Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
Clarendon Press, 1993 - 492 Seiten
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging is best known for its spectacular use in medical tomography. However the method has potential applications in biology, materials science, and chemical physics, some of which have begun to be realized as laboratory NRM spectrometers have been adapted toenable small scale imaging. NMR microscopy has available a rich variety of contrast including molecular specificity and sensitivity to molecular dynamics.In NMR imaging the signal is acquired in k-space, a dimension which bears a Fourier relationship with the positions of nuclear spins. A dynamic analogue of k-space imaging is the Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) experiment in which the signal is acquired in q-space, conjugate to the distances movedby the spins over a well-defined time interval. q-space microscopy provides images of the nuclear self-correlation function with a resolution some two orders of magnitude better than is possible in imaging the nuclear density. As well as revealing the spectrum of molecular motion, PGSE NMR can beused to study morphology in porous systems through the influence of motional boundaries.This book explores principles and common themes underlying these two variants of NMR Microscopy, providing many examples of their use. The methods discussed here are of importance in fundamental biological and physical research, as well as having applications in a wide variety of industries,including those concerned with petrochemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food processing and natural product processing.
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PRINCIPLES OF IMAGING
SPATIALLY HETERO GENEOUS MOTION
INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD GRADie NTS
HIGHRESOLUTION kSPACE IMAGING
kSPACE MICROSCOPY IN BIOLOGY AND MATERIALS
THE MEASUREMENT OF MOT iON USING SPIN ECHOES
acquisition amplitude applied artefacts average axis bandwidth behaviour biological tissue broadening chemical shift coherence coil component contrast correlation corresponds CPMG density matrix dependence dephasing diffusion dipolar interaction displacement domain echo attenuation effect ensemble evolution example filter Fourier transform function gradient echo gradient pulse Hamiltonian inhomogeneity inversion J-coupled k-space Larmor frequency linewidth Magn magnetic field gradient method modulation molecular molecules motion NMR imaging NMR microscopy noise nuclear magnetic nuclear magnetic resonance nuclear spin nuclei obtained optimal PGSE experiment phase encoding phase shift Phys pixel point spread function polymer pore proton NMR pulse sequence quantum r.f. field r.f. pulse raster read gradient reconstruction refocusing resolution result rotating frame sample selective excitation self-diffusion sensitivity shown in Fig signal-to-noise ratio slice selection solid spatial spectral spectrum spin echo SSFP stimulated echo susceptibility time-scale tion transverse magnetization velocity voxel water H Zeeman
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