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prosy, to use an ordinary but intelligible word, to suit the minds of the young. Now it is obvious, that the desideratum is something half way between the two; something that will not only leave the facts on the memory, but will show whence those facts are derived, and reply to the question perpetually arising in the mind of the pupil, cui bono. In order to do this, the facts-i. e. the declensions of the nouns and adjectives, with the formation of their cases-must be set forth as clearly and fully as possible, and the like of the voices, modes, tenses and verbs. Next comes the great stumbling block-to show how, and why, these formations-the most difficult, the most beautiful, and the most important of all grammatical studies: tracing, for the most part, everything to one simple, regular and same beginning, and showing that there is nothing arbitrary, or uncertain, or useless in the texture of this most sublime language, but that every delicate shade has its distinctive meaning, and arises naturally and simply from its preceding and less perfect form. To do this successfully, we must present to the boy, in regular ascending order,-not the arguments by which we were convinced of the facts, for though interesting and luminous to us, to him they will be tedious, dry, and utterly obscure, but the facts themselves, each as deduced from the last, with a very brief account, couched in the plainest language, of the method of the change and its utility and object. This, then, is precisely what Professor Anthon has done, and accordingly his grammar, while affording all the broad and tangible facts of the language, as presented by the English Grammars, does not, like them, leave the cause and meaning of those facts to be conjectured or misunderstood, but gives the origin of the changes and their results, in a manner so brief and luminous that the effect is an almost intuitive comprehension of the subject. From the first pages, which contain a few easy and at the same time conclusive rules, relating to the division of letters, the breathings, accents and simple figures of orthography, to the end of the last excursus, the thing which strikes us most, is the constant classification and simplification. The fulness of the declensions of the nouns and adjectives, of which all the numbers are now declined at length, so that the pupil is no longer left in doubt, whether they be five or two cases in the dual,—as we have often seen him, when merely two final syllables were presented to him, to signify the whole five cases,--is the next valuable improvement; and is really such in no small or unimportant degree. The formation of the cases follows beautifully clear and luminous, and thence through the adjectives, numerals, &c. to the verbs, first regular, with their formations according to the old rules, and excellent new observations on the origin of their changes; then contracted and irregular, all conjugated at full length, and all explained with equal accuracy, truth and simplicity. The alphabetical catalogue of the defective and irregular verbs is the most complete and comprehensive we have ever seen, and is, in fact, better than any dictionary extant for the beginner. The adverbs, conjunctions, negative particles and prepositions, with their significations, positions in construction, government, &c., follow in
regular course, and are no less complete and all-conclusive than the foregoing portions of the volume, which terminates with the rules of Syntax clearly laid down, fully exemplified, and free alike, as far as a close examination has enabled us to discover, from error, redundancy, or meagreness. In a word, we look upon this Greek Grammar as the best ever published, not only here, but anywhere; suitable no more to the raw beginner than to the mature and advanced scholar; an offering of the greatest possible value to the rising generation of America; and likely to produce results, fully equal to its own merits, and to the labor which has been expended on its pages.
The Greek Grammar then, is, as we have endeavoured to show, a vast improvement on all former works of the same nature: the Prosody differs from it, as being, in so far as we know, sui generis. There exists, nothing like a manual of the prosody of the Greek language in the English tongue; a few bald and brief rules at the commencement of Maltby and Morell's Thesurus, and a few other scattered commentaries on various classical authors, with Porson's preface to the four plays of Euripides, published by that great scholar, forming all the elementary lights on the subject presented heretofore to students of the English Universities; while in our own, the whole branch has been neglected as fantastic and superfluous, if not imaginary and ideal. In the English schools by dint of long practice the scholar acquires an ear for Greek and Latin pronunciation, so that you will rarely detect an Eton or Westminster man, though perhaps, beyond this point of meagre acquirement in classics, tripping in quantity. The habit of constant poetical composition, both in heoric, elegiac and lyrical verse improves the ear yet farther, and teaches, step by step, and in the absence of all rules, the Latin metres. Thus is the Latin prosody at length acquired, in practice; though with the theory and reasons, the scholar is often still, entirely unacquainted. A process of the same kind, teaches the student of the universties the prosody of the Greek tongue; by the laborious perusal of long commentaries on every several author, Epic, Dramatic, Pastoral or Lyric, while the prizes for composition in Senarian Iambics, and in Greek Alcaics, contended for with eager rivalry, complete the course, and for the most part elegantly enough, though not in most cases thoroughly, or on scientific grounds, and always at a vast expense of time and labor. It seems to have been a favorite maxim of our forefathers, that as they learned themselves without aid, so no aid was to be given to posterity, and that the best mode of teaching the young was not hindering them from finding out what they could for themselves. Now however, luckily for school-boys, nous avons changé tout celà, as the French Jacobin said of the Christian religion-and this little volume is one of the most important changes. Commencing with a brief definition of prosody, and the first plain rules for position, the long vowels, and the quantity of the short vowels, with exceptions-the author goes forward to the grand key of the whole mystery, the quantity of the doubtful vowels, &c. &c., which he explains in a
most logical and with the most copious examples, as affected variously, in their various positions in the final syllables, in the increment of nouns or verbs, in the penultima, and in the syllables before the penultima. This completes the first part of the work, and completes it so effectually, that we do not hesitate to say, that more may be acquired of real knowledge of the Greek prosody in three months, diligently applied to the perusal and study of this first part, than in six years by the ordinary methods. We would particularly dwell on the observations with regard to the lengthening of short, and the shortening of long vowels accordingly as they occur in the arsis or thesis of the foot. The argument is conclusive, and better put than in any work we have ever seen. The second part, on metre, commences with an admirable treatise on the Greek feet and metres, with excellent observations on the interchange of the isochronous syllables, and thence proceeds to give a compendium of all the Greeks measures in use; the whole is performed with the thorough skill of a writer perfectly conversant with the topic on which he writes, and of a teacher practically acquainted with the art of instruction. The scansion of the choral strains of three excellent Greek tradegies follows, -the Prometheus, Edipus, Tyrannus and Ajax Flagellifer, and besides presenting an admirable commentary and exemplification of what has gone before, gives to the student a beautiful and accurate text of some of the most sublime specimens of lyric poetry existing. The Indo-Germanic Analogies, which close the volume, are not inferior in conclusiveness or depth of learning to any of the earlier matter, nor, in our belief, are they of less practical utility; though probably the novelty, to American scholars, of the doctrines they contain, and their greater profundity will render them less generally popular. As a whole, we esteem the prosody as of even greater general utility than the grammar; for whereas that is the best, this is the only complete and compendious guide of the learner, to a real comprehension and appreciation of the harmony, beauty and sublimity of the noblest language ever spoken upon earth. The publishers have played their part well: the text is excellent, the type clear and handsome, the paper white, firm and solid, so that the whole appearance of the volume is highly attractive.
In conclusion, we hail the appearance of this series, as an indication of a new era; for as the arrival of the swallow, though it be not in itself summer, is the sign that summer is at hand, because summer alone can supply the causes that bring the bird, so the appearance of these high works indicate that a new era is at hand, because the approach of a new era alone could create a demand for them. We hail them, therefore, as the tokens and forerunners of a new and nobler era, wherein our country shall show itself to possess as much desire to gain, and the same means of gaining, a high and creditable station in the accomplishments, the elegancies, and the liberal arts, which add so much to the real enjoyments of human life; and which can only be obtained by a high classical schooling of the mind; as it has displayed of energy, in the vast strides
which it has made in the acquisition of wealth, and to the diffusion of the inestimable blessings of a common education to the humblest classes of its citizens and when this era shall arive, as certain we are that it will shortly, Professor Anthon will be as surely hailed the master-spirit gave the first impulse to the great movement, the end of which no man may see, or judge of, except by vague conjecture.
A nation's honor is her freight,
Upon yon field her robes of green
A thousand falchions flaming there,
Stars of the bloody tempest, on
In terrors fierce they dash.
The summer leaves and flowers are crushed
And long will that ensanguined field
Of blood, that kingly arrogance
And long may feuds of nations mourn
Thus millions of the busy world,
Seek with their might and energy
BALTIMORE, MD., May 24th, 1839.
A STORY OF ANNE ARUNDEL.
Some years since, I received an invitation from an old friend to spend a few weeks at his farm, where he assured me I should find plenty of game, and perfect freedom from all restraint. Remembering that when a boy I had been accounted a remarkable shot and a successful sportsman, having killed dozens of Pee-wees, and sometimes, by uncommon luck, brought home a robin, these inducements proved irresistible; the first roused all the Nimrod within me, the second was grateful to a body not then broken in to the cart-horse labours of an accounting office. In the ensuing autumn, finding a period of comparative leisure before me, I