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THE UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES OF ENGLAND.
and-one schemes of palliative charity now in progress at Manchester, and by which crave assistance from the pub- the Metropolitan Sewage Manure Comlíc. Here is the land given by a boun- pany, without great interest. In a comtiful Creator lying in a half-reclaimed mercial age, and a commercial country, state, while the labourer who would we cannot doubt that the matter will bring it into cultivation is suffered to shortly receive the attention to which pine in want, and degenerate into idle it is entitled. ness and vice. Surely it would be as
It may be useful in this place, to call profitable an employment of the ener
attention to some of the calculations gies of the willing labourer as scaveng- made by Dr. Guy, in his lecture “On ing the streets. Here would unproduc- the Health of Towns, as influenced by tive capital find a safe and lucrative Defective Drainage and Cleansing; and investment. We ask, is it wise, or hu
on the application of the Refuse of mane, or consistent with the principles
Towns to Agricultural purposes.” After of our holy religion, to talk about a estimating the total “loss and cost of redundant population until we have
all the preventible sickness and death made available all the means placed at
annually occurring in the United our disposal ?
Kingdom at £20,000,000,” he proceeds We have seen that this land, in a
to say : comparative state of waste and desolation, might be cultivated, giving employ other branch of national extravagance, which
“I must now endeavour to estimate the ment to a number of labourers in the
I have brought under your notice-to fix a process.
There is another interesting value on the manure which we are annually part of the subject to which our atten
throwing into the sea. I shall say nothing of
the liquid manure which, as I have been given tion has been forcibly drawn by the
to understand, is suffered to drain away into papers referred to-the application of the ditches, thence into the rivers, and from the refuse of towns to agricultural pur- thence into the sea, from fully one half of all poses. We ask, why, in a city like merely of the unappropriated refuse of large
the farm-steads in England; I will speak London, should so much wealth be an
towns. It will not be thought unreasonable 'nually thrown into the Thames, while to estimate the value of that part of the refuse the land is hungry and barren? Dr.
which now runs to waste at L.2 per head of Granville says :- The London drainage land and Wales, the towns which are guilty
the population; and supposing that in Engwould be most valuable; we should be of this extravagance contained in all 5,000,000 independent of all the guanos or foreign inhabitants, we shall have an annual waste of manure if we could obtain it in any speaking of the gross value of towu manure,
at least ten millions of money. I am now thing like a concentrated form. The and not of the profit which it would yield; application has been tried at Edinburgh. for there is no commodity of which the value The sewage has raised the value of grass
is more dependant upon the expense of con
veyance and distribution than manure. Thus, land, from 2s. 6d. an acre, to £15 and
manure which on the field is worth 10s, a load, £20. In relation to it, Dr. Arnott re- may have fetched in the place from which it ports :-'The value of town manure was brought, only 1s. or Is. 6d., the difference
being the expense of cartage and distribution. may be estimated by the fact, that a
But in the case of liquid manure, the cost and portion of the drainage of Edinburgh, application would be so small as to increase spread upon certain level lands towards the relative value of the manure itself, and to the sea, has increased the value of those yield a large profit on the capital employed. lands by more than £5,000 a year; and from 2 to 15 per cent. Hence, after all the
This profit has been variously estimated at that if the whole drainage of London cost of its application to the land has been decould be so used at a sufficient distance frayed, the refuse of towns which now runs to from the town the value would exceed probably exceeding, on
waste would have a high money value-a yalue
year with another, £500,000 a year.'
that of all the corn and manure which we imWe perceive that similar success fol- port. If this estimate were extended to the lowed experiments at Mansfield, where
United Kingdom, it seems highly probable that
the value of town-manure annually wasted land was increased from a rental of 4s.
would be equal to the loss and cost entailed 6d. per acre, to £11; and the analysis upon the nation by premature death and unof evidence contains an overwhelming necessary sickness. According to this supposiamount of fact and authority. It is total annual waste from these two causes impossible to look at the experiments would be about £40,000,000. Such, then, are rude, but I believe by no ineans exaggerated liquor." Night came on, and the glass estimates of the twofold waste of health and life on the one hand, and of the most valuable
and the pot went round. The landmeans of production, on the other, of which
lord's home-brewed, which was gene, England is at present
guilty, and it becomes a rally said to be very good, had on this very serious question whether such extrava- occasion the additional relish of the gance can be persisted in without entailing the most alarming consequences.'
sergeant's stories and tales of what he had seen and done in the world. He
spoke of the glory of a soldier's life. THE SOLDIER'S FATE.
At last, by his representations and mis
representations, he so powerfully ABOUT twelve years since, John Sapo wrought upon Sappers' mind' as to in. pers and myself were scholars at the duce him to promise to enlist. Another same school, in a small village near song was sung, the jug went round Truro, in Cornwall: we were just of the once more, and it was past midnight same age. After remaining at school when the miner took the shilling from two or three years, we both left it just the hand of the wily recruiter. about the same time. He went to The following morning found the assist his father, who was a miner in company, and Sappers in particular, one of the “ bals” in the neighbour not better for their last night's debauch. hood, and I to assist my father in It was now, when he considered the another branch of industry. Two or importance and responsibility of the three more years passed away and saw step he had taken, what should he us both rising into manhood. Though do. He had disgraced himself by his John Sappers had religious parents, he conduct, and was considered a disgrace was not so anxiously watched over, and to the village. He could scarcely be his moral nature was not so nurtured worse off than he was; and if one-half and developed as it should have been, of what the recruiter had said was and as it might have been. He asso- correct, he should be much better corciated with vicious companions, and, tented than at present. He decided to just as it might have been expected, walk to Truro, and be “sworn in” before got corrupted by their evil habits. He the magistrate. This was done un. kept late hours, neglected his work, known to his parents. attended the pothouse when he should No one can describe the sorrow and have been at home, and soon became anxiety into which his parents were the victim of misfortune and degrada- plunged when they heard of his_rash tion. He became a notorious fighter- act. They immediately sent to Truro frequently have I seen him with “black to try to release him, but it was too eyes;" and I often knew him not only late—he had not the disposition to reto disturb the peace of his own home turn, and they had not the money to by beating his mother, but to break up free him if he were disposed. He rethe quiet of the whole village.
mained in that town for a few days. This village was so obscure and re- He walked up and down its streets mote that even the recruiting sergeant with ribbons around his hat. He was did not often favour it with his pre- asked whether he should like to return sence, and when he did, he was looked to his native village, and he answered, at by the children, yes, and even by “ No." He was never, he said, so comtheir mothers, as a rather extraordinary fortable before, and he never knew personage. His red coat, the ribbons what life was till then. around his cap, and his upright proud It was not long before the new recruit walk, were regarded as peculiar attrac- was sent to Plymouth, where he soon tions.
found his level among many others About seven years since, this govern- who, within a very short time, had mental official paid the village a visit; of been deceived and entrapped like himcourse, he made the public house, for self. He now soon “wished his cake the time being, his home. It was there dough.” He found the strict discipline, he found Sappers, with several of his the hard drilling, the inhospitable fare, companions in vice, a little worse for the monotonous life, and the superci.
lious manner in which hc, in common when he started for Plymouth to pay with his fellows, was regarded by the the Government £20 for John Sappers. officers, as not according to his liking This was done, and a day or two or his expectation. He now deeply after the young man was passing the repented of the step he had taken. He threshold of the place of his birth. would give any thing to return home- What a torrent of emotions rushed his life was a burden to him. Instead through the soul of his mother when of “ bread for life, prize money, prefer- she saw him after so long an absence ! ment and glory," he found he was“crib- She clung around his neck, kissed him, bed, cabined, and confined.” Sur- and wept. But the tears were not thoso rounded by demoralizing circumstan- of sorrow, but of joy. ces, it would be unreasonable to sup- Every thing appeared strange to the pose that such a young man would young man. He thought every thing improve in his habits. He grew worse had altered during his absence. He instead of better :-a great deal of his had a great deal to say of what he had time was spent in canteens, or some of seen, and done, and heard. And when the low vicious houses with which Ply- he and his mother were alone, he promouth abounds. He, like almost all mised her faithfully that he would not his fellows, gotsteeped in sensuality and only never enlist for a soldier again, but degradation.
that he would for the future be better Ten months had passed away, and than he had ever been. She smiled John Sappers continued leading this and wept alternately, while listening to life in Plymouth. But he was not for his promises. Alas! promises are made gotten by his friends. One being, in to be broken, and hopes are entertained particular, bore him in her remem- to be extinguished. brance, and that was his mother. John Sappers, though he had been Often did that woman weep when her absent several months, though he had son John was mentioned. Never a mingled with the people of a great day, or scarcely an hour of a day, passed town, and had seen society in other away without her thinking of her phases, was not improved in habits and erring boy. She would give all she character. He had been in a wrong possessed to have him back with her school for improvement. He had a again. In vain did her friends say it thirst for action and enjoyment. Where would be useless; or if he came back, could he get it? At home? That was he would not be contented, or that he too quiet for him. In books? He had was so far gone as to be irrecoverable. no taste for reading. He must go to the Her love cast a mantle over all his public-house, where there were several faults; and she would give a world, kindred companions, who would rejoice if she had it, to reposeess him. Whe- to have him with them again. He did so, ther waking or sleeping, she was think- and that frequently. Scarcely six months ing or dreaming of her son, of what he had passed, and his last state was was doing, or what would become of worse than his first. He added an oath him. What might be his fate in the to almost every sentence he uttered; future seemed to occupy her attention his companions were midnight revellers; and awake her fears more than any he was a more notorious fighter than thing else. By dint of perseverance ever; he was summoned before the and saving, she had accumulated a magistrate, and fined for beating anofund, with the hope that it would one ther man; he was obliged to leave his day be appropriated to the ransoming father's roof; he almost broke his moof her son. She knew this could not ther's heart; in fact, he was as bad as be done under £20, which was to such a drunken, dissolute man could be. a person a large sum.
In this state of mind was John Sap. She frequently begged and prayed pers, when the same recruiting sergeant her husband to do all he could to bring with whom he had before enlisted rehome John. The husband, after a great visited the village. It was not a diffimany entreaties and importunities, pro- cult thing now to get the ex-soldier to mised that he would. The day came re-enlist. He did so. And many of the
inhabitants of the place were glad of it. from India of a bloody battle, in which They were glad that they were rid of a great many officers and men fell. The such a peace-disturbing, depraved being. name of John Sappers was among those But the cause of their gladness was the of the killed. cause of indescribable sorrow to the Such is a brief history of one of the parents and relations of the ruined son. writer's playmates. We were just of the No one can tell but those who have salne age. Often when we were children hearts to feel, and who have been simi- did we go to school together. His mother larly situated, what floods of anguish loved him as fervently, and prayed for rolled through the heart of the mother, him as earnestly, as my mother ever did when she heard that her son was gone for me. His father wrought for him as away a soldier the second time. She cheerfully as mine ever did for me. We never expected to see him more; neither grew up in each other's company; we did she.
received lessons of instruction from the The circumstance preyed so deeply same schoolmaster, and the same Sunon her susceptible heart, that the re- day school teacher. But how different maining bloom on her cheek departed. our destiny. His blood might have coThat son whom she had loved so in- loured the waters of the Sutlej, or his tensely, for whom she had shed so bones may now be blanching on Indian many tears, and offered so many pray- plains. He first fell a victim to drink ers, and for whose moral restoration and drunkenness, and then to the trebly. she had struggled so ardently,-had accursed war system; and I am spared left her, and gone she knew not whither. to narrate his history, and to assist in She heard nothing of him for several the overthrow of such terrible evils. months. But she followed him in ima
EARN EBT. gination. She could see him leading a dissolute life; she could see him in the FROM Y00-L00-FOU, ON BOARD THE CHIbarracks, ah! and on the battle-field.
NESE JUNK, AT BLACKWALL, TO HIS Her heart quailed within her when her imagination pictured him there.
KINSMAN, LANG-FANG, IN CHINA. After many months had passed away
LETTER I. in this suspense of mind, a “ franked” I have to inform thee, my dear Langletter was brought, addressed to John fang, that I have visited London, which Sappers' father. It was opened, and is the largest and richest city in the found to contain unfavourable intelli- land of the barbarians. Since the argence. It was from the soldier, who rival of our noble vessel, she has been had merely communicated to his pa- invaded by swarms of a peculiar class rents that his regiment had received of barbarians, called Cocknies, together commands to go to India. If the letter with a great number of the principal contained news of his death, it could mandarins. But, if they were so curiscarcely have given the family more ous and inquisitive about us, I was still sorrow; for at that time there was a more so in my enquiries about them. war between England and India. Know, Oh, Lang-fang! that the capital
From the receipt of this letter the of this barbarian empire is, emphatimother pined away. She was subject to cally, a city of contrasts.
Here are fits before; but they increased after jostled together, as if in hideous mocksuch news. What with intense fear and ery of the hopes we entertain of earthly anxiety, her intellect got unsphered. Her felicity-inexhaustible wealth, and the mind and body were both crushed. First most squalid poverty; the most sumpher heart was broken, then her mind tuous palaces, and the meanest hovels; was broken, and at last her body gave solemn temples of worship, and execra-way, and she was carried to the tomb. ble dens of infamy; noble scientific
God had spared her the pain of hear institutions for mental improvement, ing more dreadful intelligence still. It and gorgeous saloons dedicated to the was not twelve months after the regi- demon of intemperance for mental dement of which John Sappers was one gradation. Yet they will tell thee, Oh, had left this country, when news arrived | Lang-fang! that this place is the centre
of civilization, the cradle of the arts, House of Commons, in which the affairs the mother of humanity, the home of of the nation are discussed and decided. truth, the nurse of wisdom, and the Curiosity induced me to visit it; but benefactress of the world. Before any what was my surprise, Oh, Lang-fang! nation on earth should attempt to point to discover that instead of the deeds of out the errors' and evils existing in patriots, and the words of sages, that another, its first duty is to endeavour to the time was wasted in frivolous de remove its own. Though the inhabi- bates, and the public money in supertants of this country pretend to be the Auous expenses. Private interest there, most moral and enlightened people in as well as in the most obscure nooks the world, yet there are perpetrated and corners of the empire, appeared to amongst them the most frightful atro- be the "aim and end” of these persons cities and unmitigated villanies. They selected by the public for the public believe their legislators to be wise, hu- good. Well may we boast of our great mane, and patriotic; but the laws Confucius, and well may we be proud which they have enacted are neither of the lessons of wisdom which he has just nor judicious. The rich man may taught us. What would our august purchase pardon, but the poor must Emperor say to those mandarins whom suffer punishment. Man's life is in he has appointed to administer the daily danger from man's hands, and laws throughout the length and breadth the legislative remedy adopted to check of the Celestial Empire, if they were to the crime has only tended to increase imitate the example of these legislators it. The more executions, the more of the barbarians? Would he not pluck murders. I was, myself, an eye witness the buttons from their caps, thereby of one of these brutalizing exhibitions, degrading them before the eyes of his when two miserable culprits were subjects, and command the bamboo to dragged out before the eyes of thou- be vigorously applied to the soles of sands of spectators:-a man and wo- their feet? But these men are handman; the husband and the wife. The somely rewarded; they live in splendid name of this barbarian was Manning, mansions, and their appetites are pamand a familiar connexion having ex- pered with every luxury. Their wives isted between this man's wife and and daughters are rustling in embroidanother barbarian by the name of ered satins, costlier than those of HangO'Connor, it ended in robbery and tchequ-fou, and their heads are decorated murder. The hideous spectacle of that with waving plumes, more gorgeous day beggars description—the foulest than those of Yuen-yang. Believe me, oaths, the most obscene songs, the Oh, Lang-fang ! that a faithful descripyells, and shrieks, are still ringing in tion of the scenes, manners, customs, my ears. But would'st thoù have be- and doings of this vast City would beved it, Oh, Lang-fang ! if I had not consume all the paper in Kiang-nan. told thee—that high-born and delicate What if I were to tell thee of the mag. ladies filled the windows of the houses nificent display, and sumptuous banfacing the scaffold, to feast their eyes quet at the annual election of the on the dying agonies of these wretches greatest City Mandarin, called the thus gratifying a morbid taste for all Lord Mayor --when the four quarters that is horrible and iniquitous. There of the globe are ransacked for every is, however, a design on foot to abolish, species of condiment that can titillate possible, capital punishment in this the palate; and when filled almost to country. Some of the great judges, bursting, some grave mandarin rises and most eminent mandarins are fa from his seat, and talks of the prospervourable to its abolition; and there is ity of the people, and the plenty of the a strong and intelligent party deter- land. Immediately outside those fesmined to work incessantly until this tive walls, Poverty stalks along like a important business is accomplished.
grim and bony spectre, while Star I must not omit to mention, that vation lies down to die. Is not this, there is a place of assembly for the on, Lang-fang! a terrible anomaly barbarian legislators, denominated the These barbarians, indeed, are politically