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Sir Thomas Allin (his name is often in- THE EDWARDS, KINGS OF ENGLAND (11 S. correctly given as Allen), who was com- i. 501).-In his interesting notes at the above mander-in-chief of the English fleet in 1670, reference MR. A. S. ELLIS employs a term and whose principal duty at that time was to which, as a Scot, I cannot allow to pass un. overawe the piratical Barbary cruisers, challenged. “Edward the Elder, says writes to Williamson on 26 August, 1670, and MR. ELLIS, was himself the first who gives a most spirited relation of an encounter extended his authority over the whole of with Turks with the object of freeing these Great Britain.” prisoners, and he supplies a list of 62 for Non inultus premor ! Here we have whom he had just secured freedom-S. P. reasserted the claim in successfully resisting Dom. Car. II. 278 (50). See also in this which my countrymen waged almost inces. connexion “A True Relation of the Victory sant war for three hundred years. The sole of His Majesties Fleet... ... against the basis for that claim is the well-known passage Pyrates of Algiers...... taken out of the in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ? ad ann. Letters of Sir Thomas Allin. T. Newcomb 924. Be it far from me to join issue in a in the Savoy. 1670"; and a less painful matter whereon so much blood and ink has story which is given in "The Adven- been shed in the past ;' but I venture tures of Mr. T. S., an English Merchant respectfully to ask how MR. ELLIS can taken prisoner by the Turks of Argiers justify the use of the term Great Britain 12 [sic] and carried into the In land countries as applied to any dominion in the tenth of Africa. Moses Pitt in Little Britain. century. 1670."

If he means to imply the territory now That munificent lady of the seventeenth known by that name, I would remind him century known as Alice, Duchoss Dudloy that the designation was used for the first (wife of Sir Robert Dudley, and created time officially by James VI. and I., who, Duchess Dudley in her own right 23 May, greatly to the displeasure of his English 1645), left money for the relief of captives subjects and in the very teeth of the highest in the hands of the Turks :

legal opinion, instituted the now title by “Alice, Dutchess Dudley, who died at her house royal warrant in 1604, although the judges near St. Giles Church, Holborn, 22 Jan., 1668/9, declared that all legal processes would bequeathed £100 a year for over for the redemption thereby be invalidated. of Christian captives out of the hands of the Turks. She also bequeathed 6d. apiece to every indigent

That, however, cannot be MR. ELLIS'S person meeting her corpse on the road from London meaning in the phrase the whole of Great to Stoneley (Stoneleigh, Warwickshire), where she Britain, for the Western Isles were not was buried.” -S. P. Dom. Car. II.

ceded by the King of Norway till 1266, and Some people made capital out of Charles Orkney and Shetland were not incorporated II.'s letter, for in December, 1870, there in the Scottish realm till 1471. . If we assume appeared an announcement that as the letters (for argument's sako, but without prejudice) patent granted

that the statement in the 'Anglo-Saxon "to make collections to redeem Turkish captives Chronicle is correct in the main (though it now expired, the persons still collecting varies in detail in the seven extant copies),

thereon are to be apprehended, and and that Edward the Elder did acquire the punished according to law."-S. P. Dom. Car. II. suzerainty of the Kingdom of Alba (the title PS1 (118).

Scotia or Scotland was not in use until the The best general history of England's following century), the utmost that can be relations with Tangier in 1670 is found in claimed is that his authority was contermin. 'Tangier as a Naval Station,' viz., the ous with the realm of Constantin II., which twenty-second chapter of England in the only comprised the district between Forth Mediterranean, 1803–1713, by Julian Cor- and Clyde on the south and the Helmsdale bett, 1904. A. L. HUMPHREYS.

and Inver rivers on the north, from soá to 187, Piccadilly, W.

séa, but without the adjacent islands. And

although the 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (the MR. SWEETMAN will find much to interest sole authority) asserts that Regnwald of him in two papers on 'Devonshire Briefs' Northumbria and the King of the Strathclyde written by Dr. T. N. Brushfield, F.S.A., Welsh also submitted, it is certain that King and published in the Transactions of the Edward's writs would not have run in Devonshire Association for 1895 and 1896. Caithness, Moray, Ross, and Galloway.

FRED. C. FROST, F.S.I. What we reckon to be the true nativity Teignmouth.

of the Kingdom of Scotland is 15 August, (W. S. 8. also thanked for reply.)

1057, one hundred and thirty-two years


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after Edward the Elder's death, on which for the use of English-speaking people, day King Malcolm Ceann-mor defeated and enable the quorist to find what he wants ? slew the usurper Macbeth at Lumphannan. Such a work is the “ Now Dictionary of Founding upon Edward the Elder's alleged Foreign Phrases, comprising extracts from suzerainty over part of North Britain in the great writers, idioms, proverbs, maxims, tenth century, the Norman and Plantagenet mottoos, technical words and terms, press kings claimed supremacy over the entire allusions, &c. &c. Edited by H. P. Jones," realm of Scotland in the twelfth, thirteenth, new edition, London, Deacon & Co., 1902. and fourteenth centuries, but failed to · Cassell's Book of Quotations,' edited by establish it.

HERBERT MAXWELL. Benham, and Hoyt and Ward's 'Cyclopædia BATH KING OF ARMS (11 S. i. 510).—This lists of phrasos, _proverbs, maxims, and

of Practical Quotations · also contain long is perfectly correct. When the Order of the reflections from French, German, Italian, Bath was reconstituted by writ of Privy and Spanish sources. A considerable number Soal, 18 May, 11. Goo. I., i.e., 1725, one of of humorous and patriotic sentiments might the officers then specifically appropriated to be gleaned from works like those. But the Order was the King of Arms.

perhaps still more suitable for the purpose Grey Longueville, F.S.A., was the first required would be " The Library of Humour,' Bath King of Arms, and was appointed emanating from the Walter Scott Publishing 1 June, 1725. In the January following the Company, and including, “The Humour of King by his sign manual created Longue. France, of Germany, Italy, and Spain, in ville Gloucester King of Arms, and

separate volumes.

W. SCOTT. Principal Herald of the parts of Wales, this appointment being then vacant, and BOOK - PURCHASES CHARLES ordained that “this office of Gloucester SAMUEL MEARNES (11 $. i. 481).—When I shall be inseparably annexed, united, and transcribed the purchases made for the perpetually consolidated with the office of library of Charles II. by Samuel Mearnes, Bath King of Arms and in the same I was not aware of the work done by Mr. letters patent (14 January, 1725/6) Longue. Cyril Davenport of the British Museum, nor ville was also created Hanover Herald. of his beautifully produced life of Samuel

See Hugh Clark's ‘History of Knight. Moarnes, the royal bookbinder. Therein hood,' 1784, vol. i. pp. 77–91, and Mark he gives full details of his remarkable career, Noble's History of the College of Arms, and states that some of his book-lists had 1805, pp. 366–7.

been discovered. Fortunately, however, JOHN HODGKIN. those printed in ‘N. & Q.' are now to him.

C. C. STOPES. Bath King of Arms, though not a member of the College, takes procedence next after

PAUL KESTER (11 S. i. 448) is a resident of Garter. The office was created in 1725 Gunston, Virginia, U.S.A., and

can be for the service of the Order of the Bath. reached by letter addressed to him there. He has a crown like the other Kings of

JOHN T. LOOMIS. Arms, and a peculiar costume directed by

1726, Corcoran Street, Washington, D.C. the Statutes of the Order. See Parker's

INITIALS ON RUSSIAN IKON (11 S. i. 487). Glossary of Heraldry.' J. BAGNALL.

-I suggest that L. L. K. is right in reading [LEO. C. also thanked for reply.]

a toe, but that this is followed by an Old TOASTS AND SENTIMENTS (11 $. i. 406).

Slavonic letter derived from the Greek Collections of toasts and sentiments, even in wra, and consisting of a single perpendicular English, are not very common.

stroke. This combination with a mark

I have noted only one such collection in 1789, of contraction (like a Z lying on its side) 'The Toast-Master : being a Genteel Col.

stands for Tsar Judeiski, King of the lection of Sentiments ana Toasts, a sixpenny help L. L. K., if he will send me a copy of the

If this is not right, I can perhaps pamphlet, published in

which subsequently did duty, under a slightly lotters on a post-card. altered title, as a Scottish chapbook.

FRED. G. ACKERLEY. My imperfect acquaintance with foreign

Grindleton Vicarage, Clitheroe. publications prevents me from saying defi- I would suggest to L. L. K. that the nitely whether or not there are collections in Russian initials TSC (the Ts forming one French, German, Italian, Spanish, or Scandi- letter in the Russian) and HC, that is TsS navian. But would not a good dictionary and NS, may stand for Tsarstvo Nebesnoe, of quotations and foreign phrases, published the heavenly kingdom, or the kingdom of

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heaven, tsarstvo signifying kingdom. There Before the negotiations with the English is little or no difference between the Russian commanders began, and the Churcb Slavonic form of the letter

“Mas antes que estas cosas se tratasen ni tse. There is no letter s in either language concluyesen con el General, siendo convidado in the equivalents to our Nazareno and Mateo Márquez Gaitan del coronel padrastro del Nazareth.


Conde [i.e., Sir Christopher Blount, stepfather to Sidcup, Kent.

the Earl of Essex] y con ellos Antonio Estandec

[Standen), el cual habia servido á S.M. en estos CANABULL BLUE SILKE (11 S. i. 488).

reinos, y el Conde de Sigues [Essex] y otros dos

coroneles.... Might I suggest that the first word may be a misreading or mistranscript of Changa.

In Acts of the Privy Council of England, bull "=changeable ? That which is now 1596–7,' p. 368, is a letter to Richarde called “shot silk " was in olden time known Hickman (for payment of a private debt): as changeable silk," and is not infrequently Whereas you were to paie a certaine somme of mentioned.

money to Sir Anthony Standen, knight, and George Meriton in his 'Nomenclator

should have given him assuraunce for the same,

which you have not performed by reason of his Clericalis, 1685, 8vo, gives a fairly long goinge in the voyage of Cales (Cadiz].. list of fabrics, and for the silks mentions Silk, Sleave Silk, Changeable Silk, Flowred

These two references probably relate to the same person.

A. D. JONES. Silk, Strip'd Silk, Silk Crape, Say, or thin Silk,

Oxford. Damask Silk."

The 'Law-Latin Dictionary, 1718, 8vo, MODERN NAMES DERIVED FROM LATINIZED also mentions A Garment of Changeable FORMS : GALFRID (11 S. i. 186, 338, 436, Silk.


494).—The Kentish Gazette, 4 September, By this phrase would not canopy-blue 1804, announced the death, “at her house silk be intended, that is, canopy-of-heaven

on Richmond-green, Surry, in the 88th blue ! “Canopy

year of her age, [of] Mrs. Mann, widow of amongst old

late Galfridus Mann, Esq.” writers as a synonym for the overhanging

R. J. FYNMORE. firmament, as appears from several passages in the N.E.D., 8.v. The word is also met

Yet another Galfrid, and a very early one, with in the formas



emerges from the dim past. Blomefield, cannabie,” &c.

the historian of Norfolk, records the fact J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

that one Galfrid Kemp was living at Norwich COURT LEET: MANOR COURT (10 S. vii. the surname, he is silent as to the Christian

in 1272; but though he elaborately explains 327, 377; viii. 16, 93, 334, 413). -Under this head it may be worthy of record that The Hampstead and Highgate Express of Walpole's friends Galfridus Mann and his

The querist probably remembers Horace 11 June contains an interesting account of

son Galfrid.

Y. T. the proceedings in connexion with the “Summer General Court Baron and Court Leet ” of the manor of Hampstead. After i. 508).-The lines which GAMMA asks about

AUTHOB OF QUOTATION WANTED (11 S. the usual quaint ceremonios had been are from the exquisite poem “At Last,' enacted, the company adjourned to famous by that poet of the American people John "Jack Straw's Castle for luncheon. Toasts, Greenleaf Whittier. They were

written with speeches, followed, the chairman tracing in anticipation of the time when his feet the history of the ancient manor from the

should days of its charter-a very instructive survey he seeks for is for his good and ill to be



to paths unknown.' of a notable suburb. CECIL CLARKE. Junior Athenæum Club.

unreckoned, and that there may be found

for him SIR ANTHONY AND ANTHONY STANDEN Some humble door among Thy many mansions, (11 s. i. 388, 469).—An Anthony Standen so that he may “ find at last 11 who had been in the service of Philip II.

The life for which I long. is mentioned at p. 146 of the “ Historia del

Pickard in his life of Whittier (vol. ii. Saqueo de Cádiz por los Ingleses en 1596, escrita por Fr. Pedro de Abreu, religioso P. 690) states that del Orden de S. Francisco," a contemporary

in sending to T. B. Aldrich the copy of the poem

'At Last' for The Atlantic, Whittier writes :“As account, but not published until 1866 at the expression of my deepest religious feeling it may Cadiz (Taylorian Library, Oxford).

not be without interest, and it may help some






inquiring, spirit. . Apart from this, I think I have tion. Since reading MR. MAYHEW's reply succeeded in giving it a form not unworthy of the I have not the least doubt that Welshmen theme."

first heard Yaro-werd, or something very Whittier died on the 7th of September, like that, and that they naturally equated 1892, at the early dawn of a lovely day. that word with the nearest name to it in Pickard says :

sound that they knew. That name hap“. Under the overshadowing, of Infinite Peace, pened to be Gere-werth, *Ier-werth, Ior. which was sweetly felt by all present, his pure werth, Ior-woerth, and Ior-werth again, in spirit passed upward to the never-ending day; His different periods of Welsh literature since poem At Last' was recited in tearful voice by one of the little

group of relatives at his bedside as the the fourth century. The first audition by last moment of his life approached.”

the Welsh of *Yaro-werd must have taken It is curious that W. J. Linton in his life place a very long time ago, and I hope that of the poet should record_his death as

MR. MAYHEW will examine the chronology taking place on the 7th of December, and of the phonetic changes involved, and that the public funeral on the 10th of the same he will give us the benefit of his erudition. month. JOHN COLLINS FRANCIS.

He is, however, mistaken in supposing

that Iorwerth could be a Welsh mode of [MR. J. ELIOT HODGKIN, MR. T. C. McMICHAEL, a:d the REV. J. WILLCOCK'also thanked for replies.) representing a dialect form of the O.E.

royal name Eadweard. As M. GAIDOZ EDWARD IORWERTH :

IORWERTH VII. said in his query, this Wel name is a very (11 s. i. 387, 490). — MR. Mayhew's partial early as the second quarter of the fifth

It appears in Welsh history as solution of the Iorwerth-Edward problem is very welcome. There is no phonetic contury; whereas no early instance of reason why mediæval Welshmen should not Eadweard has come to light. have said Edward. Edwart would perhaps

The earliest appearance of any form of have been slightly easier for them, and that Iorwerth occurs in a thirteenth-century tract form does appear in 1565, in the dedication of of three pages in the Cotton codex Vespasian a Radnorshire parish church,

A. XIV. (3), which is entitled 'Do Situ

yn Rof y Clawdd,“ to St. Edward the King. The

Brecheniauc.? form Iorwert adduced by MR. KREBS from “The Welsh forms and glosses in it show it to Aneurin Owen's "Ancient Laws was doubt- have been copied by some one who did not under less intended for Iorwerth. The oldest MS. stand Welsh from an earlier MS. at least as old as

the eleventh century."— See Mr. Egerton Philli. of the laws of Hywel Dda, namely, 'The more's article in the Cymmrodor, 1886, vii. 105-6. Black Book of Chirk,' was written c. A.D. 1200. At that time Welsh orthography

The tract contains the oldest account was undergoing great alteration, and the we have of the Welsh prince Brăchân of sçribe of The Black Book' had particular Brecheiniguc (c. 390–450), and it gives the difficulty with the dental aspirates. For names of Brachan's sons, daughters, sons-ininstance, he wrote pet, pedh, and peht, The tenth daughter is thus described :

law, and, in several cases, grandchildren. as well as the true form peth : cf. Dr. J. G. Evans's ' Report on MSS. in the Welsh

Aranwen uxor Gereuerth regis de Powis "; Language,' i. 359.

and these words are glossed “ inde dicitur With regard to MR. MAYHEw's solution, a seventeenth-century copy in the Cotton

Ioruerthiaun. In the Cognacio Brychain, ??

' it is noteworthy that we are not instructed MS. Domitian I. (13) of a thirteenth-century why Welshmen commence the name for MS. (cf. Phillimore, u.s., p. 106), we get Edward with the palatal spirant y. MR. * (10) Arganwen apud Powys." The 'Cog: MAYHEW, has only accounted for the dis- nacio Brychani? agrees in many things with placement of d by r. Now

the De Situ Brocheniauc, but unfortunately e before a vowel at the beginning of words, as it does not yield the name of Arganwen's Eadweard, Eoforwic, was clearly sounded like y, or the High-Dutch j. Thus we still say York; and

husband. The form Gěrěwerth Yedward is found in Shakespeare, and Earl’is in relied on, however. I read the manuscript Scotland sounded Yerl, like the Danish Jarl.”- when preparing an analysis of the Brychan E. A. Freeman,“'Old English History for Children,' documents for my 'Indexes to Old-Welsh 1869,

Genealogies, published in Stokes and If MR. MAYHEw could show that the theme Meyer's Archiv für celtische Lexicographie, ēad- was sounded anywhere in the Welsh i. 522–33, and the documents have sinco Marches as a rising diphthong (eád) like been edited and annotated by the Rev. A. W. yer- or yar., Welshmen would be acquitted Wade-Evans ; see the Cymmrodor, . 1906, thereby of the charge of haphazard substitu. pp. 18-50. The letter g in Gereuerth and



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Arganwen is the forerunner of the palatal a tenant in 1055 ; and 6 is the name of a spirant which disappeared eventually from Mercian dux in 811; vide Searlo's.' Onomasbetween vowels, and became I initially. ticon for more exact references. In face Compare the words argant, among the of these illustrations I judge that Gereuerth eighth-century glosses in the Codex Oxonien- or Iorwerth, King of Powys Iorwerthiaun siz Prior ; scamnhegint, in the eighth- or in the middle of the fifth century, was of ninth-century Juvencus codex ; and the Germanic descent. alternative spellings Conhage, Conhae, in two It is a curious coincidence that the name eighth-century charters in the 'Liber Earwaker should come to us from Cheshire, Landavensis. Ar-gant-ar-yant, now ariant; which was once a part of Powysland, and scamnhegint=ysgafneynt. Gereuerth

may even have comprised the kingdom of son of Tegonwy map Iorwerthiaun. ALFRED ANSCOMBE. Léon (M.S. teon) map Gwineu, and as he married a daughter of Brachan, his floruit Owing to the miscarriage of a proof, there may be dated provisionally 445–80. Other are two or three corrections needed in Welsh and later instances of this name may be found words in my reply at the second reference. in my Indexes, u.8., vols. i., i., iii., Nos. 502, L. 10, for "Ienan ?? read Ieuan ; l. 14, for 503, 1082, 1083, 1084. The prototheme of


amser ; and in l. 18 Gereuerth is clearly dissyllabic. Consequently, “cywyeld " should be cywydd.

. H. I. B. on the one hand it cannot equate Iôr, as M. GAIDOZ suggests ; on the other, some

'JONATHAN SHARP? (11 S. i. 466).—As examination of the prototheme of Edward is far as I am aware, the identity of the author called for.

It is not easy to account for has never been disclosed. The title-page the change from d to g in Earwaker if the reads “ Jonathan Sharp ; or, The Adventures first element a monosyllable. Now of a Kentuckian. Written by himself." Edbald of Kent, who is called Æodbald by Allibone accepts this indication of author. Bede ('H. E.,' II. ix.), is referred to as ship, and enters the book as the production Audu-baldus in Pope Boniface's letter to

of Sharp, Jonathan. The evidence in Edwin of Northumbria. This recalls the favour of Sharp_ being the author is ex. forms Audo-vacrius and Odo-acer, the second tremely slight. The book is classed among of which was adduced so aptly by MR. povels in the Index to the London CataMAYHEW in order to explain the English logue of Books... The New Monthly Magazin Earwaker. Eadwacer appears twice in quoted by Allibone, says of it: Searle's Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, [Sharp's] narrative is worthy of Defoe.' p. 189, and both instances are assigned to the It is not mentioned in Halkett and Laing's eleventh century. Mr. Searle also gives Dictionary: As a copy of the work iş Eadu, uncompounded, from the Durham contained in the Edinburgh Advocates? ‘Liber Vitæ, as the name of a queen and Library, and must have been known to abbess. The prototheme of Edward has the compilers of the ‘Dictionary,' their boon monosyllabic, in composition, for omission to enter it as anonymous or 1,300 years ; but the forms Eadu and Audu- pseudonymous may perhaps be understood warrant the assumption that it was origin- as acquiescence in Allibone's view of its ally a dissyllable in composition in O.E. To authorship.

W. SCOTT. this may be added the fact that the root

GEORGE KNAPP, M.P.: KNAPP FAMILY occurs twice in the ninth-century Win. chester Chronicle as eap., ead- ;

(11 S. i. 389).—I have been forwarded annals 827, 828. Now a form eáþu-weard

the following reply by a correspondent : (with the rising diphthong) might become Knapp of Abingdon, gent., by. Katharine,

George Knapp was the eldest son of George yaru-werd. . But that is not Gereuerth.

daughter of Joseph Tyrrell of Kidlington, Oxon. Gere. in Gere-uerth receives no elucida- He was born 29 January, and baptized 21 Febrution from Brythonic sources. Among Welsh ary, 1753/4, at St. Helen's, Abingdon. He was names it is unique. For illustration of both Governor of Christ's Hospital, Abingdon, 1776– themes we must turn to Old English, and 1784; Chamberlain 1700 ; Principal Burgess 1791;

Mayor 1792, 1797, 1799, and 1807, His monuparticularly to Mercian. The elements occur ment in St. Helen's says that his ' liberality of as follows: 1, Gearu-red; 2, Iaru-man ; mind and benevolence of heart endeared him to 3, Gearo-man; 4, Geara.god; 5, Ieru- all who knew him. He was elected by his fellowman ; 6, Ciol-uerth. Of these, 1 is from the townsmen to represent them in Parliament May 4, Durham 'Liber Vitæ ?; 2 and 5 are Latin 1807. This important and honourable trust,

during the short time he was permitted by forms of the name of 3, Gearoman, Bishop Providence to devote his services to them, he of the Mercians in '662 ; 4 is the name of executed with the strictest integrity., He d.

66 His


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