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NATURAL V AFFECTED ARISTO- in the same sublime nobility of simple CRACY.

It may be very well for an archMany are the improvements of the pre- bishop of these days to be styled his sent age. Amongst them wenotice with Grace the Lord Archbishop of So-and-so peculiar pleasure a greater tendency to --for a bishop to be dubbed a Right a just appreciation of our common nature Reverend Father in God-for a dean to in opposition to the false and mischiev. be a Very Reverend: but what a degraous distinctions and fallacies, with which dation and a ridicule would it be to talk a corrupt taste and a cringing spirit of of His Grace the Archbishop St. Paul, adulation to wealth and power have or the Right Reverend Father in God, spotted society, as with the spotting of St. Peter. à plague. In the earliest and purest In all ages, those who have climbed ages of the world, when

out of the mob of their time, and planted “Gods walked the earth, and beings more their glorious feet on the mountain of than men;"

immortality, have stood forth there too when the Creator himself came down great and beautiful for the obscuration and visited his creatures, and angels bore of their eternal names by the foolish his messages of love and mercy to man- epithets of ordinary flattery. Homer, kind; then the great patriarchs, the Plato, Socrates, Cicero, Cato, Luther, fathers of nations, and the models of Shakspere, Milton, Bacon, Newton, and profound faith and noble action, walked

even those living amongst the fogs of the earth too in the simple dignity of our times, Wordsworth, Byron, Scott, human nature, a dignity which no adven- Shelley. How all titles drop away from titious title could augment, but would an immortal name! How we tear them assuredly have diminished. So striking down, as we would a beggar's rags from is this, that to speak of our common pro- the noble statue of some beneficent digenitor as Lord Adam, Adam, Esq., vinity! or of Eve, as Lady Eve, or the Honour- And shall we then wrap ourselves in able Mrs. Eve, would become a burlesque these foul rags? Shall we tacitly, nay, of the most ludicrous description. How fondly, own that which is too mean for nobly do they stand forth in their own the shoulders of greatness-great goodpure and primeval simplicity. What a ness, and good greatness, is good enough, moral grandeur there is about their nay, is too honourable even, forourselves? names, to which all our titles appear in Shall we thus confess the baseness of comparison as the most trumpery and our being, the abjectness of our ambition? strolling-player's tinsel. What dreadful No! let us rather come at once boldly havoc should we make of the moral sub- to the point, and claim our portion of lime if we talked of my Lord Enoch, of the Divine nature, and determine to vinthe Grand Dukes Abraham, Isaac, and Ja- dicate it by our devotion to all in life cob, or of his Excellency the Most Noble and hope that is simple, pure, great, and Marquis Joseph, Governor of Egypt, glorious. We dare to claim God for under his Imperial Highness, Pharaoh. our Father:-is it not a less daring to

In the time of Job, the consciousness claim the very highest and most illusthat these titles were based in something trious men as our brethren? Let us dare more than mere political distinctions or --for it is a noble daring—to claim kinordinary respect was most luminously ship with Homer, with Plato, with Sodemonstrated by that fine young man, crates, with Christ, with the Apostles, Elihu, who declared that he could not with the noble martyrs who in every give flattering titles to men, for in so age have perished by fire, or sword, or doing the Lord would take him away. the poisoned arrows of malice and calumWhen the Saviour of men came, he came, ny, rather than stoop to the corruptions like the first fathers of mankind, arrayed of the time; and with the heroes of the in a dignity of divine simplicity, which, soul, Luther, Milton, Newton, and these like the pure light of heaven which puts of the like lofty stamp; and not grovelout all the gross lights and tallow-candle lingly roll ourselves in the rotten rags luminaries of earth, put far below his of the world's adulation. Let us aim feet all the petty honours of ordinary at a like noble simplicity. society. The Apostles walked abroad

WILLIAM HOWITT.

PASSING THOUGHTS ON MEN AND THINGS.

145

Library of forty-eight volumes for the best PASSING THOUGHTS ON MEN

Essay on the history, characteristics, advanAND THINGS.

tages, tendency, and deficiencies of meMECHANICS' INSTITUTES AND LITERARY chanics' institutes and literary societies, SOCIETIES.- When the history of educa- and how they may be improved to meet tion in this country shall be written, a the growing necessities of the nation and faithful account of such institutions will the age. We are already in a position to occupy one of its most important pages. It intimate to our readers that they may antiis no easy thing to measure the social ad- cipate a rich treat in the essay which vantages which they have been instru- we hope to have the pleasure to present mental in conferring on the community. them. Hundreds of thousands have already real- THE CHURCH IN DANGER,—A great many ised benefits and experienced pleasures hearts are at the present moment tremulous from and through them. But extensively with fear lest the church establishment useful as they have been, they might be should be torn asunder by the conflicting made much more so.

Mechanics' institutes elements now in active agitation within and literary societies have not answered, and its bosom. And such should bear in mind do not answer their high purposes. They are that the church may be rendered indepen. not generally attended by mechanics. No dent of the state without injuring episcopadoubt there are many reasons for this. The lianism, and that episcopalianism may be masses of the people have not as yet appre- modified without impairing religion. The ciated their own high nature and vocation, state is one thing ; episcopalianism, as an and consequently have not striven for the elaborate system of church government, is attainment of the highest good. Another another thing; and religion, which should reason why such institutions have not been be the vital moving principle of all churches, more generally useful is, they have stood on is another thing still. As matters now too narrow and limited a basis. They bave stand, the government, which is an ingenerally only aimed at the development of stitution called into existence for secuone part of man—the intellectual part. lar purposes, holds within its grasp the They have not sufficiently ministered to the established church. The church, by being

Neither have they been made in the pay of the state, must of necessity be sufficiently recreative in their character. under the control of the state. Should a Man is constituted for the enjoyment of vacancy occur in any see to-morrow, it is in pleasures, independent of those realised the power of the present government to apthrough moral and intellectual exercise. And point what person as bishop it thinks fit. hitherto mechanics' institutions have not And it would be quite useless for the other been made sufficiently attractive and pleasing bishops to express any disapprobation, or to allure, conciliate, amuse, and elevate the to enter any protest against the decision of masses of the people. Politics and religion the government, because they exist as have also been too extensively excluded bishops by virtue of the same power which from the debates and lectures of these in- appointed the unwelcome diocesan. If a stitutions. Politics and religion are two of dispute arises between a clergyman and the the most important facts of human history. bishop of the diocese about what is not or They are at the present time the chief mo- what is baptismal regeneration, as there has tives to mental action and enquiry through been between Mr. Gorham and the Bishop out Europe. Yet such, of all things in the of Exeter, the thing cannot be finally settled world, have been excluded from institutions by a bench of bishops, hy a majority of the called into existence for the intellectual clergymen of the church, or by any staneducation and social elevation of the people. dard, unmistakable authority, but only by Verily, in this matter a great blunder has the accidental opinion of paid secular funcbeen committed. Neither have these socie- tionaries. Against such a system of spiritual ties availed themselves of all the benefits i slavery the Bishop of Exeter reasonably derivable from the co-operative principle. revolts. Though regard the Bishop as They have not been formed into unions or mistaken in his opinion, and bigoted in his associations, so that they might be enabled acts, we believe him to be a sincere man. to economise their resources, and mutually He is evidently inspired by a love of the assist each other. Much as they have done, truth, and is so far deserving of praise. And they have left a great deal undone. They we also think that he is at the present moare capable of great improvement, and may ment doing a most important work. He with comparative ease be multiplied and is arousing churchmen to a consciousness of rendered more extensively useful. Looking their true position, as interpreters of reliat them from these points of view, we gious doctrines and ordinances. have been induced to offer Bolin's Standard other result issued from the present agita

social man.

If no

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tion within the church than this, great good A VOICE FROM GREENWICH FAIR.-On would be done. The vital question at issue

Easter Sunday last, and the three following is, shall the government control the church;

days, no less than 60,000 persons left the shall the ritual of the Church of England

metropolis to go to Greenwich fair. This be interpreted and defined by her own dig

fair, unfortunately, has long been notorious nitaries, or by state-appointed functionaries;

for the persons who principally visit it, and or, in other words, shall the church be free

for the scenes of intemperance and vulgarity or enslaved? We believe-most firmly and

which too frequently distinguish it. Let us religiously believe that the tendency of ask for a moment who are the people to go events is in favour of perfect religious free- there, and why do they go? It cannot be dom. We believe that no earthly power denied that they are almost exclusively of should stand between the conscience and

the poor, the unchaste, and the uneducated. its God; that all religion should be free

These people have for months been pent up from state interference. We also think

in the city, some working hard and long, that events outside the church would ere

others living by dishonest and depraved long lead to its separation from the state,

means. Easter comes, a fair is held out of and that now there is an agitation both

London, sports and pleasures are to be within and without its pale, that the triumph

realised on the grass and under the trees. of religious freedom cannot be far dis

Is it unreasonable to expect that such peotant. And we also as deeply believe that

ple, living in such a place, would avail when the separation shall take place, that themselves of such opportunities of recreaboth the church and the state will be

tion as are to be found at a Greenwich fair ? purer as well as freer.

The people, and especially those who live AN EXPENSIVE DINNER.-A few days in large cities, must and will have recreasince, the time of the apprenticeship of a tion of some sort or other, from some source. young man in a brass foundry establishment

If innocent and elevating sources of recreain the metropolis having terminated, the

tion are not at their command, then may it other workmen to the number of twenty-four

be expected that they will resort to polluted thought proper to celebrate the event by a

and poisonous ones. At Greenwich fair the jolly dinner.” And it so happens in this

desires for amusenient, which may have case they were “jolly green. The dinner

been bottled up for weeks or months maof course was prepared at a public house, nifest themselves; hence the excesses and and it was set out in the most sumptuous

the vice-tinged pleasures enjoyed there. manner. The “trimmings,” that is, the

From those curious noises, from those slang vegetables and the other appuirtenances to

phrases, from that drunken booth, from that the joints of meat, alone cost $3 10s. After

dancing saloon, from that low pot-house, the eating part of the proceedings were

from the hoarse invitation sisuing from the over, drinking commenced. The evening throat of that showman, from the unmelowent on pretty jollily. By and bye a few

dious rattle, from the sportive, unpolished got worse for liquor;' they all soon got in

peals of laughter which come ringing from the same condition. At last two-thirds of

those “ kissing rings” on the grass, from them got quite drunk; and some time after

those strange sounds made by little mismidnight no less than eight out of the chievous urchins who try to make you twenty-five were so brutally intoxicated

think you are shot at, or that they have that they had to be carried home. The

torn the skirt of your coat off; from the next day the men found they had a bill of shout of triumph which simultaneously between £13 and £14 to pay for one night's rises from a thousand lungs, when some gorging and debauchery, Here was an in

young man or woman misses his or her stance of twenty-five men spending in one

footing, and rolls over the grassy hill; day nearly £14, besides each losing a day's from all the congregated rumble which work, and unfitting himself for labour for

issues from that teeming mass of human betwo or three days. And it is from such men ings, may be heard a voice loud and disthat we frequently hear loud clamours for

tinct to him who has ears to hear, that the political reforms. How can it be expected people are so constituted by God as to dethat we can have a reformed state, while

mand recreation, and that they will have it we have so many unreformed individuals ?

from pure or impure sources.

This being Let every man set his own house in order

the case, it is well that men of business, before he finds so much fault with others. Let him try to socially bless his own home, reformers should seriously consider how

that philanthropists, that statesmen and before he attempts to politically regenerate

means of recreation and amusement may his country. Let the temperance and edu

be multiplied and extended, so as to meet & cational movements do their work, and

demand of human nature, the nation, and governmental reforms will of necessity the age. very soon follow,

EXCURSION PARTIES AND CHEAP PLEASURE TRIPS.

147

· Arise;

EXCURSION PARTIES AND CHEAP

and Chatsworth; Chepstow, the Windcliff PLEASURE TRIPS.

and Tintern Abbey, and other beautiful

nooks and corners on the banks of the Wye, The steam engine is one of the chief so- the Severn, and the Dee, will be occasionally cializers, and civilizers of modern times. tenanted with more than their usual popuThe facilities it has given to travelling lation. This will be done on Sundays and alone, and the commercial and social advan- on week days, but more particularly on tages resulting therefrom, cannot be easily holiday occasions. numbered or measured. Previous to the Why should not the working people, and application of steam to the means of the of our larger towns especially, occasionally conveyance of passengers from one place to forget the world, with all its conflicts and another, either by land or by water, such a difficulties, and plunge into the forest and thing as an excursion party on a large pass a few hours with the streams and scale was unknown. Now scarcely a sum- birds, saunter by the side of lakes, or mer-day passes without such a scene being climb the hills and snuff their breezes ? To witnessed in one part of the country or spend a little money in such a way is far another. It is a very ordinary thing to see more rational than going to the beer-shop or hundreds of men, women, and children, on public-house, where invasions on the health some steam-boat, or in some monster train, as well as the pocket are made. It is cergoing from town to town, or more likely tainly not the most attractive scene to see from town to country, for the purpose of re- a mechanic or any other man on some holi. laxation and enjoyment. The citizens of day occasion, sitting in some tavern or tapManchester will be seen going to Liverpool room, when the fields and the floods are or Birkenhead; and those of the latter place awaiting his presence to minister to his to the towns or country places of Yorkshire pleasure without cost and without alloy. I and Lancashire. The inhabitants of London would say unto such a man,

shake will be seen going in thousands to Graves- off the dust from thy soul, and go forth end, to Tunbridge, to Ramsgate or Margate, with thy wife and little ones, and realize on and the inhabitants of the latter places to the lap of nature that enjoyment which London. Bristol will be sending forth hordes is compatible with thy manhood.” of its population to the aristocratic streets These cheap trips and excursion parties of Cheltenham, or to the more beautiful will go on increasing and multiplying. They and balmy plains of Devonshire. Edinburgh are become a new fact, and very soon they and Glasgow will be exchanging visits. will be a “great fact” in our social state. Derby, Leicester, and Nottingham will be Undreamed of by our forefathers, they are pouring their groupes into the “ land of the

looked upon as every day occurrences among mountain and the flood.' The Lakes will ourselves. But I see in these things somereceive large contributions of visitors from thing more than new means for individual all quarters. There will be Temperance relaxation and enjoyment. They awaken excursion parties from London to the Isle enquiry, bring mind into collision with mind, of Wight, from Dublin to Holyhead. Bir- call up fresh emotions, multiply friendly remingham, as usual, will be sending forth lationships, and so become means for social its four thousand juvenile teetotalers, in intercourse and general progress. It is imcompany with Joseph Sturge and others, to possible for large numbers of people to go some neighbouring town or quiet country in large companies from the grey town to place, The members of the Warrington the green country, to exchange the rattle of Mechanics' Institution will be going to the carriages, and the din of machinery, for the Isle of Man or Beaumauris. The school- music of birds and the sound of waterfalls ; masters of Manchester will be ruminating in to leave the companionship of brick buildsome forest of Cheshire. The numerous Be- ings and a smoky atmosphere, for some Defit Societies of all names and descriptions “ boundless continuity of shade,” where the will be taking advantage of the sunny blue sky peeps through the foliage, and the season and fragrant gales, and make some breezes mantle the cheeks with the roses of steamer or railway carriage bear them away health; this cannot be frequently done, for a time from home, with all its pleasures without refining the tastes, improving the and cares. The deer will be frightened habits, and quickening the aspirations of from many a gentleman's park; the rustic the people. Neither on the other hand can natives of many a village will be welcoming large numbers of the country population to their homes, their hedges, their fields, take pleasure trips to the towns and cities, their hills, and streams, folk from the next and spend a few hours amidst tall chimneys, county, or some town a hundred miles off. grand streets, public buildings, museums Smaller parties will be going to the choicer galleries, brilliant shops, docks, and warespots of the country. Dovedale, Matlock, | houses, without equally favourable impressions being made. The town people gain | dreds of cabs and omnibuses that rattle over by going to commune with nature; the coun. every street; they pass over the bridges, and try people gain by coming to mingle with look down on the mighty Thames with its art. Just imagine a mechanic in London or swarming barges and boats ; some go to look Liverpool, who for many months has been at the Exchange, the Bank, and St. Paul's, performing bis monotonous work ; the spring others are off to the British Museum and the time is come and past; an annoancement National Gallery ; they are all amazed; reaches him that there is to be a pleasure they find themselves in a new world ; the trip, or a cheap train which is going a hun- eventime approaches, they find their way dred miles away; it may be to some place that with satiated minds and jaded bodies to the he has frequently heard of, and which he Railway Station. On their way home every has long desired to see; it may be to the one is telling what he has seen, the most exhome of his childhood, which he has not travagant notions of many things are formed; visited for many a long year ; it may be the steam engine puffs away, careless whewhere he may have some brother or near ther it is pulling after it sheep, peasants, or relation, and he finds that he can go there philosophers, and soon arrives at its appointand back for a trifling sum, perhaps a far- ed place; the excursionists separate, and prothing a-mile, and he decides on doing so. ceed to their respective homes, where they The day comes, the train starts, he is carried are welcomed by their friends, who are told swiftly through the country, sometimes over all the wonderful things that have been seen. vales and through hills, at other times by The temporary pleasure which proceedthe side of a village, or through a town; he ings of this nature must necessarily impart sees landscapes, towers, forests ; he gets a to all especially interested, is of considerabird's-eye view of rivers, mansions, and ble importance. But there is something manufactories; he soon arrives at his des- produced by those cheap trips, and their tination ; he sees his friend, and goes to his accompanying associations, of a more percottage ; the recollections of past years re- manent utility than the pleasurable emovive, spots made memorable by associations tions that are for the day experienced. The are visited; he rambles about alone, or in going to London was an important event in company ; by-and-bye perchance he takes that peasant's life. It will ever be rememtea under some tree or in some cottage bered. For weeks and months he will have which he knew, and where he was known ; something new to talk about, and his daily time passes on pleasurably; the hour arrives toil will be relieved with recollections of for the departure of the train to town; he what he heard and saw. The going to Lonis in the carriage, and off; the mellow tints don to him is just like a first visit to the of evening are on the trees ; the terminus Continent, to a man more versed in men is reached ; the man returns to his home, in and things. His knowledge will be increased, all likelihood a happier and a better man his desires sharpened, and his curiosity exthan when he started in the morning. cited, and so the monotony of his every-day

Take another man, who has from his life will be agreeably broken. The spirit youth up been an inhabitant of some rural of enquiry in him will be aroused, and his district; he has long been familiarized to whole mental being enlarged. Having seen the sight of green fields and waving corn ; and known a little, he will seize opportuhe has seen spring and autumn come and nities to know more. He had no concepgo, and leave their treasures behind them. tion before he went to London what it was, It is announced that there will be a cheap and as he did not see all, his imagination trip to London ; the agriculturist thinks will try to fill up what time and opportunity. over the matter, counts the cost, and re. would not permit him to make a closer acsolves to go; he has long had a strong desire quaintance with. He will be more disposed to see the great city, the wonders of which to read the paper in future, and when he he has so frequently heard so much ; he rubs sees the name of some street which he passed his hands with delight, and says “ Only through, or some public building which he think of I going up to London! Surely won- admired, he will feel a greater interest in ders will never cease!" The morning comes; knowing more about it. Or, in conversation the train is off with its freight of country with any one who has been to London, his people, who are in the course of two or three eye will brighten at the mention of any spot hours, safely deposited in the heart of the or circumstance which he might happen to capital, where the pulses of the empire are know or remember. I allow I am considerbeating. The sons of the soil look with ing cheap trips and excursion parties in wonderment on this thing, and on that; they their more favourable aspects, and looking see the tall houses, the fine shops, and the upon them as if they were unaccompanied great churches; they see stream after stream with evil. It is not so. But if they are not of well-dressed people; they look at the hun- unattended with evil, they do not necessa

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