Bertolt Brecht (1898 1956) was a German poet, playwright, and theater director. An influential theater practitioner of the twentieth century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter particularly through the seismic impact of the tours undertaken by the Berliner Ensemble the post-war theater company operated by Brecht and his wife and long-time collaborator, the actress Helene Weigel with its internationally acclaimed productions.
Ralph Manheim (1907-1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian. The PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation, a major lifetime achievement award in the field of translation. is named in honor of Manheim and his work.