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each according to its fpecies, for paffing from one ftate to another? How do they know that in or der to defend themfelves, they have need of a cone more or lefs ftrong according to the greater or lefs degree of delicacy in their conftitution? Whence comes it that thefe animals, without the aid of reason, are found folded in their cones, with fo much art, that however narrow their, manfion, they have enough of room, although were their members extended, three times the space would not be fufficient to contain them? From whom do they receive that fagacious forefight, which prompts them to take the proper meafures for fecuring themfelves against external injuries? Who hath inftructed them to choose the most fafe and proper places for undergoing their changes? What artift has taught them, to weave their various webs, in which the chryfalis is as foftly laid as if it were on down? By what means are they informed of the precife time when it is neceffary to conftruct their habitations and to retire to them. Whence comes it that the period of remaining in their cones is fo regulated that they never leave them except in the feafon when they are fure to find food? I cannot but acknowledge in all this, diftin&t traces of the boundless wisdom of the Creator. No, a blind caufe could not operate fuch wonders; it must be infinite, and fovereign intelligence: and fince infects are incapable of fo many perfections, it can be no other than a Deity who has created them, and who governs them by his Providence.

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CHAP. VIII.

OF THE SEXES OF INSECTS.

MODERN philofophers as I have already remarked have well obferved that infects are produced by generation. The experiments they have made on this fubject, have even taught them to distinguish the males from the females, and they have described the marks by which they are to be known. The detail of these marks is the fubject of this Chap

ter.

In the first place the male is distinguished from the female by its fize. He is generally fhorter and more flender than the female, which is undoubtedly the effect of wisdom in the Creator. The females being obliged to carry a great number of eggs, it was neceffary that they fhould be larger and thicker than the males that they might have room to lodge their eggs.

They are also diftinguishable by their antennæ. Thofe of many males are pectinated, of the females plain. Lifter obferved that the males of fpiders have eight eyes with knobs at the extremities of the antennæ which the females have not. The antennæ of fome other infects are diftinguifhed in the fame way. Thofe of the male are smaller, fhorter, and more oppofite to each other,

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The wings are a third difcriminating mark bemale. In fome fpecies the male only is furnished with them, the female either wants them altogether or has them very short. In other fpecies where both fexes have wings, there are fome which bear on thofe wings the characters of their fex. On thofe of the male are perceived fmall spots which are not found on thofe of the female.

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Infects which infert their eggs into the bark of trees, into the earth, into the fubftance of leaves, or into other infects, are furnished with a tube longer or fhorter for the purpose of penetrating to the place where they wish to depofit them. This tube, which ferves as a paffage to the eggs, affords another mark of diftinction between the fexes. As the male has no occafion for it, the Creator has bestowed it only on the female.

We discover the fexes likewife often by their colours. The beauty of the male generally exceeds that of the female, his colours being more brilliant and fhewy. This rule however is not without exception, for the females are fometimes more beautiful than the males.

Laftly, they are diftinguishable by the found of their voices. This feems to have been bestowed on fome infects folely to procure them the means of approaching each other for the purpose of generation: and therefore the male alone has organs proper for producing a fmall found in order to attract the female. This rule however like the former is not general. There are fpecies of infects in which both fexes are provided with the organs neceffary for producing this found.

It is not without reafon that God has thus impref fed marks of diftinction on the different fexes of animals. He has provided in this way for their multiplication, to which the male as well as the female are incited by an inflinct fo natural, that they fuffer if they do not indulge it. It cannot be doubted that this is the immediate operation of the Deity; on this point the Scripture is decifive. After having related the creation of man, it adds that God crea"ted them male and female, that he bleffed them,

and commanded them to increafe and multiply, "and replenish the earth." GEN. 1,27,28. Shall we fay that this law refpects man only, and that infects are excepted from it, becaufe there is no mention made of them? the contrary will appear evident from the seventh Chapter of the fame book. God irritated against the human race, refolved to deftroy them by the waters of the deluge. But as this could not be done without exterminating, at the fame time, all the terrestrial animals, he commanded Noah to take a pair of each fpecies that they might replenish the world anew. "Of every clean beaft, fays “he, thou shalt take to thee by fevens, the male "and his female; and of beats that are not cleanby two, the male and his female. Of fowls "alfo of the air by sevens, the male and the female." and why?" to keep feed alive upon the face of all "the earth." GEN. VII. 2,3. That infects are comprehended in the number of these animals is evident. In the feventeenth day of the fecond month

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Noah and his family entered into the ark; they and every beaft after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and 'every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every fort. And they went in unto Noah, into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flefh as God

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had commanded.' GEN. vii. 11-16. Infects therefore are not excepted from this general law. God hath made them to preferve their fpecies by the intercourfe of male with female; God hath endowed them with the proper organs for this purpose. God in fhort, hath bleffed them like the other animals that they may multiply and replenish the earth. The effect of this benediction has fubfifted for thoufands of years without our being able to obferve any alteration. What exalted idea ought not this to give us of the power and wifdom of him who hath eftablished fo permanent a regulation, and which has not fuffered any interruption in the courfe of so long a fucceffion of ages!

CHAP. IX.

OF THE ABODE OF INSECTS.

THERE is hardly any fubftance in nature which does not afford a lodging place for infects. Of this F mean in the prefent Chapter to convince my readers.

Water is not an element proper for every fort of animal. Thofe who are not furnished with organs that fit them to inhabit it, perifh in a fhort time, when by any accident they fall into it. If it had not pleafed God to form creatures capable of fuftaining life in that element it would have been defert; but befides fishes of every kind, he has created a great number of infects to inhabit the waters. As among thofe there are many which cannot live but in falt water, fo among these there are many

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