Informed Watermarking

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Springer Science & Business Media, 31.05.2002 - 182 Seiten
This book deals with digital watermarking, which is defined by the authors of this book as the art of hiding auxiliary information in digital data in a secure, robust and imperceptible fashion. Digital watermarking as a topic has a long history, but before 1995 publications in scientific literature were almost absent. From 1995 onwards however the number of publications on watermarking has been steadily increasing. Today a number of workshops and conferences on this topic exist; also a number of scientific journals on watermarking have been published. This renewed scientific interest in digital watermarking has led very quickly to industrial interest, as well. In 1996 the Copy Protection Technical Working Group, a voluntary consortium consisting of the movie industry, the IT industry and the consumer electronics industry, issued a call for watermarking technologies for the purpose of copy protection of DVD-Video. A few years later the Secure Digital Music Initiative issued a similar call, in this case focusing on copy protection of digital music. These two efforts have been only partially successful: copy protection based on digital watermarking is not (yet) implemented on a large scale in any type of consumer device. This current "failure" of watermarking, to live up to its expectations, finds its cause in a large number of reasons, ranging from legal considerations and system aspects to the relative immaturity of watermarking as a technology.
 

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Inhalt

INTRODUCTION
1
GENERAL CONCEPTS AND STATEOFTHEART
7
212 Remarks on Notation and Problem Formulation
8
22 Restrictions and Simplifications
10
222 Data Modifications for Watermark Embedding
11
223 Synchronized Watermark Reception
12
224 Multiple Watermark Embedding
13
231 Stochastic Data Description
14
43 Step Size and Offset Estimation for SCS
89
431 General Approach Based on Securely Embedded Pilot Sequences
90
432 Model for the Conditional PDFs of Received Pilot Elements
91
433 Parameter Estimation Based on Fourier Analysis
93
435 Appropriate Choice of Parameters
96
44 Chapter Summary
100
APPLICATIONS
103
511 System Design
104

233 Stochastic Models Available to Embedder and Attacker
15
24 Performance Evaluation of Digital Watermarking
16
242 Watermark Detection
18
2422 Detection Based on Soft Information
19
25 SpreadSpectrum Watermarking
20
252 Performance of SS Watermarking Facing AWGN Attacks
21
253 SpreadTransform Watermarking
22
26 Exploiting Side Information at the Encoder
23
261 Blind Watermarking for AWGN Attacks
24
262 Quantization Index Modulation QIM
25
263 Costas Scheme
27
27 A GameTheoretic Approach to Digital Watermarking
29
271 Definition of the Watermarking Game
30
272 Solution of the Game for Gaussian Data
31
INFORMATION EMBEDDING INTO IID SIGNALS FACING AN AWGN ATTACK
33
312 SCS Decoder
36
313 Related Blind Watermarking Schemes
37
321 Distribution of Watermarked Data
38
323 BER for Uncoded Transmission
40
325 Capacity of SCS Watermarking facing AWGN attacks
42
33 HighRate SCS Communication
45
34 LowRate SCS Communication
48
342 Comparison of SCS with Repetition Coding and STSCS
49
343 Capacity of ST Watermarking and Optimal Spreading Factor
51
344 SCS with StateoftheArt Channel Coding
52
35 Inverse SCS
54
351 Inverse SCS in the Noiseless Case
55
352 Inverse SCS after AWGN Attack
56
3521 Estimation of the Original Signal
57
3522 Achievable Distortion Reduction
59
36 Detection of Information Embedded with SCS
62
362 SCS Watermark Detection from a Group of Elements
63
37 Chapter Summary
64
DIGITAL WATERMARKING A GAME BETWEEN EMBEDDER AND ATTACKER
67
411 SAWN Attacks and Effective AWN Attacks
68
412 Solving the Watermarking Game for SAWN Attacks
71
413 Watermarking of IID Gaussian Signals
73
414 Suboptimal Watermarking Schemes Facing the SAWGN Attack
75
42 Watermarking of NonIID Signals
78
422 Attack Strategy for Fixed Embedding Strategy
81
423 Optimizing the Embedding Strategy
86
5112 Hash Computation and Structure Normalization
105
5113 Watermark Embedding into a Single Molecule Structure
106
5114 Watermark Reception from a Single Molecule
107
5116 Host Data Extraction and Quality Criteria
108
512 Performance Evaluation
109
5122 Verification of Decoded Watermark Message
111
5123 Perfect Attack on Parts of the Data
112
521 Communication of Watermark Messages via Image Data
113
5212 Watermark Capacity Analysis
115
5213 Coded BDCTDomain STSCS Watermarking
120
5214 Experimental Results for FACGN Attacks
123
5215 Experimental Results for JPEG Compression Attacks
125
522 Image Integrity Verification Based on SCS Watermarks
129
5222 Digital Watermarking Applied to Integrity Verification
130
5223 Watermark Design for Integrity Verification of Image Data
131
5224 Detection Error Rates after JPEG Compression
132
5225 Example Image Manipulation
133
53 Chapter Summary
134
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
137
62 The Game Between Watermark Embedder and Attacker
139
63 Applications for Digital Watermarking
141
64 Future Research Topics
142
Properties of SCS Transmission
143
A2 PDF of extracted SCS information after AWGN attacks
145
A3 Derivation Details for Inverse SCS Mapping
146
A4 SCS Watermarking Facing Scalar Quantization Attacks
147
Solution of the Watermarking Game for SAWN Attacks
151
Optimization of Attack Strategy for Fixed Embedding Strategy
153
C1 Optimization in Case of ICS Watermarking
154
C2 Optimization in Case of SS Watermarking
155
Optimization of the Embedding Strategy
159
D1 Optimized Embedding and Attack for ICS Watermarking
160
D2 Optimized Embedding and Attack for SS Watermarking
161
D3 Optimized Embedding and Attack for STSCS Watermarking
162
Test Images and Additional Results
165
E2 Additional Image Statistics
166
E3 STSCS Watermark Capacities for Image Data
167
References
169
Index
179
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Seite 174 - Statistical analysis of watermarking schemes for copyright protection of images. Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information, 87(7): 1 1421165, July 1999.
Seite 177 - U. Wachsmann, RFH Fischer, and JB Huber, "Multilevel codes: theoretical concepts and practical design rules,
Seite 170 - Pradhan, LE Ghaoui, and K. Ramchandran, "A robust optimization solution to the data hiding problem using distributed source coding principles,
Seite 172 - J. Eggers, J. Su, and B. Girod, "Robustness of a blind image watermarking scheme," in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Image Processing, IEEE, (Vancouver, Canada), Sept. 2000.
Seite 170 - Some general methods for tampering with watermarks...
Seite 177 - RG van Schyndel, AZ Tirkel, and ID Svalbe, "Key independent watermark detection", In Proc.
Seite 177 - JK Su, F. Hartung, and B. Girod. A channel model for a watermark attack.
Seite 177 - Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information, Vol. 87, No. 7, 1 127-1 141, 1999. 1 1 . IJ Cox, J Kilian, FT Leighton and T Shamoon, Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia.
Seite 176 - Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation," in Proceedings of the Information Hiding Workshop, pp. 340353, (Pittsburgh, PA), April 2001. 2. FAP Petitcolas and RJ Anderson, "Evaluation of copyright marking systems," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, pp. 574-579, (Florence, Italy), June 7-11 1999. 3. S. Winkler, E. Drelie Gelasca, and T. Ebrahimi, "Perceptual quality assessment for video watermarking...

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