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rist · A obeiver, toral

23rd lister"ins, and heaven. * neigh

rector's parochial

poor, and

reformer's life, fully makes krova 13 the grounds of his oppositios : : apparent, that " while the tants sought to reform E Wicliffe saw the institute itxi commanded, and of evil tendens instead of supposing, as the men had done, that the intro such agents formed the mos afges means by which to eletzte tas ter of the more authorized De he inculcated strongis, * De short of a removal of te ISTRE could restore the Church te order and prosperity."

A year later, A.D. 134 5 in academic office. He se 2 warden of Baliol Coin wards of Canterbury Fizi. of his appointment was some the case was submitted to 20 While it was sub judice, tie revived certain claims in the lor tribute on the English nation, waar Edward III. was determined to me. Wicliffe in the dispute took part agus the pope, a proof of his disinterest ness, while his own officia. Em was at the mercy of the course Liebe Nor can his attacks on the papae. the cause had been decided guls . be ascribed to resentment, MR. his battle with the papaer ut before. In 1372 he toot tuin Doctor in Divinity, and we theological lectorer. A wu. wrote on the Decalogue de time, illustrates the grow gious views; with a fer ca. there is nothing in the last conld offend any Prolene. say thee for certain." . thangh thou have

sick. .ch Wicliffe inion in his

the attainruth he had ; Clear views he 13 points, at his

timents which Totestant Church. he was a lover of

y Ghost the Com. out without gracious

Beautifully did he

a great sin not to sow open our windows, i light is ready to shine who will open to receive sculine understanding he lbjects of his faith, and credit will maintained them sversaries, and pressed them uts of all. He had none of

cal habits of thought which {'revalent in his time among

ere weary of the formalities enerate Christendom, and were

for the freedom wherewith snakes his people free. He was

of the Anglo-Saxon Christian, inguished from spiritual brethren German stock. There was some

melancholy in his cast of mind, me ever looked on the solemn side "fe, and death, and all things. But meh not what would be called a mal man, there was in his soul that ep fountain of strong and

+ lore, which makes the patriot

nr, and the benefactor of m

followed a fierce contention betwixt | raged that such an affront be offered to them; and, lest their interlocutions their bishop, fell furiously on the lords, should hinder the entireness of our dis- who were fain to depart for the present, course, take them verbatim in a dia- and for a while by flight and secreby to logue, omitting only their mutual rail secure themselves; whilst what outing; which, as it little became persons rages were offered to the duke's palace of honour to bring, so it was flat and his servants, historians of the State against the profession of a bishop to do relate." return; who, by the apostle's precept, Proceedings were suspended, but the must be patient, not a brawler.' pope renewed the charges. In 1377 four

Bishop Courtenay : Lord Percy, if bulls were issued against the reformer. I had known beforehand what masteries Wicliffe had to appear before a Synod you would have kept in the church, I at Lambeth, but through the influence would have stopped you out from coming of the widow of the Black Prince, the hither.'

prelates were forbidden to injure the Duke of Lancaster : He shall keep object of their dislike. such masteries here, though you say We now come to Wicliffe's greatest “ nay.”

work. In 1378 he began his work as Lord Percy : Wickliffe, sit down, translator-he was the first to present for you have many things to answer to, to his countrymen a vernacular transand you need to repose yourself on a lation of the whole Bible. Only parts soft seat.

of the sacred volume had before been Bishop Courtenay : It is unreason- placed within the reach of those who able, that one, cited before his ordinary, could read nothing but their mother should sit down during his answer. He tongue. Anxiously and earnestly must must and shall stand.

he have wrought at this holy task-when Duke of Lancaster : The Lord -where-how exactly we know not; Percy's motion for Wickliffe is but rea- and its completion must have been to sonable. And as for you, my Lord him a source of higher satisfaction than Bishop, who are grown so proud and the renowned Gibbon is described as arrogant, I will bring down the pride, feeling when he had written the last not of you alone, but of all the prelacy sentence of his “ Decline and Fall.” in England.

The convictions under which Wicliffe Bishop Courtenay: Do your worst, executed the translation are indicated Sir.

in his “Truth and Meaning of ScripDuke of Lancaster : Thou bearest ture;" where he maintains that “Christ's thyself to brag upon thy parents, which law sufficeth; that a Christian man well shall not be able to help thee; they understanding it, may gather sufficient shall have enough to do to help them- knowledge during his pilgrimage upon selves.

earth; that all truth is contained in " Bishop Courtenay: My confidence Scripture; that we should admit of no is not in my parents, nor in any man conclusion not approved there; that else, but only in God, in whom I trust, there is no court beside the court of by whose assistance I will be bold to heaven; that though there were a hunspeak the truth.

dred popes, and all the friars in the Duke of Lancaster : Rather than world were turned into cardinals, yet I will take these words at his hands, I should we learn more from the Gospel will pluck the bishop by the hair out of than we should from all that multithe church.

tude; and that true sons will in no “These last words, though but softly wise go about to infringe the will and whispered by the duke in the ear of one testament of their heavenly Father.” next unto him, were notwithstanding Henry Knighton, the historian, vividly overheard by the Londoners ; who, en- brings before us the popular effect of

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Wicliffe's great achievement in his he was willing to comply, but Christ mournful wail : “ And so the Gospel had “ needed" him to the contrary. A pearl is cast abroad, and trodden under stroke of paralysis had rendered obefoot of swine, and what was dear to dience impracticable. Still, however, clergy and laity is now rendered, as it he could quietly pursue his pastoral were, the common jest of both : so that labours till a fresh attack on the 23rd the gem of the Church becomes the December, 1384, as he was administerderision of laymen, and that is now ing the Eucharist, rendered him intheirs for ever, which before was the sensible. Two days afterwards, and special property of the clergy and Wicliffe found his home in heaven. doctors."

Tradition still lingers round the neighWhile the translation was in pro- | bourhood, telling of the famous rector's gress, Wicliffe was smitten with zeal in the discharge of his parochial paralysis; his old antagonists, the duty, how he relieved the poor, and Mendicants, came to warn the dying comforted the aged and the sick. man, as they supposed ; when, lifting Looking at the age in which Wicliffe himself up in his bed, he replied: "I lived, at the current of opinion in his shall not die, but live, and again de time, at the few helps for the attainclare the evil deeds of the friars." He ment of pure Scripture truth he had ; did not die, but lived to do what he one is astonished at the clear views he threatened.

formed on many religious points, at his Again we are at Oxford, in the spring approximation to sentiments which of 1381. Wicliffe was then a decided now distinguish the Protestant Church. opponent of transubstantiation. He His heart was right, he was a lover of published twelve conclusions against it, truth, and the Holy Ghost the Commaintaining that the bread and wine forter left him not without gracious remain unchanged after the words of helps in learning. Beautifully did he consecration, and that the body and say—" It is now a great sin not to blood are only figuratively in the sacra- | arise and to throw open our windows, ment. He was lecturing in the hall of for this spiritual light is ready to shine the school of the Augustines-a mes- unto all men who will open to receive senger entered. Solemnly in the name it." With masculine understanding he of the chancellor and doctors he was grasped the objects of his faith, and forbidden to proceed, and those who with a strong will maintained them listened to him were threatened with against adversaries, and pressed them excommunication and imprisonment. on the hearts of all. He had none of There was a pause-the venerable pro- those mystical habits of thought which fessor rose from his chair, and chal- were so prevalent in his time among lenged a refutation of his doctrines; of all who were weary of the formalities course, the challenge was in vain. He of a degenerate Christendom, and were forth with appealed to the civil power sighing for the freedom wherewith for protection, and again he thwarted Christ makes his people free. He was the malice of his foes. The Duke of a type of the Anglo-Saxon Christian, Lancaster sheltered him for awhile, but as distinguished from spiritual brethren at length the faithful champion of truth of the German stock. There was somewas banished the university.

thing melancholy in his cast of mind, In his last days we see him simply for he ever looked on the solemn side Rector of Lutterworth, fulfilling the of life, and death, and all things. But duties of a parish minister, preaching though not what would be called a to his people the truths he had lcarned genial man, there was in his soul that from God's word, and writing treatises deep fountain of strong and quiet love, on religious subjects. Cited to appear which makes the patriot, the reformer, before Urban VI. at Rome, he declared and the benefactor of mankind. “This

is out of all doubt, that at what time book called Ecclesiasticus, of one all the world was in most desperate and Simon the son of Onias : Even as vile estate, and that the lamentable the morning star being in the midst of ignorance and darkness of God his a cloud, and as the moon being full in truth had overshadowed the whole her course, and as the bright beams of earth ; this man stepped out like a the sun, so doth he shine and glisten in valiant champion, unto whom it may the temple and church of God.' "* justly be applied, that is spoken in the

• John Foxe.



The following brief narrative of a it was during this period of secular duty long and very active life will show how -as well as subsequently to it—that much may be accomplished by one indi many works of Christian usefulness vidual in whom “ the zeal of God” is were accomplished. united with industry and perseverance; Being of an active turn of mind, the and may stimulate some, who, like the subject of this notice had been, at an subject of this memoir, are engaged in early period, accustomed to visit the secular pursuits, to attempt something sick, and to write to persons upon their in the service of Christ.

religious condition. But his full actiEdward Miller, Chiswick, was born vity was called forth by a question proat Atherstone, Warwickshire, in the posed by the Rev. Rowland Hill, in a year 1785. At the age of eleven he was sermon in which he spoke of the death bereaved of his mother, and three of an eminently useful Christian. He later he lost his father, a surgeon in the asked, " What shall I say to those who Military Hospital at Gosport, who was do nothing for the cause of Christ ?” carried off in the prime of life. From This question determined Mr. Miller to his earliest years he was under the re new efforts in the service of Christ. He straints of a religious education, resid- became connected with several religious ing for a time at Northampton with his societies, amongst the most important grandfather, a clergyman of the Church of which were, the Home Missionary of England, and afterwards receiving Society, of which he was also Secrehis education at Christ's Hospital. tary from 1823 to 1826—the Religious Neither early trials nor early religious Tract Society, the Committee of which advantages led him at first to decision. he joined in 1826, and the same year he He says of himself: "For some time wrote several of its handbills. He was I was as diligent in sin as in hearing also on the Committee of Cheshunt Colthe Gospel.” But at the age of seven- lege, and subsequently assisted in the teen a considerable change of character formation of the London City Mission, took place. About that time he became and for a time edited the Magazine. In a constant hearer of the Rev. Rowland these several positions, and first as a Hill, at Surrey Chapel ; and at twenty- manager of Kennington Chapel, and one years of age was admitted a mem afterwards as a deacon of Buckingham ber there.

Chapel, Pimlico, he found much scope Two years previously, permanent for usefulness. During this period, the occupation had been obtained in the pen was not allowed to lie idle. Several Commissary-General's office. This posi- minor pieces were contributed to newstion was retained for thirty years; and papers and magazines, and a work of


some magnitude was published—"A When unable any longer to preach, Scripture History for the Young.” It Mr. Miller occupied himself with writcame out in parts, and was illustrated. | ing hymns, little books for the young, This work met with favour. It was and religious tracts. Many hundreds first written and published in 1815, and of excellent hymns were composed. was republished, in one volume, in 1833. Some were written on ornamental cards,

In 1824, Mr. Miller, still dissatisfied and given as presents, proving in many with what he was accomplishing, began cases acceptable and useful. Of the to preach at village stations, in work- tracts and handbills written not less houses, and wherever an opening could than five millions were circulated durbe found. Putney was one of the ing the writer's life, chiefly by the Replaces often visited. There, in 1827, ligious Tract Society. His last years of he was invited to become the pastor. suffering were spent in writing tracts On the 26th of July in that year he was for the “Stirling Tract Enterprise,” and ordained to the work. For the eight in getting them circulated amongst his following years, his labours for the vil- friends. By this means, more than lage and neighbourhood were abundant 50,000 were put in circulation. and successful. The congregation in In addition to such efforts, there were creased, the chapel was twice enlarged, in his life instances of usefulness to inand many members were added to the dividuals that deserve mention. One church.

gentleman, now an excellent clergyman On leaving Putney, Mr. Miller be of the Established Church, was supcame assistant preacher with Rev. G. ported during his whole course at CamBrowne, at Clapham. There he con- bridge, at a cost of several hundred tinued his labours, with marked success, pounds, by money Mr. Miller raised ; for two years. But a state of nervous and was thus prepared for the important debility and depression which followed work in which he is now engaged. And rendered cessation from preaching ne- there were other similar instances, cessary for a time.

Even to the end, notwithstanding his Visiting, in August, 1838, in the acute sufferings, his days were conseneighbourhood of Chiswick, he was crated to works of Christian usefulness. directed to a small congregation of Dis- His last effort was to raise a good sum senters worshipping there. At their for the church which has been erected request, he attempted to resume his la- at Dorchester for the congregation bours amongst them, and found on under the ministry of the Rev. J. Miller, making the effort that his strength was M.A., his son. restored. In November of that year he After several years of affliction, the became their pastor. The blessing of fatal attack began on the 19th of June, God attended his labours. The church, 1857. For a few days, body and mind which consisted of fourteen members in were greatly distressed. Then followed 1838, had increased to sixty in 1845, a happy time of composure. During and afterwards was still further aug- this, he said, “ All fear gone,”—repeatmented. As a new chapel was needed, ing it with emphasis; “I know my this subject engaged his earnest atten- safety ;” and, “I am a wonder of retion; and in 1841 a suitable chapel, deeming grace ;” and also the words, with schoolroom, was erected at a cost " Where the weary are at rest.” Then of more than 8001. This sum was, followed a state in which he had not through his persevering efforts, soon strength to communicate his thoughts, paid. After labouring faithfully at but appeared at times to be lifting up Chiswick for twelve years, Mr. Miller devout aspirations to God; and at was at length, in November, 1850, com- length, on Sunday the 28th, just as the pelled, by increasing bodily affliction, to rest-day began, he entered into rest. resign his charge.

His diary, which was kept for many

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