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BY MISS H. M. RATHBONE.

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PENNY BANKS.

where the amount deposited is considerable, the expenses of clerks' salaries, as.

well as the premiums, are paid out of the WE have recently been reading, with interest, which accrues from the investmuch interest, the report of a new and ment of these penny savings in a larger valuable institution, called a Penny Sav- bank. The cost of house-room for receivings' Bank, established for the purpose of ing the daily deposits, has hitherto been inducing and helping the very poor to lay saved to the institution, by the business by a portion of their earnings. Several hours being appointed at such times in of these banks have been introduced into the morning or evening as enables the devarious parts of Scotland and the North positors to have the free use of other sayof England; and their indefatigable ori- ings' banks or public school-rooms, before ginator, Mr. James Scott, is at present or after these rooms are needed for their anxiously endeavouring to set them afloat ordinary transactions. At Greenock the in the metropolis; and the following bank is opened from eight to ten o'clock quotation, from a circular letter of his on

every morning; and at Hull it is open the subject, will show our readers the from five to seven o'clock every evening. advantages to be derived from the system The mechanical part of the work is manproposed :

aged by six clerks (sometimes under four“ With reference to the social and moral teen years of age,) who receive a salary influence of such institutions, it may be of £2 per annum, and are again under the stated that whatever, in the least degree, superintendence of a superior clerk at £10 induces self-respect, so far tends not merely | per annum. The six clerks sit at a long to the formation of good, but to the cor- table, with six money boxes before them, rection of evil habits:-it produces gradu- and each having a separate ledger. Every ally an entire change of thought and ac- day the cash is balanced and paid over tion, substituting thoughtfulness for care- to the head clerk, who gives it to the lessness; also a due regard and well sus- treasurer. At Hull the amount received tained anticipation of future wants; it is partly invested in the savings' bank, converts intemperance and prodigality and partly in the bank of Messrs. Pease into sobriety and thriftiness, and, in a and Liddell; but in both instances the inword, engenders a manly desire for inde- vestment is made in the names of the pendence instead of a degrading and para- trustees of the institution, without whose lizing reliance on parish support or alms- written order no money can be withgiving.”

drawn, A paid auditor examines the The distinguishing feature of the plan books weekly. by which this good work is to be brought Another advantage of Mr. Scott's plan about is, that the Penny Banks receive is, that it need not interfere with any exdaily any sum below and not exceeding isting benevolent institutions, but should one shilling; while the ordinary savings' be regarded as an auxiliary society, for banks mostly require twenty shillings as the purpose of helping a still poorer class an entrance fee, which is too large a sum to lay by their scanty earnings than the for the poorest classes to raise. Perhaps present savings' banks accommodate. At a short account of the working of the Hull the new system came into operation Penny Bank lately established in Hull, on the first of August, 1849; and before will best illustrate its mode of operation, the close of the old year the deposits and show how easily the system may be amounted to £630, from above four introduced elsewhere. Every depositor thousand depositors, which are daily inhas a ruled card or ticket given to him creasing, and this single faet is a strong with his name inscribed, and space for six proof how much such an institution was entries of savings in the week, a similar needed, and how warmly it has been welaccount of each deposit being registered, comed. whenever money is brought, in a regular We shall conclude our brief notice of ledger. Whoever lays by something, this excellent system, which we trust will however little, each week of the year, re. before long be adopted in all large towns, ceives a premium of a shilling at the end by relating a true anecdote of a poor deof twelve months; and in large towns, 1 positor, furnished us by Mr. Paton, a:

THE SWAN AND THE EAGLE.

109

are

gentleman who has been mainly instrumental in the formation and carrying out

SPRING. of the Greenock Penny Bank. One of their earliest depositors was an aged the south it is intoxicating, and sets a

In all climates Spring is beautiful. In widow, who, upon applying for the

poet beside himself. The birds begin to Trinity-money, had been desired by the Custom House authorities to obtain certi- sing ; ---they utter a few rapturous notes, ficates of her own and her husband's birth and then wait for an answer in the silent

woods. Those green coated musicians, and of their marriage, without which the

the frogs, make a holiday in the neighmoney would not be paid her. This could

bouring marshes. They, too, belong not be accomplished without incurring the

to the orchestra of Nature, whose vast expense of a long journey to her native

theatre is again opened, though the doors country far away in the Highlands; and she must have gone without the bounty the scenery hung with snow and frost,

have been so long bolted with icicles, and due in her situation, had she not laid by, like cobwebs. This is the prelude which in the newly established Penny Bank, a

announces the rising of the broad green small but sufficient sum to take her to her childhood's home, where she managed The waters leap with thrilling pulse

curtain. Already the grass shoots forth. to obtain the necessary information, and received the Trinity money to support through the veins of the plants and trees,

through the veins of the earth, the sap her old age. Such is her attachment to

and the blood through the veins of man. the green mountains where her fathers

What a thrill of delight in spring-time!. ried, that her ardent desire now is

What a joy in being and moving! Men to save enough by means of the new bank,

are at work in gardens; and in the air to carry her own remains to the same

there is an odour of the fresh earth. The Highland grave.

leaf-bud begin to swell and blush. The white blossoms of the cherry hang upon

the boughs like snow-flakes; and ere long Sir James Mackintosh in 1816.

our next door neighbours will be com“What! are we to consider our subjects pletely hidden from us by the dense green as our enemies, and an army as the foliage. The May-flowers open their soft means of continuing popular discontent, blue eyes. Children are let loose in the and insuring passive obedience ? I waive fields and gardens. They hold butterall the tremendous consequences to public cups under each others' chins, to see if liberty of this extending and perpetuat- they love butter. And the little girls ing, in every part of the empire, the adorn themselves with chains and curls wretched principle of administration, of dandelions; pull out the yellow leaves which seem for a moment excused by to see if the schoolboy loves them, and necessity in Ireland.

Small blow the down from the leafless stalk, to Peace establishments, old English liberty, find out if their mothers want them at a people fearlessly discussing all prin- home. ciples and measures of Government, a House of Commons jealous of the power Not a voice of living thing,—not a whis

And at night so cloudless and so still ! of the sword, and tenacious of the power per of leaf or waving bough,—not a breath of the purse, have given triese islands happiness and greatness."

of wind,- not a sound upon the earth nor

in the air! And over-head bends the Mr. Wilberforce in 1816.-"He could blue sky, dewy and soft, and radiant with not forbear to express that jealonsy of a innumerable stars, like the inverted bell standing army, which our most distin- of some blue flower, sprinkled with goldguished constitutional writers had never en dust, and breathing fragrance. Or if ceased to inculcate. He also objected to the heavens are overcast, it is no wild the measure, because he was one of those storm of wind and rain; but clouds that who thought that this country was always melt and fall in showers. One does not too ready to go to war, and the existence wish to sleep; but lies awake to hear the of a large standing army, was but too pleasant sound of the dropping rain. likely to encourage that disposition." Longfellow.

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66

“ Hap

THE SWAN AND THE EAGLE.

where men reside. I prefer to see other

islands and kingdoms, and all I can beIt was on a beautiful Spring morning, hold, wherever my wings may bear me, when the trees and the flowers were spark- I like to descend into dark caverns, or to ling with dew-drops, when an eagle de- sit. monarch of all I survey,' on the highscended to quench its thirst from a lake est pinnacle of the highest mountain. I which lay embosomed between the moun- have an intense love for action; I want tains. It was immediately saluted by a always to be observing and enquiring. I swan, which was quietly enjoying itself allow I am never satisfied—that the more on the placid waters. Why do you not I see only increases my desire to see more take up your abode here,” said the swan, -that the higher I soar and the deeper I “why trouble yourself to fly over the hills dive, only increases my longing to soar and the sea, of which I have heard other higher and dive deeper still. I am somebirds speak, when you can remain in this times beaten by the tempest, and pelted lovely valley and lead a tranquil life? with the rain, and scorched with the lightWhy permit your feathers to be ruffled by ning, but with all the inconveniences atthe breeze and the storm, or why attempt tending my life, I would on no considerato fly towards the sun, when his rays must tion exchange it for yours." dazzle your eyes, and give you pain? Why piness," answered the swan, “ should be not be less ambitious, and become more the aim and end of life; and you, having happy by dwelling on the banks of the always some desire unsatisfied, cannot be lake ?" “ Ah," said the eagle, “you talk | content, and if not content you cannot be like a swan, and not like an eagle. You happy. Your restless desires and unthink that this little valley is the world, bounded ambition bring you disappointand that the highest and noblest life is ment and pain. As for myself I am satisfied quietude and contentment. I prefer to visit with my position. All my wants are the crags and the heights of the mountains, supplied; all my hopes and aspirations are to roam over the world, and to breast the realized. If I know nothing of other lakes, wildest storms. I allow I am put to in- vallies, and mountains, neither do I know convenience, and that my life is not so set- anything of the storms which would meet tled and still as yours, but I cannot but pre- me in my way to them. If I know nothing fer my own with all its seeming disadvan- of kingdoms, caverns, or the habitations of tages." “ You must be a foolish bird,” men, neither do I know anything of the rejoined the swan; you appear to prefer struggles and fatigues consequent on my bustle to tranquillity and waywardness to attempts to make their acquaintance. The wisdom. Look at me, see how beautifully winds that make those forests nod which my days pass away. I am cheered in the

crown yonder mountain, scarcely stir a morning by the song of birds and the ripple on my placid home. And why sweet breath of flowers. I swim slowly should I be so foolish as to wish to wing and delightfully over the lake. I pride my way over them, or to scale the altimyself in seeing my perfect form reflected tudes of the highest mountains, if disapfrom its glassy surface. I take walks on its pointment and inconvenience and perhaps flowery margin, recline myself on beds of acuter pain may accrue from iny atviolets, and smooth my plumage amid the tempts." “ Your arguments do not conhum of honey-bees, and the whisper of vince me that yours is the noblest life, butterflies. In this way the day passes though it may be the calmest and most away, and evetide and twilight approach, delicious" rejoined the eagle. “Your hopes when the warblers pour forth their ves- are bounded by your own powers of vision, pers and soothe me to rest. Is not such mine are as broad and as vast as the great' a life preferable to your uncertain and un- globe itself. But there is one thing, sister satisfactory one?” “I will allow," said swan, that you should not forget. I can the eagle, “that yours is a calmer exist- not only bound over the mountain, but I

You may enjoy more pleasure than can regale myself on the flowery banks of I do, but it is a mere passive pleasure. Ithis calm lake. I can not only ascend but prefer to mount the azure sky, to battle descend. I can not only swim through the with the breeze, to fly over lakes and sky, and bathe my wings in the noontide landscapes, and hills, and large cities splendours of the sun, but I can wash my

ence,

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feet in this pure lake and snuff the breath
of roses, while the smaller birds sing The Students' Column.
their matins on such a rosy morning as

HAVING stated in our last our intention this. And, besides, I am only following my own instinctive impulses, and fulfilling asking and answering of questions, and to

to devote a portion of our little book to the my destiny by the most difficult and dar

the translation of passages from one laning actions I can achieve. What, if I can- guage into another, for the mutual enter. not get all I wish? What, if I am some- tainment and edification of our readers in times doomed to disappointment, am I not general, and the younger portion of them remunerated by the additional strength I in particular, we now fulfil our promise. get in trying to realize my desires ? If I We think this department of our little never tried to do great things, I should book will be found both entertaining and never perform them; and if I do not get excite emulation and enquiry.

edifying. And we fully hope that it will

As we all I wish, I have the satisfaction that I cannot promise to devote more than a codid my best. And that satisfaction is lumn, or at the very outside, more than a sweeter to me than any of those passive en- | page a month to this purpose, it cannot be joyments which you, and such as you, real- reasonably expected, that all the questions ize

. Where you feel one noble soul-in- and answers sent to us will be inserted. spiring emotion, I feel ten. My many It is respectfully requested that whatever disappointments and pains prepare me for

may be asked or answered, will be done in the realization of the highest pleasures. problem, or passage will be numbered, and

as few words as possible. Each question, You, sister swan, may remain here in unruffled contentment on the bosom of this

its answer, solution, or translation will lake, but I must away to the eyries.” mistake may arise.

bear a corresponding number, so that no With this the eagle spread his wings, and 1. J.A.-- Where and when was Sir John cut through the blue empyreum. Many Franklin born ? people are like the swan. They think 2. H.-What is the amount of all the success and contentment should be the national debts of Europe ? object and pursuit of existence. There

3. R.J.-Will a magnifying glass act so

as to burn substances under water ? are other people like the eagle, who think that life is a noble battle; and who, also, the atomic theory?

4. T.U.R.- Who was the discoverer of think they are only answering their high

5. Tyro.--Who approached nearest the est purpose on the earth but by the stout

North Pole, and what is the latitude and est endeavours to enlarge their capaci- longitude of the point reached ? ties—to win victories by struggles—to 6. Enquirer. - The best translation of achieve greatness by patient perseverance the following passage of Dante's into Eng-and to try to solve the most difficult lish:problems of human life and destiny, by Per me si va nella Cettà dolente:

Per me si va nell' eterno delore : the most daring leaps and boldest flights.

Per me si va tra la perduta gente. The former may be compared to Epicurus, Giustizia mosse 'I mio alto fattore: the latter may be compared to Plato.

Fece mi la divina poteslate.
EDITUR.

La somna sapienza e 'l primo amore.
Dinanzi a me non fur cose create

Se non eterne, ed io eterno duro: M. Odillin Barrot in 1848.-" I de

Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch' entrate. sire that the Representatives of the Peo- 7. W. R.-The best translation of the ple should come out of tne ballot with a following passage of Pope's into Latin:majority strong enough to discourage all For me the mine a thousand treasures brings; violent attempts, and to give to this new For me health gushes from a thousand springs;

Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise, power, strength enough to enable it, with

My footstool earth, my canopy the skies. out danger, by reduciug the army, to re

8. A travels at the rate of 5 miles an duce the budget which now overwhelms us, to avoid the bankruptcy which is too hour, and B. at 74. A starts 40 minutes

before B. How far will A have travelled imminent, and in short to re-establish

when B overtakes him ? and re-assure society.” In cities there is a danger of soul be

9. My garden is circular, and contains 2a. coming wed to pleasure, and forgetful of its 2r.; determine the length of radius which high vocation,

struck the figure.

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A GLANCE AT RAGGED AND

acquired all sorts of mischievous prac

tices. They evinced a strong desire to. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.

introduce their manners and customs AMONG the many hopeful character into the school, and did not desist, istics of the present age, there is none altogether from begging till a month or more satisfactory than the progress of two had elapsed. Supplied with clean, Industrial Schools-institutions founded comfortable clothing; provided with: for the purpose of affording an asylum plenty of wholesome food; and instuctto destitute and neglected children, of ed in the more needful branches of rescuing them from the haunts of indo-education, a change for the better was lence, of infamy and vice; and of event- soon effected. Entertaining an abhorually freeing society from that class, rence of their previous practices, they who, hanging as it were on its skirts, are have ceased to beg, to swear and fight. pests and burdens to the well-disposed. “ Instead of blows for the settlement of There are few towns of any moment in a conflict,” says the teacher, “it is now the country that have not witnessed the done by shaking hands.” This they establishment of an Industrial School - think a noble plan. When any one has and experienced the benefits arising committed a fault, there is never any therefroin.

difficulty in obtaining substitutes to We have now lying before us the first come forward, voluntarily, and bear report of a Ragged School recently esta part of the punishment. Such symptoms blished in a small Scottish burgh (Ayr.) of mutual attachment-so touching a We would cull from it a few facts, display of the most kindly feelings which give a good idea of the strength speaks most effectively as to the success of the movement, of the important of industrial schools. position it has attained, and of the bene- Truth, it has been remarked, is ficial results it is effecting in the most stranger than fiction. Who could remote districts of the empire.

question this within the walls of a RagThe school in question is attended by ged School? How many romances in fifty children. Of these, 24 had been real life can that lowly room reveal ! deserted by their parents; 27 had one Taking a few individual cases in Ayr, parent dead; several were orphans; 10 the unnatural crime of parents deserting had been street singers ; 24 had been their children seems to be very prevavenders of laces, matches, &c.; 18 were lent. It appears, indeed, to be increasing beggars; 5 had been found homeless; to a great extent. We are told of a little 1 had been in prison; 12 had been va- Highland boy, 11 years of age, who was rious times in police-offices. Such were in the habit of wandering over the the elements of which that little school country with his father, an itinerant was composed. And what a melancholy | besom-maker, singing or begging in picture does an analysis of this youth- the streets. At a fair at Greenock ful group present ! What mournful

a year ago he lost his father.

He was misery is here revealed-here in a rus- picked up in Ayr, almost naked—destitic burgh, superior to many in respect tute of any means of living, save by of morality, and supposed to be next to begging or pilfering. Though on his free of that vice and poverty with which entrance into the institution he knew we meet in the crowded lanes and not a letter in the alphabet, he was alleys of the overgrown city! It is reading the Bible with considerable fluscarcely possible to realize the condi- ency five months thereafter. tion of the children when they were respect he was improved. A wild unfirst introduced to school. Many of tameable boy, 13 years of age, whose them had not had their shirts washed father was dead, and whose mother from the day they were put on, many was frequently in jail, was picked up at more had none to wash ; whilst scarcely the railway station, where he was in the any of them had enjoyed the blessing habit of carrying parcels. In six months of a blanket to sleep in for many a the formerly unlettered lad was competmonth. Never used to the least restraint ing daily for dux in the Bible class; he -roaming about at free will—they had had conquered a most ungovernable

In every

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