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Rustica were under the superintendence of a manager, termed Villicus or Actor.

The Familia Urbana also was separated into two divisionsOrdinarii and Vulgares, or upper and under slaves.

The Ordinarii comprehended all slaves who held offices of trust and responsibility in the establishment. Most of these had subslaves (vicarii).

The general term for those who took charge of particular departments in the household was Procuratores, among whom the chief were the cashier (Dispensator); the house-steward and butler (Cellarius s. Promus, caĪled by Plautus, Condus Promus and Procurator Peni); the groom of the chambers (Atriensis), the Decurio Cubiculariorum and the Decurio Ostiariorum. To the Ordinarii belonged also the highly educated slaves (Literati), among whom were the reader (Anagnostes s. Lector), the copying-clerk (Librarius S. Scriba).

The Vulgares were the menials of the household, such as the hall-porter (Janitor) and other doorkeepers (Ostiarii); chambermen (Cubicularii), who cleaned out and attended upon the different apartments, footmen (Pedisequi), palanquin-bearers (Lecticarii), running-footmen to clear the way (Anteambulones), couriers (Tabellarii); while, in the culinary department there were cooks (Coqui), bakers (Pistores), confectioners (Dulciarii), carvers (Carptores & Structores s. Scissores), and a host of others.

Other slaves were the Familia Gladiatoria, the prize-fighters, of whom vast numbers were trained for the amphitheatre-Medici and their assistants (iatraliptae); Opifices, skilled artizans of all descriptions ; Ludiones, stage-players, who were let out on hire choristers (Cantores), musicians (Symphoniaci), dancing-girls (Saltatrices), merry-andrews (Moriones), male and female dwarfs (Nani, Nanae; Pumiliones).

Dress and Food of Slaves. —Slaves, though forbidden the Toga, had no distinctive dress until the age of Alexander Severus. Each slave received a certain allowance, consisting of corn or bread (cibaria), wine (vinum), and something to give a relish to the farinaceous food (pulmentarium), usually olives or salt fish (halec). This allowance, in consequence of being measured out, was termed Demensum; if daily or monthly, it was called Diarium or Menstruum. Punishments inflicted upon Slaves.

-One of the mildest was the transference of a slave from the Familia Urbana to the Familia Rustica, in which he performed more severe labour. When the offence was of a serious character, the culprit was compelled to work in chains in the fields, or to grind corn in the bakehouse (ferratus in pistrino-praeferratus apud molas-irrigatum plagis pistori dabo),




or to toil in stone quarries (ibis porro in latomias lapidarias). The most common infliction for trifling transgressions was the lash. The flogging of slaves, which was performed by scourgers (lorarii), affords an inexhaustible theme for jests in the comic writers.

A heavy collar of wood, shaped like the letter V, termed Furca, was frequently attached to the necks of offenders, who were sometimes scourged as they moved painfully along (caesus virgis sub furca). Such an one was jeeringly addressed as Furcifer.

Runaways (fugitivi) and thieves were usually branded (notati) with a red hot iron, and were styled InscriptiInscripta Ergastula, or, jestingly, Literati, because the letters F V R were often imprinted indelibly upon their persons, and hence the taunting address

-Tune TRIUM LITERARUM HOMO me vituperas ? i. e., thief that thou art.

When slaves were capitally punished, crucifixion was the death specially reserved for them.

When the master of a family was murdered in his own house, either by one of his own slaves, or by an unknown assassin, the whole of the slaves who were in the mansion at the time were put to death.

Liberation of Slaves. — The release of a slave from slavery (manumissio) might be effected by his master, regularly, in three ways.

1. Vindicta.—The master appeared with his slave before one of the higher magistrates, usually the Praetor, and a third person came forward, laid a rod called Virga 8. Festuca s. Vindicta upon the head of the slave, and claimed him as a freeman, in the set form, Hunc ego hominem liberum esse aio. The master laid hold of the slave, and turning him round, replied, Hunc hominem liberum esse volo, gave him a slight blow upon the cheek (alapa) and let him go (emittebat eum e manu). The magistrate then pronounced him free, by giving judgment in favour of the claimant (addicebat), and the ceremony was complete.

2. Censu.—If the master applied to the Censor to enrol his slave as a Civis, the slave became free as soon as the entry was made.

3. Testamento.—A master might, by his will, either bestow freedom at once (directo) on a slave, or he might instruct his heir to manumit the slave.

Libertinus. Libertus. Patronus.—Manumission, completed according to any of these three methods, was Justa et legitima Manumissio, and the freedom thus acquired, Justa Libertas. The liberated slave was pow termed Libertinus, socially, but Libertus, with respect to his former master, who was now no longer his Dominus, but his Patronus.

The relation which existed between the Patronus and his Libertus resembled very closely the ancient tie of Patron and Client




Names of Libertini.--A Libertinus usually received the Praenomen and Nomen of his former master, the appellation by which he had been previously distinguished being added as a Cognomen. Of this practice we have examples in such names as M. Terentius Afer.

Cap of Liberty.As soon as a slave received his freedom he shaved his head and put on a conical cap, called Pileus; the right of wearing such a covering being a distinctive mark of a free citizen. Hence the phrases, servos ad pileum vocare-pileum capere—and the cap thus became an emblem of freedom both in ancient and modern times.

Political Condition of Libertini.—From the time of Servius Tullius until the close of the republic, Libertini became invested with the rights and privileges appertaining to members of the Plebeian order, and, as such, were enrolled in a tribe.

Social Condition of Libertini. — Although Libertini, under the republic, were nominally invested with all the rights and privileges of Roman citizens, they were virtually, by the force of public opinion and feeling, excluded from all high and honourable offices in the state. Not only the Libertinus himself, but his descendants, for several generations, were looked down upon as inferiors by those who had no taint of servile blood.

Informal Manumission. In addition to the legally recognized forms of manumission, a slave might be liberated by the mere expression of a wish to that effect on the part of his master; but in this case his position was less secure. Thus we hear of Manumissio inter amicos s. Libertas inter amicos data, when a master, in the presence of his friends, pronounced his slave free; Manumissio per epistolam, when, being at a distance, he wrote a letter to that effect; Manumissio per mensam, when he permitted his slave to sit at table with him.

Manumission of Slaves by the State.—The state itself occasionally bestowed freedom upon slaves, and if such slaves were not public property (servi publici), they were purchased with the public money from their masters. One of the most remarkable examples of manumission by the state, is to be found in the case of the Volones, that is, the slaves who, to the number of 8,000, volunteered as soldiers during the second Punic war, and who received their freedom after the battle of Beneventum (B.C. 214), as a reward.



The citizens might be called together by a magistrate :

1. For the purpose of being addressed upon some matter of public interest, without any proposition being submitted to them for their vote. In this case the assembly was called Concio.

2. For the purpose of hearing some proposition to be determined by their votes. În this case the assembly was called Comitia, or anciently Comitiatus. Comitium never denotes the assembly, but the part of the Forum where the popular assemblies met in the earliest times.

Conciones.—A Concio corresponded in many respects to what we now term a “ Public Meeting. The magistrate employed a public crier (praeco), and was said advocare s. convocare concionem.

The right of calling a Concio belonged, during the regal period, in all probability, to the king alone, or to his immediate representatives, the Tribunus Celerum or the Praefectus Urbis. Under the republic it was exercised by all the higher magistrates, including the Tribunes of the Plebs. The ordinary places of meeting were the Comitium, the lower Forum, the Capitol, and the Campus Martius.

Concilium.—While Comitia denoted an assembly of the whole people called together for the purpose of voting upon some measure, Concilium is sometimes used to denote a similar assembly, consisting of a portion only of the community. Hence Concilium Plebis, or simply Concilium, is employed to denote the Comitia Tributa, because that assembly consisted originally of Plebeians only. On the other hand, Concilium Populi denotes the Comitia Centuriata.

Concilium is also frequently employed to denote a promiscuous assemblage, without


reference either to Conciones or Comitia. Comitia.—When a magistrate summoned Comitia it was invariably for the purpose of asking the people to do something (ut rogaret quid populum), and in submitting the matter to their consideration, he was technically said agere cum populo.

The three kinds of Comitia were:
1. Comitia Curiata, in which the people voted in Curiae.
2. Comitia Centuriata,

Centuriae. 3. Comitia Tributa,

Tribus. To these some add a fourth, Comitia Calata.

In none of the three first named did the people vote promiscuously, but, according to the nature of the Comitia, each voted in

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the Curia, in the Centuria, or in the Tribus to which he belonged, and in no case was the result decided simply by the majority of the gross number who gave their votes.

Thus, in the Comitia Centuriata, each Centuria had one vote, and the vote of each Centuria was determined by the majority of its individual voters. The question under consideration was decided by the majority of the Centuries. But since these did not all contain the same gross number of voters, it did not follow that a majority of the Centuries expressed the opinion of a majority of the gross number of individual voters in the community at large.

Exactly the same principle was followed in the Comitia Curiata and in the Comitia Tributa, the majority of Curiae in the one, and of Tribus in the other, decided the question, while the vote of each Curia and of each Tribus was determined by the majority of the individuals which it contained.

The word Comitia is not unfrequently used as equivalent to elections. Thus, the sentence Iam Comitiorum appetebat tempus means, the period for the annual elections was now approaching.

Functions of the Presiding Magistrate.—The magistrate who summoned a meeting of Comitia also presided (comitiis praeerat), and was said habere Comitia: he submitted any measure with the form Velitis Iubeatis Quirites; he was said agere cum populo-consulere populum- ferre ad populum-rogare, and the latter verb is also applied to the object of the vote, as, for example, rogare legemrogare magistratus-rogare consules-rogare praetores, i.e., to propose a law-magistrates—consuls, &c., the phrases being elliptical abbreviations for rogare populum legem-rogare populum consules, &c.

Rogatio. Lex.—The word Rogatio is frequently used to denote a Bill proposed to the people; hence promulgare Rogationem means to publish a bill previous to its being submitted to the Comitia; and according as the people accepted or rejected it, they were said iubere or antiquare rogationem. After a Rogatio was passed (lata est) it became a Lex; but in practice Rogatio and Lex were frequently used as convertible terms, just as Bill and Law are by ourselves. To repeal a law was legem abrogare; to repeal a portion aliquid legi derogare; to add new clauses, aliquid legi subrogare. When an old law was affected by a new one, the former was said obrogari.

The presiding magistrate was said, ferre s. perferre legem when the law was passed.

Power of the Presiding Magistrate.-1. No one could address the meeting without his permission, except a magistrate of equal or superior rank to himself, or a Tribune of the Plebs, although in some cases perhaps a senator might insist upon being heard.

2. He had the power of fixing a limit to the space during which an orator might speak.

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