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requisite in England ; though even there, in the opinion of
Dr. Lowth, to use his own words; “ the connexion of the
English with the Latin Grammar, if it could be introduced
into schools, might be of good service."*

EDINBURGH, Oct. 25, 1793.

* In a letter concerning this book, after having read the manuscript,
dated Cuddesdon, Seph. 27. 1771.

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GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing correctly.

Latin or English Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the Latin or the English language correctly. The Rudiments of Grammar are plain and


instructions, teaching beginners the first principles and rules of it.

Grammar treats of sentences, and the several parts of which they are compounded.

Sentences consist of words ; Words consist of one or more syllables ; Syllables of one or more letters. So that Letters, Syllables, Words, and Sentences, make up the whole subject of Grammar.

LETTERS. A letter is the mark of a sound, or of an articulation of sound.

That part of Grammar which treats of letters, is called Orthography.

The letters in Latin are twenty-five : A, a ; B, b ; C,c; D, d; E, e; F,f; G,g; H, h; 1,i; J,j; K, k; L,l; M, m; N, n; 0,0 ; P, P; Q, q; R, r;.S, ; T, t; U, ; V, v; X, x; Y, y ; Z, z. In English there is one letter more, namely, W, w.

Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants.

Six are vowels ; a, e, i, o, u, y. All the rest are consonants.

A vowel makes a full sound by itself; as, a,e. A consonant cannot make a perfect sound without a vowel; as, b, d.


A vowel is properly called a simple sound ; and the sounds formed by the concourse of vowels and consonants, articulate sounds.

Consonants are divided into Mutes, Semi-vowels, and Double Consonants.

A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the passage of the voice ; as,


ap. The mutes are, p, b; t, d, c, k, 9, and g; but b, d, and g, perhaps may more properly be termed Semi-mutes.

A semi-vowel, or half vowel, does not entirely stop the passage of the voice ; thus, al.

The semi-vowels are, l, in, n, r, s, f. The first four of these are also called Liquids, particularly 1 and r; because they flow softly and easily after a mute in the same syllable; as bla, stra.

The mutes and semi-vowels may be thus distinguished. In naming the mutes, the vowel is put after them ; as, pe, be, &c. but in naming the semi-vowels, the vowel is put before them ; as, el, em, &c.

The double consonants are, 2, 2, and j. X is made up of cs, 'ks, or gz. Z seems not to be a double consonant in English. It has the same relation to s, as v has to f, being sounded somewhat more softly.

In Latin %, and likewise k and y, are found only in words perived from the Greek.

Y in English is sometimes a consonant, as in youth.
H by some is not accountei a letter, but only a breathing.

A diphthong, is two vowels joined in one sound.

If the sound of both vowels be distinctly heard, it is called a Proper Diphthong ; if not, an Improper Diphthong.

The proper diphthongs in Latin are commonly reckoned three ; au, eu, ei ; as in aurum, Eurus, omneis. To these some, not improperly, add other three; namely, ai, as in Maia ; oi, as in Troia; and ui, as in Harpuia, or in cui, and huic, when pronounced as monosyllables.

The improper diphthongs in Latin are two; ae, or when the vowels are written together, ce ; as, aetas, or otas; oe, or ce; as poena, or pæna ; in both of which the sound of the e only is heard. The ancients commonly wrote the vowels separately, thus, aetas, poena.

The English language abounds with improper diphthongs the just pronunciation of which, practice alone can teach

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