Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
Clarendon Press, 1993 - 492 Seiten
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging is best known for its spectacular use in medical tomography. However the method has potential applications in biology, materials science, and chemical physics, some of which have begun to be realized as laboratory NRM spectrometers have been adapted toenable small scale imaging. NMR microscopy has available a rich variety of contrast including molecular specificity and sensitivity to molecular dynamics.In NMR imaging the signal is acquired in k-space, a dimension which bears a Fourier relationship with the positions of nuclear spins. A dynamic analogue of k-space imaging is the Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) experiment in which the signal is acquired in q-space, conjugate to the distances movedby the spins over a well-defined time interval. q-space microscopy provides images of the nuclear self-correlation function with a resolution some two orders of magnitude better than is possible in imaging the nuclear density. As well as revealing the spectrum of molecular motion, PGSE NMR can beused to study morphology in porous systems through the influence of motional boundaries.This book explores principles and common themes underlying these two variants of NMR Microscopy, providing many examples of their use. The methods discussed here are of importance in fundamental biological and physical research, as well as having applications in a wide variety of industries,including those concerned with petrochemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food processing and natural product processing.
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PRINCIPLES OF IMAGING
INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENTS
HIGHRESOLUTION KSPACE IMAGING
KSPACE MICROSCOPY IN BIOLOGY AND MATERIALS
THE MEASUREMENT OF MOTION USING SPIN ECHOES
acquisition amplitude applied approach arises associated attenuation average bandwidth behaviour biological tissue broadening causes Chapter chemical shift coherence coil component contrast corresponds density dependence described determined diffusion dimension dipolar direction discussed displacement domain effect evolution example excitation experiment factor field filter flow Fourier frame frequency function geometry given gives gradient imaging interaction k-space leads limit Magn magnetic field magnetization means measurement method molecular molecules motion NMR microscopy normal Note nuclear obtained operator period PGSE phase shift pixel polarization polymer pore position possible present problem proton pulse sequence quantum mechanics r.f. pulse ratio reconstruction reference relaxation represents resolution Reson respectively result rotating sample selective sensitivity separation sequence shown in Fig shows signal signal-to-noise simple single slice solid space spatial spectrum spin echo tion transform transverse values
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