from Bishop Hare, Nr. P. has given the more favoured clime, have not merely following meaning : “ Accent gives a enemies in arms to contend with Their little addition to a long vowel, but the southern constitutions must require tine privation of accent does not occafion a to adapt themfelves to their new circum- long lyllable to become thort." This stances, and have to repel the constant fentence was not intended by me to attacks of phytical hostility. Fortunate- convey the meaning of Bifhop Hare's ly for them, the spring is approaching, words, or to have any immediate conwhen we may expect more effective ope- nexion with thein. What I said upon rations.
the subject was expressed in the following Spring, in Poland, is by far the most words: The acute accent, according to agreeable seafon of the year; though the meaning of the Greek word ofis, her fmiling countenance borrons a pör- conveys the idea of quickness; i. e, it tion of its charms from its contrast with hurries to give the sound of a word, and, the stern aspect of winter. No sooner by the ftress which it lays on one fyllais the face of the earth unveiled to the ble, occasions the next to it to be shortview of the sun, than vegetation pro- er, or lefs distinctly heard, than it otherceeds (as usual in cold climates) with wise would be: fo that whatever time is great rapidity. The forests are foon co- added to the accented syllable, is devered with verdure. Not a day pafled, ducted from that which is next to it. but I involuntarily exclaimed, as I looked This, I think, is the true meaning of the from the window, what a wonderful pasiage quoted by Mr. R. from Bishop change! The air, too, is gentle and Ilare. “Tinc ufu venit ut fyllaba acuta bland; and all is calm and peaceful, proxima pro correptâ habcatur, breviorwhile nature is arraying herself in her que acutâ videatur, etiam cum ipfa fummer-robes. The progress of spring quoque brevis eft." These words may, I is gradual, and the more delightful on think, be literally translated thus: Hence that account. There is never a juxta- it happens, that the syllable next to the polition of the extremes of heat and acuted (or accented) one is supposed to cold, as in England. The Polish summer be thortened, and seems to be thorter is hotter than the English: the thermo- than the acuted (or accepted) one, even meter is usually at from 65 to 75o. This when that is Mort. Acutus is a particiis partly owing to the fandy foil, but ple from the verb acuo. Syllaba acuta, chiefly, no doubt, to the continental pofi. therefore, means a sharpened or accenttion of the country.
ed syllable; and consequently, Jyllaba In passing through a foot of ground, acută proxima mutt mean the fyllable green with the rising corn, or yellowing to- next to the accented one. Mr. R. feems wards harvest; where the view is contined to contider ucnte as a fubftantive, meanby the tkirtings of a forest, and embellished ing acute accent. I do not recollect that by its varied foliage; though there is a I ever saw it used in that sense, or in total absence of that collection of ub- deed in any other than that of a partie jects neceflary to conftitute a picture, yet ciple or adjective. the traveller, from the general prospect Iiim, Sir, your's, &c. of plenty and of agreeable colours, is Hackney,
J. PICKBOORN, dipoled' to be pleased and satisfied. But Feb. 6, 1807,