The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future
Hilary H. Birks, H. J. B. Birks, Peter Emil Kaland, Dagfinn Moe
Cambridge University Press, 1988 - 521 Seiten
The Cultural Landscape - Past, Present and Future considers different aspects of man's intervention with natural vegetation and the landscape resulting from a long equilibrium of co-existence. These landscapes are not stable, and the recent and ever accelerating changes in technology and life-style have increasingly affected many ancient landscapes, as old land-use practices are abandoned and traditions forgotten. The papers in this book describe and trace the development of cultural landscapes in different climatic and biogeographical regions in Europe. Remnants of traditional land-use still remaining are described, particularly from Western Norway, where traditions have lingered because the rugged topography of the region is inimicable to high-technology. Each chapter is by an expert in the field. The topics cover the documentation of present cultural landscapes, their maintenance and restoration, and the history of the development of cultural landscapes from the Stone Age onwards, linking the intensity of landscape utilization with population dynamics and technological attainments. The disciplines involved include vegetation science, vegetation history, ecology, palaeoecology, archaeology, sociology, geography and history.
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agricultural Alnus anthropogenic AP influx arable archaeological Austad Beden Berglund Betula Birks Bjaresjo Bronze Age Callanish Calluna Cannabaceae cattle century cereal changes charcoal clearance climate common coppice Corylus crops cultivation cultural landscape curve Cyperaceae dates dominated early ecological elm-decline evidence expansion Fagus fields fodder forest Fraxinus Galdane grass grassland grazing Hailuoto Halne herbs Holmegaard human impact hunter-gatherer important increase indicators interpretation Iron Age Kuusamo lake land land-use levels manure meadows Medieval Mesolithic mire Neolithic nodum Norway nutrients ombrotrophic palaeoecological palynological pastures peat percentages period phase Pinus Plantago lanceolata plants Poaceae pollarding Pollen assemblage pollen diagrams pollen types pratensis prehistoric present probably Quercus Rackham recorded reflect regional Rumex Salix sample Scania Secale sediments settlement soil species Subboreal summer farms taxa Tilia transhumance trees Ulmus upland values villages Waterland western Norway woodland woods Ystad zone
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