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with the rich family of her benefactress; | serving a long life, it would be almost and in time she placed her in a little cot- impossible for them to enjoy it; and tage on their estate, where she could see for this reason---periodicals have of the plants in all their summer glory, late multiplied more rapidly than and hear the angel-voiced birds singing readers. Readers increase gradually-their hope-giving songs.

periodicals increase by fits and starts. This being the case, we may legitimately

expect that this eager desire for gain, THE MAGAZINE MANIA.

or influence, or renown, or for the graFor some years past cheap periodicals tification of whims, or whatever it may have been rapidly increasing. The be, will be the occasion of loss and disgrowth of periodical literature is an in-appointment; or, in other words, this teresting fact in the history of England. magazine mania will be followed by a Almost every month, for years past, has periodical panic. We have had railway seen the commencement or extinction panics, commercial panics, agricultural of some new magazine or journal. Every panics, and a variety of other kinds of January, in particular, witnesses thc panics; and some people say, panics birth of a brood of new aspirants for come and go periodically. That ques. popular support. And perhaps no year tion we will not now stop to decide, was ever hailed at its commencement but we will be bold enough to prophecy with a more numerous literary progeny that we shall soon have a panic among than the present one. There has been periodicals. a regular sensation among editors, lite- In making these remarks we are not rary contributors, booksellers, news- | influenced by the slightest particle of venders, and magazine readers. selfishness, envy, jealousy, or pride.

What can be the cause of this over- We heartily wish every journal that is production in literature and indiscrimi- calculated to do good, or that really nate rushing into print? No doubt the deserves to exist, prosperity and sucmotives which induced the various pro- cess. jectors and publishers to start so many Though we cannot congratulate the new works have been numerous. If we public on many of the new periodicals, were to judge from the number now because they appear to be without a before us, we should say the chief purpose or a guiding principle, and bemotive has been and is a commercial cause they appear mere literary advenone. The success of two or three turers, we must say that on the whole journals which had their birth during they are an improvement on many of the past year is a sufficient explanation the weeklies and monthlies which have of the fact that so many are desirous of for some time past been supplying their speculating in literature. This is the readers with so much that is impure chief cause of the present magazine and demoralizing.' We cannot but mania. Some of the journals above think that trashy, degrading journals alluded to appear to be influenced by a have multiplied in the absence of others decided definite purpose: they are more healthy and elevating in tone started to meet some of the growing and tendency. A large mass of the wants of the nation and of the age. | people will read something. They Others appear to have no purpose at have not the ability to buy large dear all; and certainly it does not matter works, and if they bad, they would be much whether they live or die.

indisposed to read them. Hence the It would be unreasonable to suppose great necessity that the demand should that one-half of the new candidates will be supplied with something becoming live to see the summer. Many of them the exigencies of the age and the dignity do not deserve to live; others, though of the human mind. of higher pretensions, do not possess We may now say a few words about sufficient enduring vitality and real ourselves. We were the first in the attractiveness to win the smiles of the field. We had the pleasure to dispublic for any lengthened period. If tribute prospectuses of the Public Good. they were all good, and equally de among the members of the Peace Congood.

gress Deputation while on their way to Paris in August last. From that time

INFANT SCHOOLS, AN ANECDOTE. to the present we have laboured

COMMUNICATED BY DR. HARRISON BLACK. assiduously to promote the public

SOME months ago, an elderly gentleman, Among the many competitors for whom we shall call C., was sitting in a public support, we venture to say there

reading room in one of the sea side towns, is not one similar in aim and purpose on the South east coast of England. The to our own. Neither was there one proprietor of the Reading Room, whom we previous to the commencement of this

shall call D., was also present. year. There was an abundance of lite

C. (Who had been looking over a newsrary journals, whose object was to

paper). The press, Sir, is a mighty engine amuse and edify. There were also

for the promotion of the public good, peace journals, temperance journals, Here there is news from the extreme north educational journals, family journals, / of Scotland, published within a small numscientific journals, political journals, l ber of hours, in the South of

ber of hours, in the South of England. and others more or less devoted to D. Yes, the transmission of intelligence different branches of popular social is rapid. progress. But there was no journal C. I observe here, a gratifying fact. whose object it was to show that all They have established another Infant great moral principles were one in School in nature and essence ; and to advocate all D. Well, my opinion is, that wasting those great movements in which are so much time about these Infant Schools, involved the interests and well-being | is all nonsense. of society. We look upon all true re- C. Have you ever been in an Infant formers as fellow-labourers in the great / School ? vineyard of humanity, that they are al] D. No. I have not. At this moment, doing one great work, though in dif- a fine, lively, little boy, son of D., entered ferent ways, and by different means, l the room. and that is the purification and eleva- ' C. That is a very fine little fellow; tion of man. We are attached to no but it is a pity he is so riotous. He often society, or party of reformers, in par- | disturbs your subscribers when they are ticular, but to all of them in general; | reading here. and it has and will be our duty and D. He is such a high-spirited little delight to advocate all, and advance all, fellow; we can hardly manage him. as far as our humble powers and limited C. Yes, only yesterday, his cries disspace will allow. Neither would we turbed the whole house. The nurse tried confine ourselves merely to the direct to silence him, in vain; the mother was attack of wrongs, and the direct advo- equally unsuccessful; and the father's atcacy and diffusion of the right. We

tempt was fruitless. I went out to him, would treat on all great general ques- and in two minutes, his cries had ceased; tions in which all are interested, to and he was contented and happy. The whatever party they belong. We would humble individual who quieted that child, call poetry, history, fiction, biography, takes no credit to himself. He only gave to our assistance, and give that variety a lesson which he learnt in Infant Schools. to our book, so that it be interesting D. did not speak; he seemed too much and instructive to man, as man, as surprised. well as to the reformer, as the refor- Č. You, Sir, are the proprietor of a mer.

newspaper--a supporter of Church and State-a leader of public opinion—and an

advocate of public good. There are two DRINKING.-Drunkenness is a social festive

Infant Schools in this town. One is pavice. The drinker collects his circle ; the circle naturally spreads: of those who are drawn within it, many become the corruptors and gen you go with me, and see them? If you tres of sects and circles of their own; every one I find they are for the public good, you can countenancing, and, perhaps, emulating the rest, till a whole neighbourhood be infected from

| tell the world so. If you consider them the contagion of a single example.-Paley. 1 bad, I give you my word, that I will aid

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you in endeavouring to have them all shut up.

EARTH'S ANGELS. D. I will go with you. They soon reached the nearest Infant School, but only !

Why come not spirits from the realms of glory

To visit earth, as in the days of old, a few of the pupils were present, and there The times of sacred writ and ancient story? were no lessons going on. The place Is heaven more distant? or has earth grown

cold? was, however, clean and comfortable, and the children were contented, orderly, and Oft have I gazed, when sunset clouds, receding,

Waved like rich banners of a host gone by, happy. D. expressed himself much pleased

To catch the gleam of some white pinion speed-entered his name in a “ visitors' book," } which was shown to him, and also put a Along the confines of the glowing sky; shilling into the donation box. They then And oft, when midnight stars, in distant chillproceeded to the other Infant School. All ness, the children were present.

Were calmly burning, listened late and long; The teacher,

But Nature's pulse beat on in solemn stillness, a benevolent man, with his heart in the

Bearing no echo of the seraph's song. work, was there amongst them—they | To Bethlehem's air was their last anthem given. spelled, counted, marched, and sang, and When other stars before The One grew dim? did all with such complete regularity and was their last presence known in Peter's prison! evident happiness, and so readily obeyed Or where exulting martyr's raised their the least kind word of their teacher, that

hymn ? D. looked on with astonishment_he had And are they all within the veil departed ? got into a new world-he saw something

There gleams no wing along the empyrean

now; which was really for the public good. And many a tear from human eyes has started, Before he left, he said to the master, “ Have Since angel touch has calmed a mortal brow. you a visitors' book?” “No, Sir, we have No; earth has angels, though their formas are but few visitors.” “ Have you a donation moulded, box” « Yes Sir-there. He walked! But of such clay as fashions all below; over to it deliberately, taking from

Though harps are wanting, and bright pinions his

folded, pocket several silver coins, as he advanced. We know them by the love-light on their These he dropped into the box, apparently

brow. without consciousness, till they were all I have seen angels by the sick one's pillow; gone. Then turning to his introducer, he

Theirs was the soft tone and the soundless

tread ; said, “Good bye, now, my friend-God

Where smitten hearts were drooping like the bless you.” The latter saw that his con willow, vert's feelings were then sufficient compa

They stood “between the living and the nions, and he made no reply, save by a squeeze of the hand. Next day, the elderly And if my sight, by earthly dimness hindered,

Beheld no hovering cherubim in air, gentleman was again at the Reading Room.

I doubted not, --forspirits know their kindred, He had, in the interim, drawn up a little They smiled upon the wingless watchers there. sketch of the events of the previous day; There have been angels in the gloomy prison,omitting names. On the proprietor enter- In crowded halls, -by the lone widow's ing, he handed it to him, and said, “ Will |

hearth; you put that into your paper ?” He read,

And where they passed, the fallen hath up

risen,-and said, “I will;" and he did it. Thus

The giddy paused,--the mourner's hope had was one point gained for the public good. birth.

1 I have seen one whose eloquence commanding HOW THE WORLD IS PAPERED, -The Press

1 Roused the rich echoes of the human breast, unds forth in the daily papers a printed sur

The blandishments of wealth and ease withface which amounts in the year to 349,308,000

standing, superficial feet; and, if we add to these all the

That Hope might reach the suffering and papers that are printed, weekly and fortnightly, in the metropolis and the provinces, the whole

oppressed amounts to 1,466,150,000 square feet, upon And by his side there moved a form of beauty, which the Press has left in legible characters Strewing sweet flowers along his path of life, the proof of its labours. Of the newspapers, And looking up with meek and love-lent duty; , therefore, that have been published in the I call her angel, but he called her wife. United Kingdom during the year 1849, we may

O, many a spirit walks the world unheeded, say, that they would cover a surface of 33,658 That, when its veil of sadness is laid dow), acres, or would extend, if joined one to another, Shall soar aloft with pinions unimpeded, 10 138,843 miles; that is, they would nearly si

And wear its glory like a starry crown. imes encircle the earth at the equator.


remain in their own neighbourhoods.' THE UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES | The recent changes in the law have OF ENGLAND.--No. III.

made an experiment desirable,-some

¡ effort absolutely necessary. BY THOMAS BEGGS.

1 In speaking of cultivating the soil-it It has been shown that a large quantity is not proposed to employ paupers and of land in Great Britain and Ireland re-criminals upon it. It would doubtless mains in a totally or partially unculti- be more profitable than allowing them vated condition,--that immense quan- to rust in the prison or workhouse. tities of the most valuable inanure are The pauper and criminal class require " running to waste, polluting the rivers different treatment. It is most impor.' and streams, and assisting with other tant to devise remedies for the social causes to breed fever and disease,--and evils affecting that class which are hovthat from 9 to 10 per cent of the popu- ering on the verge of pauperism, and to lation are subsisting upon public charity. rescue those who are in danger of being The cultivation of the land has not kept engulphed. Our work must begin with pace with the general improvement. In the independent labourer. Improve 1811, 35 per cent. of the population his condition-raise it above the conwere agricultural, in 1841 only 22 per i dition of the pauper which it certainly cent., shewing a much greater dispro- is not at present, and an effectual check portion betwixt the agricultural and the will be put to the growth of pauperism. other parts of the population than could We have three great sources of wealth have existed had there not been some before us--another and a better Caliextraordinary check upon the improve- fornia. We have land--we have manure ment of the soil. The existence of we have a population---the latter giving laws which made rents depend upon the us hands to produce and mouths to price of corn, raised to an unnatural consume. The land is only partially height by a sliding scale, and not 1.pon productive --- the manure is thrown the actual value of the land in the away--the labourer is idle and starving. world's market, has been no doubt the Can nothing be done with this mine of great cause. It is now removed, and wealth. Future generations will stand the owner of land as well as the culti- amazed as ther reflect un

amazed as they reflect upon the opporvator, is left to fight his way by the tunities which their ancestors of the dint of superior energy, and intelli- nineteenth century wasted or left ungence. In this day of railways he must improved. Can nothing be done in a move on or be left behind. The state commercial age and among a commerof the rural districts is very unfavour- cial people to develope the resources able. The manufacturing towns may hitherto unemployed, and to make occasionally suffer depression---the la- science contribute to its great end, the bourers in the villages are always in a advancement af the human race in comcondition of dependence ;-alternating fort and happiness. Capital and labour between the workhouse and indepen-might be here brought together, and dent labour-and bound down by a law secure the most beneficial results. of settlement, like serfs to the soil.

Any successful plan must be based It would be foreign to the present on a fair commercial principle. The purpose to enter upon that field of in- | following scheme is therefore submitted vestigation, and yet the subject requires as worthy of consideration : that we should advert to it. It is per-| A capital should be raised either by fectly clear thai an impetus given to a large or small number of proprietors, agricultural improvement will bring on the same principle as the Associawith it a demand for labour. An in- tion for the Improvement of the Dwell. creased demand will improve the con- ings of the working classes, and to be dition of that class, and they will become employed in the purchase and the im. not only producers to a greater amount, I provement of land. The management to but consumers also. The poor's rates be vested in a board of directors. will be relieved—the young and able | As soon as the requisite amount of bodied who fly to the large towns will capital is raised to justify a commence


ment, an estate should be procured, the most economical on their own part, which might be termed the Model | it has enabled the labourer to earn (of Farm. To render the first experiment course by increased industry) double more complete, it should be in the his former wages. I propose that a fair neighbourhood of a large town, to afford market price should be given for labour a market for produce, and to offer facili- | as for everything else. ties for the application of Sewage Another part of the scheme would be Manure. It is put hypothetically whe- that of erecting a number of dwellings ther some part of the land especially for the labourers employed. Every atreferred to in the Reports of the Metro- tention should be paid to sanitary politan Sanitory Commission, in the arrangements, and the wants of families. Essex, Poplar, and Tottenham marshes, These dwellings should have adjoining might not be obtained for such a pur- to them a small plot of ground, for the pose on eligible terms-some of the cultivation of vegetables or flowers, commons adjacent to Epping Forest sufficient to find amusement for the might also be considered. The West of tenant. The dwellings, &c. must be let London would be much more desirable, at a rental, sufficient to pay interest on as arrangements might be effected with the capital invested. A school, and the Metropolitan Sewage Manure Com- other buildings necessary for the conpany for the supply of Sewage. They venience and instruction of the popuhave a machinery already in existence lation would follow of course. Everyin the West of London for the applica- thing should be done to remove the tion of liquid manure, whereas on the temptation of drinking as far away as East a machinery would have to be possible. Provident Funds, Savings' constructed. In the neighbourhood of Banks, Benefit Societies, &c., might be London, market gardens, a pasture land, established--these things being left to would be the most remunerative. the free choice of the men employed.

When the land or farm is thoroughly I apprehend the result of such an surveyed, and laid out under competent experiment would be, if fairly carried management, then arrangements would out. First, an improvement of the soil follow as to the employment of labourers. that would be highly remunerative, and As a means of cncouraging and stimu- which would in itself stimulate a more lating the labourer, and placing him in general cultivation, and the application the most favourable position, for benefit to agricultural purposes of the liquid ing himself and the company, he should refuse of towns. Secondly, an improve be paid on contract, or piece-work. The ment of the condition of the labourers old system of agricultural slave labour, employed, by substituting a fair, just, paring the workmen at the rate of 1s., | and equitable reward, for the present Is. Bd., or 1s. 6d. per day, is decidedly bad system; and thirdly, it would objectionable. Undersuch a mode of pay- | create a derriand for labourers, thus ment,there is no advantage to the labour- / arresting in some degree the downward er in having superior skill or industry tendency to pauperism, of an important nor can they be made truly profitable to class:-It might also show that instead the employer. The plan now proposed of our criminals and paupers being fed 18. simply--that every man should be at the public expence, they might suppaid the value and amount of work. / port themselves, and on a farm of this For example in draining--amodel should kind a number of juveniles picked from be adopted and proper superintend- | the Ragged Schools, might be placed as ance be exercised, so that the work | apprentices. e well performed and fully up to I may observe that every part of this de standard. The payment should plan has been proved by actual experi

so much per foot or yard as the case ment to be attainable, although not permight be SO with hedging-so with haps in the particular form here prevery other department of labour. I sented. The details of such a scheme

winsome few instances that this plan are necessarily difficult, but perfectly payment has been adopted by indivi- practicable, and at some future time

farmers, and while it has proved may offer such suggestions as my ex


I might be so

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