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INTELLECTUAL TOLL BARS.
four each. If the duty on paper and the pence would not be too much for the stamp were repealed, such a paper as the Weekly Dispatch or the Times, and we Times or Daily News would sell for three- apprehend that if such an arrangement pence, and papers at half the size for half were made it would be found to work the money. We should have daily pa- satisfactorily and remuneratively. pers at a penny, three-half-pence, and One of the chief advantages that would twopence each. Almost every poor man result from the abolition of taxes on might then have his daily paper. This | knowledge, would be the destruction of is the case at present in the United States the monopoly of such a paper as the Times, of America and France, and why should and that event alone would be an incalit not be the same in England also ? Why culable blessing to this country. The should the poor man be obliged to pay Times is like a huge intellectual machine, 80 much for his daily news in such a | without a conscience or a heart, careless country as ours ? About two years since of the blows it gives to liberty or proa daily newspaper called the Telegraph gress, so long as it pleases, at one time or was started in London. It advocated po- another, or in some way or another, a pular principles, and bid fair to become a majority of its subscribers. Let the penny favourite among the people. It sold for stamp be repealed, and this mighty, heartthreepence, and bad to pay the same less, principleless paper, will fall from its stamp duties as the Times, which sold lofty height and eat humble pie while for fivepence. The Telegraph struggled struggling with a host of competitors. on for some time against the excessive There is another tax which belong to taxes on knowledge; but it was impossi- the same family as the ones mentioned ble for it to stand long. It soon fell, and above—the advertisement tax, which in its fall the people lost a friend, and ought also immediately to be repealed. education and improvement an advocate. The duty on advertisements in 1848, Independant of the stamp duty being a (and we quote from a publication of the manifest impediment to the spread of Newspaper Stamp Abolition Committee, enlightenment, it is in itself unequally who have already done much to arouse levied. The Weekly Times, which sells public opinion against the taxes on knowfor threepence, and which circulates ledge,) was £153,016 19s. The chief obchiefly among the poor, pays the same jection against this tax is its odious inamount of duty as the Spectator, which equality. The same amount of duty is sells for ninepence, and which circulates charged on the advertisement of the stablechiefly among the rich.
| boy or bar-maid who may be in want As a set off to the penny stamp there of a situation, as that of the rich landis the privilege of free circulation through owner who may advertise an estate to be the post. But one half of the papers | let or sold worth £1,200 or £2,000. printed in England do not go through No doubt the Government when urgerl the post. And if we had no taxes on to repeal the taxes on knowledge will knowledge there would be a much sinaller plead the impossibility of it on account of number pass through this establishment; the great demand on the exchequer. Let and, for this reason, Manchester would there then be a sweeping reduction in not want so many copies daily of the our present extravagant expenditure, let morning papers, as it would have others the army and navy be reduced within of its own. It would be the same with reasonable limits, and let economy be all the other large towns; Warrington practised in all departments of the State, would not want so many of the Manches, and there will soon be not only a sufter papers, nor Huddersfield so many of ficient surplus to admit of the abolition the Leeds papers, because Warrington and of such taxes, but many others almost Huddersfield would have papers of their equally obnoxious and oppressive. own. The papers that could be sent ! We cannot expect that these desirable through the post after the abolition of the results are to be immediately realised, taxes on knowledge might be subject to the people have their duty to do in the some distinct charge. If a penny were matter. Let opinion be organized and charged for The Public Good being sent. I expressed through petitions to the Partrom one place to another, certainly two- | liament, and we shall not have to wait long to see the total abolition of every seems no room for aught but what is intellectnai toll-bar, which now impedes, elevated, excellent, and magnanimous. annoys, and harasses the chief instrumen- Truthfulness is throned for ever on that talities and agencies of the public good. splendid brow, in the light and bewitch
ing languishment of those passionLOVE.
kindled eyes. In those ineffable smiles,
which play upon the countenance like The dawn of the sentiment of Love ripples of sunlight on a river, there are within the soul is to every man and none but noble meanings----precious intiwoman the annunciation of a beautiful | mations of an invisible and transcendent enlargement. In this so tame and limit purity. The whole heart rejoices with ed existence we are suddenly made one unbounded faith in the excellency aware of such rich and glowing possi. | and abundant worthiness of that great bilities of life and passion, as to feel an and gentle soul to which we cling. All immeasurable and overwhelming sense that is best in us, all that we most prize of blessedness. On the hill tops and and honour, is there assembled and eminences of our experience, Hope incarnated in a forin which seems adestands, like a celestial spirit, beckoning quate to delight us for evermore. us away to regions of unimaginable de. The reason why a first love never dies light-to the glades and gardens of out of the heart, is that the selected some boundless joy, where the sighing form under which we reverence the and expectant heart shail revel everlast- Ideal is discovered on nearerknowledge ingly in rapturous and exalted pleasures. to be its insufficient representative. The In the light of some bright eye, in the least perception of defect is fatal to our motions of some fair and enchanting undivided worship. Thenceforth is the shape, the power and the glory of the grand enchantment broken. But inasBeautiful shine down upon us, and in- much as love, like nature, is invested spire us, like the overshadowing of a with the power of repairing such defects divine and immortal presence. All as are incident to its ordinate developthings are coloured and transfigured by ments, the passion tends continually to its splendours. The hues of its surpas renew itself---to modify and adapt itself sing loveliness lie like a shaft of light to the actual possibilites of life and across the land-landscapes and houses, circumstances. Hence, in every mind temples, highways, and pavements, corn properly responsive to its influences, it fields and pasture lands,-the home ceases by gradual degrees to demand or steads and familiar dwellings of the expect perfection, and is content to living, the solemn cemeteries and burial idealize the Actual. This most sweet places of the dead--all are illuminated relation between man and woman im. and invested with a grace and with an in- perceptibly admits the recognition of terest hitherto unapprehended. The each others blemishes; and they, in whole heavens and the earth are re-cre proportion to the depth and purity of ated--the star-illumined spaces, broad their affection, as it were unconsciously continents of immensity—the common agree to tolerate those deficiences and grass, and the unheeded wayside flowers, imperfections which are seen to be the that “ waste their sweetness on the inevitable accompaniments of their desert air,"--all are tinged, everything character. Each burning heart says is tinged, with the unprecedented | kindly to the other: “I am constrained, lustre of this passion ; everything is and will sincerely love thee, in spite of changed, and behold all things are mi those defects; nay, thou art even dearer raculously become new.
to me because of them ; come, and I will In this trance of gladness we are shelter thee under the shadow of my worshippers of the Ideal. No man or sympathy, from the wrongs and miswoman breathes under the influence of representations which might otherwise a first love, but believes in the present befall thee.” Thus do the two resolve or possible perfection of the beloved to devote themselves to each other; to being. In that all-graceful head, in that give of their respective fulness, and to Bo tender and responsive heart, there | find their blessedness therein; to cherish
LOVE.--CONDITION OF THE POOR.
89 and adore the tender and the beautiful, I of this noble passion can never last, but in so far as these are represented by will inevitably die away into ashes of the qualities which in each are individu- loathing and indifference. The sign of a ally inherent.
genuine love is its noble disinterestedWhile, however, they were first at- ness, its satisfied contentment with its ubtracted to each other by the graces of ject, apart from the advantages or grosser personal beauty, or by the charms of gratifications which may spring out of glowing sentiment, these attractions are it-the spiritual and inward beatitude likewise influentially displayed under wherewith it suffuses and delights the the matured advancements of the pas- | heart. sion. Only they are liable, with the Thus, as it grows up towards perfecrevolutions of acquaintance, to become tion in the soul of man or woman, it is sensibly subdued, so that that which at / seen to be introductory and preparatory first is rapture, subsides at length into to a love which transcends the bounds of a calm and quiet feeling. Yet, not the personality, and inclines for ever to exless potent is the magnetism which still tend itself into universal and permanent unites them, though its visible activity regards. All these deciduous and fading be less; any more than is the power'- graces, which at first appeared the ful electricity of the atmosphere dimi- | charm and fascination that overpowered nished because it does not now reveal us, are seen eventually to have been itself in wild convulsive flashes. It is only the outward halo of the prime atessentially the same gigantic force while traction ; and that the marriage and it latently pervades the general volume communion of our separate individualiof the air, asit is when it darts majestical-tics was in truth but the introduction ly and brilliantly its forked and shceted to a transcendental union of intellect splendours. So too love, as a pervading and disposition. It is but one of the element in the common unity of rela manifold forms of gracious discipline tion, is as effectually present and poten- | whereby the wise Dispenser of all blestial under the quiet guises of daily sings designed to purify, instruct, and duty, as when it gorgeously illuminated elevate the soul. the whole horizen of experience, and “ Be thy affections raised and solemnized. ravished the excited heart with its Learn, by a mortal yearning, to ascend disturbing glories.
Secking a higher object. Love was given, Nevertheless, it is needful to the main
Encouraged, sanctioned, chiefly for that end.' tenance and salutary efficacy of the passion that it should be entertained
THE CONDITION OF THE POOR. as a hallowed and spiritual relation. I'r has with truth been said that one The love that “ burns only from the half of the world does not know how corruptions of the senses, and takes no the other half lives. We feel confident lustre from the soul,” is verily a love that if those who are called the higher which inclines daily to destroy itself. and middle classes of this country realHowsoever solemnized by pompous or ly knew the state and condition of the dinances -- howsoever sanctioned by poor, that much more would be done customs and prescriptions-it is still to banish misery from society. A impure and unsanctified, and can no | knowledge of the disease is half the wise sustain its frail existence. It is a cure. It is not at any time a pleasant condemned thing from the beginning, thing for those who are accustomed to and cannot be accompanied with any live in comfortable houses, and are blessing. The love that represents not surrounded with cleanliness and plenty, the sacred sentiment which God design. to visit the dirty courts, and houses of ed to be the imperishable link between | the very poor and dissolute. But unman and woman,—that represents only pleasant as it may be, it is a duty, and some more orless refined flush of sensual ought to be done. We may have misity--some pretended respect or counter- | sionaries to do these things, or some of feited tenderness, put on with an eye to them for us. But it is impossible for a conventional interest or convenience- few of such men to do all that should such a spurious and mistaken semblance | be done to ameliorate the condition of
the unfortunate, the needy, and the de- only furniture, besides some filthy praved: It is, on the other hand, cheering bedding, consisted of a broken chair, to know that there is an awakening at- and two or three wooden blocks and teution to this department of duty. A rough stools. At the back of the cellar great deal is being done to relieve the there was a dark-like excavation, used " miserable, and raise the fallen. As an | by a portion of the inmates as their pr evidence and an illustration of what is sleeping chamber. The man had been the doing, and what may be done in this for some time ill of a decline, but was direction, we may particularly allude now attacked with cholera and evident in to the report of the Rev. Francis Bishop, ly near death. He had expressed a who, for some time past, has been en- wish to speak with me, and as I apgaged as a minister among the poor in proached the head of his bed, the inte Liverpool. Having known this gentle smell from the dark sleeping hole at my man for many years as a person posses the back of the cellar, combined with sing high abilities and large benevolence, the raw stench of the cellar itself, alwe can, unhesitatingly place full con most overpowered me, and it was with er fidence in his statements. After giving the utmost difficulty I could comply_fil a thrilling account of the experience of with the dying man's request. I felte a minister to the poor he says :
ill on leaving this place, and continued In no respect are the gradations sickly till the day but one after, when that from barbarism to civilization more I was obliged to take to my bed, where ezt clearly traced than in the homes of a I was confined for a fortnight in a state in people. Each step a community makes of prostration, from the early symptoms : from the savage state to the most re of the prevalent disease. If a short visit the fined is marked by the advancing im- to such a scene could prove thus in a provement of its private habitations. jurious, what must be the effect of contes Judged by this test, how low would vast stantly breathing so tainted an at- tai viena masses of our population have to be mosphere? placed. In wandering amid the wilds But the injury to the physical man is to the of Connemara, and visiting the lairs in not the most lamentable effect of this which the wretched people of that dis- state of things. The moral aspects of trict crouch, I could scarcely realise the question are of still graver import. pat the idea that I was in a civilized land. The repulsive abodes in which large and But there no startling social contrasts numbers of our population are con- ki deepened the painfulness of the view. demned to dwell, are alike destructive dhe The vast and frowning piles of moun of health and morality. When you tains, shadowing vallies untouched by penetrate the homes in our dingy and spade or plough, were in mournful fætid courts, you will find in many are keeping with the scene. Now, however, three-roomed house, twenty or thirty se my duties lead me daily to human persons, and sometimes more, of all on abodes almost as foul and wretched, ages and both sexes, living together to standing close upon all the evidences without the power of attending, I will be of a high state of civilization, and the not say to the refinements of civilized marks of social wealth and grandeur. society,the use of such a term would do In the former case, too, the pure wind sound like a burlesque--but to the in of Heaven blew round the miserable commonest decencies of life which even abodes, and, in some measure, abated savages respect. In such a soil how their health-destroying power, but to too can Religion take root? From such a many of the noisome courts and damp experiences what can there be to link sellars of our town, only pestilent the soul to virtue and to goodness ? breezes can find their way.
For the most part these poor creatures ‘ During the season of the cholera, are I believe strictly and to the full amongst the numberless cases to which extent, as far as their own consciousness I was called in, was that of an old man, is concerned, living without God in the in a miserable cellar, occupied by two world. How could it be otherwise? families. The place was very dirty, the What have they to tell them of His walls oozing with dampness, and the love, or waken within them a conscious
CONDITION OF THE POOR.
ness of their spiritual nature ? Not have just been speaking. The cholera only are they cut off from the refining entered a house, fastened on a room agencies of civilized and Christian life, occupied by a father and mother and they are shut out even from the benign their little daughter, and carried off ministries of nature. Neither bright the parents, but spared the child, who sunshine nor purifying breeze invites was about 13 years old. It was prothem to look upwards. Nature's tem posed to take the orphan to the work ple is closed against them, and the only house; but “No !" said a neighbour, one that opens before them is that in “the girl shall not go there," and though which misery sits, reeking in rags, as a poor woman and not related to the the presiding Deity, and crime stands by child, she took her in, adopted her as as the ministering High Priest.
her own, and is now bringing her up That many of the worst constructed with a mother's devotedness and care. houses of the poor might be made Such scenes of moral beauty are not of purer and less unhealthy,—that, by rare occurrence amongst the poor. care and exertion, and especially by Some of the greatest and purest good avoidance of the dram shop, the inmates done in this world, I believe to be done might make their dark and desolate by those who have, to all appearance, abodes less filthy and forlorn, cannot the fewest means of being useful bedenied; but strong beyond all common Among the sorrowful and stricken class strength must be the virtue, and sturdy of my fellow beings, I have seen practito a very rare degree the habits of cal and beautiful comments upon many cleanliness, that could long bear up of the most neglected precepts of the against circumstances so depraving. Gospel, such as I had never witnessed Such cases are not indeed wanting. / before. I have seen among this class I have sometimes seen the affections | examples of the most patient and of home beautifying and hallowing | earnest Faith, and of the most perfect dwellings in the midst of the worst and resignation to the Divine and Omnismost degraded districts, making them cient Will. I have seen many almost to stand out in bright contrast to the destitute of this world's goods “ rich in surrounding desolation; and not more good works,” and making their poverty welcome to the traveller in the desert, redound to the glory of God.” I have are the green shades of some unexpected known that the last food in the house tree and the cool streams of the adja has been shared by some poor fellow cent well, than are the kindly greetings sufferer; that clothes and bedding have and cheering aspects of such abodes to been lent by those who could ill spare the Visitor of the poor.'
them from themselves; that the fire The writer then goes on to state that has been let out on the widow's hearth amid scenes of so much filth and misery that the materials of it might be transhe had fallen in with characters of great | ferred to some sick neighbour's champurity and goodness. This may to some ber; that nights of patient watching appear strange. But when it is recollect- have been spent by the beds of those ed that many of the best men and wo- who could never repay the sacrifice or men are driven by sheer necessity to the service ; that the danger of infecLive in very cheap lodgings, and that those tious diseases has been forgotten, and Lodgings can only be procured in very the offensiveness of loathsome ones low localities, it may not appear so extra- endured; that the Bible has been read ordinary. Mr. Bishop not only per by the poor working man at the close ceives the vices but the virtues of the of his daily toil to his dying comrade; poor. He finds out their good as well and that in cases where Death has reas their bad qualities, and in this in moved the heads of a family, the help. particular he shews himself capable of less little ones have found a temporary nghtfully fulfilling his mission. He | home in the house of an affectionate says:— The disinterested affection of the neighbour. And these things are all poor for each other has often been just- | done with perfect simplicity, without
5 eulogised. Let me here record an a suspicion of there being anything mcident which occurred at the time I remarkable in them. The vices of the