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In 1748 he was chosen member of the Royal Societỷ of London. In 1749 he began, by mere chance, his amazing collection of horns and shells, which according to the univerfal opinion of all travellers and amateurs who have visited it, is at present the most beautiful, and certainly one of the most valuable in Europe. In 1753 he became member of the newly established Dutch Society of Sciences at Haerlem ; and in 1757, after the celebrated M. le Cat professor of Anatomy and surgery, and member of almost all the principal societies of fciences in Europe, had seen Mr Lyonet's incomparable “ Traité Anatomique de la Chenille qui ronge le Bois de Saule," with the drawings belonging to it (which work was afterwards published,) he was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Rome, whereof M. le Cat was perpetual secretary. Mr Lyonet's design in the compiling of that work was, among other things, to publish an anatomical defcription of an insect, as extensive and complete as any exifting of the human body, which had hitherto never been effected, although several ingenious men have attempted something of this kind, but have however produced nothing more than weak and even faulty essays. Of the praise and admiration expressed of our author in many respects (but particularly on account of the last mentioned work) by many celebrated writers, and in almost all countries of Europe, we shall state these extracts.

1. From the · Bitliotheque des Sciences, 1760 ; “ Mr

Lyonet has longheld a distinguished place among the great “ Naturalists of Europe. His translation of the Theologie des Infectes," (this is however a mistake, for Lyonet did not translate the work) « the excellent notes he has added “ to it, the magnificent cabinet of thells which he has « conitructed with so much taste and judgement, in which he “ has spared neither trouble nor expence, and which the cu" rious come to admire as one of the finest and most compleat "that can be seen,' (now much improved and increased)' have



“ procured him a great reputation, which the new work we “ are announcing will confirm; a work which surpasses " the high expectations that were formed of it, and which 56 will be sufficient of itself to immortalize the author."

2. In the Journal des Scavans, July 1760.

« We ear56 nestly exhort Mr Lyonet to publish the Anatomy he ► makes us hope for, of the chrysalis and of the phalæna “ into which his caterpillar is transformed; and we affure « him before hand of the encouragement and acknowledge$ments of all those who admire finished works, &c.”

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SOME reputable and learned men have also written in his praise; such as Martinet, Van Gool, H. S. Reimarus, the Rev. J. Lulop, and P.Van Musschenbroeck: which last, in particular, extols Mr Lyonet's observations and discoveries by means of the microscope, above those of Leeuwenhoeck, Reaumur, Baker, Trembley, &c.--After the publication of the Traité Anatomique, Mr Lyonet became, in 1760, member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin: in 1761, of the Imperial Academy of Naturalists; and in 1762, of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg. In order to enable such as might be desirous of following him in his intricate and most astonishing discoveries, respecting the structure of this animal, Mr Lyonet published, in the “Transactions of the Dutch Society of Sciences at “ Haerlem," a description and a plate (as he also afterwards did in French, at the beginning of his “ Traité Anatomi" que,") of the instruments and tools he had invented for the purpose of diffection, and likewise of the method he used to ascertain the degree of strength of his magnifying glasses. Notwithstanding all this labour, which was considerably increased by the extensive correspondence which he for many years carried on with several learned and respectable personages, he still found means to fet apart a large proportion of his time (as he himself mentions in his preface) for the immediate service of his country; but was not fortunate enough (as appears by his writings) to get any other recom


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penfe for his exertions than forrow and disappointment.-During the last fifteen or twenty years of his life, Mr Lyonet added to the valuable treasure he had already collected of natural curiosities, a most superb cabinet of paintings, consisting of more than 560 performances; among which are many of the most eminent works of the first Dutch masters. He did this with a view to procure himself some amusement during the latter part of his life, when old age and infirmities must weaken his powers and set bounds to his activity. He had always indeed accustomed himself to employment; insomuch that he has written fome pieces of Dutch poetry; and this disposition remained with him, till within a fortnight of his death, when he was attacked with an inflammation in his breast, which, though apparently cured, was, in the end, the cause of his diffolution. He was a friend to all those who loved or exercised arts or fciences. His conduct, from his youth, was ever, and in every respect, unimpeachable. He was from conviction a Christian, loved virtue, religion, and his country, and never feared openly to defend them. Nor was it ever in the power of man to make him diffemble; for his great and favourite maxim was, never to do any thing designedly which might hurt either conscience, duty, or honour. Letters, arts, sciences, (and particularly natural history) true religion, and his country, were indebted to him, and suffered a considerable lofs by his death. Mr Lyonet bequeathed the remaining copies of his “ Traité Anatomique, together with all the plates designed and engraved by himself, to his nephew, Mr S. E. Croyset, secretary to the post-offices of Holland, and who has succeeded him in the post of secretary of the cyphers. He also left him a work, still in manuscript, which he had hoped to bring to light, intitled, “ Euvres Melées « sur les Insectes,” comprising all the remarkable researches and discoveries which he had, during many years, made on the infects which are found in the environs of the Hague, together with their different forms, changes, &c. and to

which is added, an “ Effai Anatomique sur la Chrysalide et " la Phalene de la Chenille qui ronge le Bois de Saule.' Each of these works Mr Lyonet had originally intended to accomplish upon the same plan as the “ Traité Anato“ mique ;" but, unfortunately, a dimness in his fight obliged him, at about the age of 60, to lay aside this design. The “ Effai Anatomique,” was, however, already finished ; and both performances, arranged so as to form a second volume to the “ Traité Anatomique," are in fair MS. and enriched with fifty-four plates, all designed by himself, and of which a great number have already been engraved under his own eyes. And Mr Croyset, who has been in the habit of thirty-six years intimate friendship with his relation Mr Lyonet, who has daily seen him at his occupations, and of course is well acquainted with his methods of drawing, and who in his younger days has himself fuccessfully practised that amusement, has determined to use his beft endeavours to get such plates as are wanting executed in a masterly style, and to publish these two works, which will prove an important acquisition to the lovers of natural history. He died at the Hague, January the 10th, 1789; in the eightythird year of his age.

The history of the Notes to Leffer's work, is thus given, by Mr Lyonet himself, in an advertisement prefixed to the French edition,

“ The success which this book had in Germany, and the encomiums bestowed on it in the Leipfic Transactions, induced the publisher to have it translated into French. He requested me to revise the manuscript, and to correct those passages which the translator's ignorance of the subject might have occafioned. That I might not deprive the public of the advantage to be derived from a book, intended to promote the glory of God, I undertook the task; but I had no sooner begun than I found t'at the faults of the translator were not the only ones I had to correct, but that tie



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original itself in many places stood in need of revision and clucidation. Mr Lefler, though very learned in natural history, had allowed himself to believe too many things on the credit of others. The estimation in which I hold this study, which is only delightful in so far as it is true, made me view this defect with concern in a work which, from its general excellence, might have contributed to perpetuate error ; and I resolved to correct those passages in which the author, misled by authority, had been mistaken. To do this, the simpleft and thortest way would have been to alter the text ; but I could not allow myself to make an author speak contrasy to his own sentiments, and therefore had recourse to Notes. But I have gone farther than I at first intended. I hai no sooner begun to consider the text, than several facts partly known and partly new, connected with the subject, occurred to me; and as they appeared calculated for confirming, explaining, amplifying or limiting what the author expresses in general terms, I have detailed them, and added various reflections which I hope will not be useless to those who mean thoroughly to investigate the subject. I fhall perhaps receive the thanks of intelligent men for having endeavoured to produce exceptions to the most general rules ; for belides that those singularities, which nature sometimes presents us with when we least expect them, help us to acquire a more perfect knowledge of infects, they are what in natural liistory may be called the truly marvellous, which it is now time to substitute in the place of what has been falsely so called, and which has too long prevailed on this subject. The Reader I hope will give me credit for what I advance; and I stand the more in need of his indulgence as I have related certain facis which I would myself have unwillingly believed had not positive experiments convinced me of their truth.”

That this work has not till now appeared in English is owing probably to the following reasons. When it was first


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