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only to nouns. The changes made upon the verb are called Conjugation.

The English language has one part of speech more than the Latin, namely, the ARTICLE.

The want of the article is a defect in the Latin tongue, and often renders the meaning of nouns undetermined : thus filius regis, may signify, either, a son of a king, or, a king's fon; or the fon of the king, or the king's fon.

NOUN.

À noun is either substantive or adjective.

The adjective seems to be improperly called noun : it is only a word added to a substantive or noun, expressive of its quality; and therefore should be considered as a different part of speech. But as the substantive and adjective together express but one object, and in Latin are declined after the same manner, they have both been comprehended under the same general name.

SUBSTANTIVE.

A Substantive, or noun, is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, boy, school, book.

Substantives are of two sorts ; proper and common names.

Proper names are the names appropriated to individu. als ; as the names of persons and places : such are,

Ca. far, Rome.

Common names stand for whole kinds, containing several forts; or for forts, containing many individuals under them; as, animal, man.

Every particular being should have its own proper name; but this is impoffible, on account of their innume.' rable multitude : men have therefore been obliged to give the fame common name to such things as agree together in certain respects. These form what is called a genus, or kind; a species, or fort.

A proper name may be used for a common, and then in English it has the article joined to it; as, when we say of some great conqueror,

“ He is an Alexander ;' or, u The Alexander of his age.”

To proper and common naines may be added a third class of nouns, which mark the names of qualities, and

are called abftra& nouns ; as, hardness, goodness, whiteness, virtue, justice, piety, &c.

When we speak of things, we consider them as one or more. This is what we call Number. When one thing is fpoken of, a noun is said to be of the fingular number ; when two or more, of the plural.

Things considered according to their kinds, are either male or female, or neither of the two. Males are said to be of the masculine gender ; females of the feminine ; and all other things, of the neuter gender.

Such nouns as are applied to signify either the male or the female, are faid to be of the common gender, that is, either masculine or feminine.

Various methods are used, in different languages, to express the different connexions or relations of one thing to another. In the English, and in most modern languages, this is done by prepositions, or particles placed before the substantive ; in Latin, by declension, or by dif. ferent cases; that is, by changing the termination of the noun; as, rex, a king, or the king; regis, of a king, or of

the king

LATIN NOUNS.

A Latin noun is declined by Genders, Cafes, and Numbers.

There are three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.

The cases are fix, Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, and Ablative.

There are two numbers, Singular and Plural.

There are five different ways of varying or declining nouns, called, the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth declensions.

Cales are certain changes made upon the termination of nouns, to express the relation of one thing to another.

They are fo called, from cadı, to fall : becanse they fall, as it were, from the nominative, which is therefore

samed.cafus reétus, the straight case; and the other cases, cafus obliqui, the oblique cases.

The different declensions may be distinguished from one another by the termination of the genitive fingular. The first declension has æ dipthong ; the second has i; the third has is ; the fourth has ús ; and the fifth has öi in the genitive.

Although Latin nouns be said to have fix cases, yet none of them have that number of different terminations, both in the fingular and plural.

GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION.

1. Nouns of the neuter gender have the Ac. cusative and Vocative like the Nominative, in both numbers; and these cases in the plural end always in a.

2. The Dative and Ablative plural end always alike.

3. The Vocative for the most part in the fingular, and always in the plural, is the same with the Nominative.

Greek nouns in s generally lose s in the Vocative ; as, Thomas, Thoma; Anchises, Anchise; Paris, Pari; Panthus, Panthu ; Pallas, -antis, Palla, names of men. But nouns in es of the third declension oftener retain the s; as, ô Achilles, ore; O. Socrates, or -e: and sometimes nouns in is and as; as, O Thais, Myfis, Pallas, -adis, the goddess Minerva, &c.

4. Proper names for the most part want the plural:

Unless feveral of the same name be spoken of; as, dun decim Cefares, the twelve Cæfars.

GENDER

Nouns in Latin are said to be of differno genders, not merely from the distinction of sex, but chiefly from their being joined with an adjective of one termination, and

not of another. Thus, penna, a pen, is said to be femi. nine, because it is always joined with an adjective in that termination, which is applied to females ; as, bona penna, a good pen, and not bonus penna.

The gender of nouns which signify things without life, depends on their termination, and different declension.

To distinguish the different genders, grammarians make use of the pronoun bic, to mark the masculine ; hei, the feminine ; and hoc, the neuter.

GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GENDER.

1. Names of males are masculine; as, Homērus, Homer ; pater, a'father ; poēta, a poet.

2. Names of females are feminine ; as, Helēna, Helen ; mulier, a woman; uxor, a wife ; mater, a mother ; foror, a fifter ; Tellus, the Goddess of the earth.

3. Nouns which signify either the male or female, are of the common gender ; that is, either masculine or feminine; as, Hic bos, an ox; hæc bos, a cow ; hic parens, a father ; hæc parens, a mother.

The following list comprehends most nouns of the common gender. Adolescent,

young Conjut, a busband, or Nemo, no body.
wife.

Obses, an boftage.
Juvěnis,

woman. Conviva, a gueft. Patruēlis, a coufinger Affinis, e relation by Gustos, a keeper. man, by tbe father's fide marriage.

Dux, a leader. Præs, a furety. Antistes, a prelate.

Hæres, an beir. Princeps, e prince or Auctor, an autbor. Hoftis, an enemy.

princess. Augur, a footbfayer. Infans, an infant. Sacerdos, a priest of Canis, a dog or bitch. Interpres, an interpre priestess. Civis, a citizen. Judeš, a judge. (ter. Sus, a swine. Cliens, a client. Martyr, a martyr. Testis, e witness. Comes, a companion.

Miles, a soldier. Vates, a propbet.

Municeps, a burgess. Vindex, an evenger. But antistes, cliens, and hofpes, also change their termin. ation to express the feminine, thus, antisita, clienta, hospita: in the fame manner with leo, a lion; leena, a lioness; equus, equa ; mulus, mula ; and many others.

man, or

There are several nouns, which, though applicable to both sexes, admit only of a masculine adjective; as, ada věna, a stranger; agricola, a husbandman; affecla, an attendant ; accola, a neighbour; exul, an exile ; latro, a rob. ber ; fur, a thief; opifex, a mechanic, &c. There are others, which, though applied to perfons, are on account of their termination, always neuter; as, fcortum, a courtezan; mancipium, fervitium, a flave, &c.

In like manner, operæ, workmen; vigilia, excubiæ, watches ; noxæ, guilty persons; though applied to men, are al. ways feminine.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1.

OBS. 2.

The names of brute animals commonly fol. low the gender of their termination.

Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, in which the distinction of sex is either not easily discerned, or seldom attended to. Thus, paffer, a sparrow, is masculine, because nouns in er are maiculine; ro aquila, an eagle, is feminine, because nouns in a of the first declension are feminine. These are called Epicene or promiscuous nouns. When any particular sex is marked, we usually add the word mas or fenžna, as mas passer, a male sparrow ; femina passer, a female fparrow.

A proper name, for the most part, follows the gender of the general name under which it is comprehended.

Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers and moun. tains, are masculine, because menfis, ventus, mons, and fluvius, are masculine ; as, hic Aprīlis, April ; hic Aquilo, the north wind; Africus, the south-west wind; hic Tiběris, the river Tiber ; hic Othrys, a hill in Theffaly. But many of these follow the gender of their termination ; as, hæc Matrona, the river Marne in France ; hæc Ætna, a mountain in Sicily ; hoc Soracle, a hill in Italy.

In like manner, the names of countries, towns, trees, and ships, are feminine, because terra or regio, urbs, arbor and navis, are feminine; as, hæc Ægyptus, Egypt; Samos, an island of that name' ; Corinthus, the city Corinth ; pomus, an apple tree ; Centaurus, the name of a fhip: Thus also the names of poems, hæc Ilias, ădos,

B

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