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Infinitive Mode. Pres. Malle. Perf. Maluiffe. I he refl not used.

Fěro, tăli, lātum, ferre, To bring or suffer.


fert ;


Indicative Mode. Pr. Fěro, fers,

ferimus, fertis, ferunt. Im. Fer-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. Per. Tuli, tulifti,

tulimus, tulistis, tulerunt, •ere. Plu. Tul-eram, -eras, -erat ;

-eramus, eratis, erant. Fut. Feram, feres,

feret ;

feremus, feretis, ferent.

Subjundive Mode.
Pr. Feram, feras, ferat ; feramus, feratis, ferant.
Im. Ferrem, ferres, ferret; ferremus, ferretis, ferrent,
Per. Tul-erim, -eris, erit; -erimus, eritis, erint.
Plu. Tul-iffem, -iffes, -iffet ; -iffemus, -issetis, -issent.
Fut. Tul-ero, eris, -erit; -erimus, eritis, erint.


Pr. Ferre.

Ferto, 2 fertote,

Per. Tuliffe.
Fut. Esse laturus, a, um,

Fuiffe laturus, a, up.

Gerunds. Supines. Pres. Feren's.


1. Latum. Fut. Laturus, -a, -um. Ferendi.

2. Latu. Ferendo, &c.

[blocks in formation]

Im. Fer-ebar, -ebaris,

vel -ebare,

-ebatur; -ebamur, ebamini, -ebantur. Per. Latus fum, &c. latus fui, &c. Plu. Latus eram, &c. latus fueram, &c.

ferēris, Fut. Ferar,

vel ferēre,

feretur; feremur, feremini, ferentur.

Subjuntive Mode. feraris, Pr. Ferar,

feratur; feramur, feramini, ferantur. v. ferarc,

ferreris, Im. Ferrer,

ferretur; ferremur, ferremini, ferrentur. v. ferrere, Per. Latus Gim, &c. latus fuerim, &c. Plu. Latus essem, &c. latus fuiffem, &c. Fut. Latus fuero, &c.

Imperative Mode.
Pref. Ferre vel fertor, fertor ; ferimini, feruntor.

Pref. Ferri.

Perf. Latus,

-a, -um. Perf. Esse vel fuisse latus, -a, -um. Fut. Ferendus, -a, -um. Fut Latum iri.

In like manner are conjugated the compounds of fero; as, affero, attăli, allatum ; aufěro, abftuli, ablatum; différo, diftuli, dilatum ; conféro, contuli, cillatum: infēro, intuli, illatum ; offěro, obtuli, oblatum ; effero, extili, elatum. So circum-, pero, tranf-, de-, pro-, ante-, pra-fěro. In some writers we find adfero, adtūli, adlatum ; conlatum, inlatum, obfero, &c. for affero, &c.

Obf. 1. Most part of the above verbs are made irregular by contraction. Thus, nolo is contracted for non volo; malo, for magis volo; fero, fers, fert, &c. for feris, ferit, &6. Feror, ferris, v. ferre, fertur ; for ferěris, &C.

Obs 2. The imperatives of dico, dūco, and făcio are contracted in the same manner with fer : thus we say, dic, duc, fac, instead of dīce, dūce, făce. But these often occur likewise in the regular form. Fio, factus, fiéri, To be made ar, done, to become

Indicative Mode. Pr. Fio, fis, fit; fimus, fitis, fiunt. Im. Fiebam, fiebas, fiebat; fiebamus, fiebatis, fiebant. Per Factus fum, &c. factus fui, &c. Plu Factus eram, &c. factus fueram, &c. Fut. Fiam, fies, fiet; fiemus, fietis, fient.

Subjunctive Mode. Pr. Fiam,

fiamus, fiatis, fiant. Im. Fièrem, fieres, fieret; fieremus, fieretis, fierent. Per. Fetus fim, &c. factus fuerim, &c. Plu. Factus effem, &c. faétus fuiffem, &c. Fut. Factus fuero, &c.






Pr. Fieri.

frunto. Fito,

Per. Effe v. fuiffe factus, a, um.

Fut. Factum iri.

Per. Factus, -a, -um.

Factu. Fut. Faciendus, -a,

The compounds of făcio, which retain a, have also fio in the paffive, and

fac in the imperative active ; as, calefacio, to warm, calefio, calefac; but those which change a into i, form the passive regularly, and have fice in the imperative ;, as, conficio, confice; conficior, confectus, confici. We find, however, confit, it is done, and confieri; defit, it is wanting ; infit, he begins.

To Irregular verbs may properly be subjoined what are commonly called NEUTER-PASSIVE Verbs, which, like fio, form the preterite tenses according to the passive voice, and the rest in the active. These are, sóleo, solitus, Solēre, to use; audeo, ausus, audēre, to dare ; gaudeo, gavīsus, gaudere, to rejoice; fido, fifus, fidère, to trus: So confido, to trust; and diffido, to distrust; which also have confidi & diffidi

. Some add mærco, meftus, merere, to be sad ; but mæsus is generally reckoned an adjective. We likewise say juratus fum and cænatus fum, for juravi and conavi, but these may also be taken in a pasive sense.

To these may be referred verbs, wholly active in their terminaation, and passive in their signification; as, wapủlo, -avi, -atum, to be beaten or whipped ; veneo, to be sold ; exělo, to be banithed, &c.


Verbs are called Defeative, which are not used in certain tenses, numbers, and persons.

These three, odi, cæpi, and memini, are only used in the preterite tenses; and therefore are called Preteritive Verbs; though they have sometimes likewife a present fignifica. tion : thus,

Odi, I hate, or have hated, oderam, oderim, odissem, odero, odise. Participles, ofus, ofurss: exojus, perofus.

Cæpi, I begin or have begun, cæperam, -erim, .ilsem, -ero, ille

. Supine cæpta. Participles cæptus, cæpturus. Memini, I remember, or have remembered, memineram, -erim, -iffem, -ero, -iffe: Imperative, memento, mementote.

Instead of odi, we sometimes fay ofus fum ; and always exosus, pesa ofus fum, and not exodi, perodi. We say opus cæpit fieri, or cæptum eft.


To these some add nõvi, because it frequently hath the fignification of the present, I know, as well as, I have known, though it comes from nofco, which is complete.

Furo, to be mad, dor, to be given, and for, to speak, as also der and fer, are not used in the first person singular : thus, we say, daris, datur ; bụt never dor.

Of verbs which want many of their chief parts, the following most frequently occur : Aio, I say, inquam, 1 say,

forem, I should be ; aufim, contracted for aufus fim, I dare ; faxim, I'll fee to it, or I will do it ; ave and falve, save you, hail, good morrow; cedo, tell thou, or give me ; quafo, I pray. Ind. Pr. Aio, ais, ait :

aiunt. Im. Aiebam, -ebas, -ebat: -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. Per.

aisti, Sub. Per. aias, aiat:

aiatis, aiant. Imperat. Ai,

Particip. Pres. Aiens.
Ind. Pr. Inquam, quis, -quit: -quimus, -quitis, -quiunt.
inquiebat :

Per. inquisti,

inquies, inquiet: Imperat. Inque, inquito.

Particip. Pr. Inquiens. Sub. Im. Plu

. }Förem, fores, foret : foremus, foretis, forent. Inf. Fore, to be bereafter, or to be about to be, the same with elle futurus. Sub. Pr. Aufim, ausis,

aufit : Per. Faxim, faxis, faxit :

faxint.. Fut. Faxo, faxis,

faxit :

faxitis, faxint. Note. Faxim and faxo are used infead of fecerim and fecero. Imper. Ave vel avēto ; plur. avētc vel avetote.. Inf. avere.

Salve v. falveto; salvete v. falvetote. fálvere.
Indic. Fut. -Salvebis.
Imperat. second pers. sing. Cedo, plur. cedite.
Indic. Pref. forf pers. sing. Quæso, plur. quæsúmus.

Most of the other Defective verbs are but single words, and rare, ly to be found, but among the poets; as, inft, he begins ; defit, it is wanting. Some are compounded of a verb and the conjunction fi; as, fos, for,fi yis ; sultis, for

fi vultis ; fodes, for fi audes ; capfis, for cape le vise


A verb is called Imperfonal, which has only the terminations of the third person singular, but does not admit any person or nominative before it.

Impersonal verbs in English, have before them the neu. ter pronoun it, which is not considered as a person ; thus, deleilat, it delights; děcet, it becomes ; contingit, it happens; evěnit, it happens : If Conj. 2d Conj. 3d Conj.

43b Conj. Ind. Pr. Delectat, Décet, Contingit, Evčnit,

Im. Delectabat, Decebat, Contingebat, Eveniebat,
Per. Delectavit, Decuit, Coutigit, Evènit,
Plu. Delectaverat, Decuerat, Contigerat, Evenerat,

Fut. Delectabit, Decebit, Continget. Eveniet. Sub.Pr. Delectct, Deceat, Contingat, Evcniat,

Im. Delectaret, Decērei, Contingeret, Eveniret,
Per. Delectaverit, Decuerit, Contigerit, Evenerit,
Plu. Delectavisset, Decuiliet, Contigillat, Eveniffet,

Fut. Delectaverit, Decuerit. Contigerit. Evenerit, Jof. Pr. Delectare, Decēre, Contingere, Evenire,

Per. Delectavisle. Decuiffe. Contigiffe. Evenisse.

Most Latin verbs may be used imperfonally in the par. five voice, especially Neuter and Intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no paffive ; as, pugnātur, favētur, curritur, venitur ; from pugno, to fight ; faveo, to favour ; curro, to sun; venio, to come :

lad. Pr. Pugnātur, Favētur, Curritur, Venitur,

Im. Pugnabatur, Favebatur, Currebatur, Veniebatur,
Per. Pugnatum eft, Fautum est, Cursum est, Ventum est,
Plu. Pugnatum erat, Fautum crai, Cursum erat, Ventum erat,

Fut. Pugnabitur. Favebitur. Curretur. Venietur, sub.Pr. Pugnetur,

Favcatur, Curratur, Veniatur, Im. Pugnaretur, Faveretur, Curreretur, Veniretur, Per. Pugnatum sit, Fautum fit, Cursum fit, Ventum fit, Plu. Pugnatum effet, Fautum eslei, Cursum cffet, Ventum effet, Fut. Pugnatum fue. Fautum fue- Cursum fue- Ventum fuerit. rit. rit.

rit. Inf. Pr. Pugnari, Faveri, Curri, Veniri,

Pugnatum effe, Fautum effe, Cursum efle, Ventum effe,
Pugnatum iri. Fautum iri. Cursum iri. Ventum iri.

Obf. 1. Impersonal verbs are scarcely used in the imperative, but instead of it we take the subjunctive; as, delectet, let it delight, &c.; nor in the supines, participles, or gerunds, except a few; as, pæni. tens, -dum, dus, &c. Induci ad pudendum et pigendum, Cic. In the preterite tenses of the passive voice, the participle perfect is always put in the neuter gender.

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